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🎭 | Yokosuka Senior Theater Company Yossha !! Online distribution on the theme of "Ame Nimomakezu", a strange ad-lib explosion Yokosuka City


Photo Rehearsal scene before the unattended performance held in October last year

Yokosuka Senior Theater Company Yossha !! Online distribution on the theme of "Ame Nimomakezu", a strange ad-lib explosion Yokosuka City

 
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The theme is the isaku memo "11" discovered after the death of Kenji Miyazawa.
 

The stage of Yokosuka Senior Theater Company "Yosha" "I have never seen this on November 11rd! Is online on Thursday, 25th of this month ... → Continue reading

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Isaku memo

Kenji Miyazawa

Kenji Miyazawa(Kenji Miyazawa,Orthographic characters: Kenji Miyazawa,1896(Meiji29 years)May 8 - 1933(Showa8 years)May 9) IsJapan Ofpoets,Fairy tale writer.

Buddhism(Hokke Sutra) Faith and農民I made a creation rooted in life.Fictitious that appears in the workUtopiaIn the hometownIwateThemotifAsIhatovKnown for its name (also known as Ihatov, Ihatov, or Ihatovo).His work was almost unknown to the general public during his lifetime, and after his death,Shinpei KusanoThanks to their efforts, the group of works became widely known, and the reputation rapidly increased, becoming a national writer.For that reason, there are a wide range of enthusiasts in Japan.

Career

Childhood / boyhood

1896(Meiji29) Born on August 8, as the eldest son of a father, mother, and Ichi.The birthday on the family register is August 27st, and Kenji in his lifetimeResumeIt is written as 1 day, but it is estimated to be 27 days.[Annotation 2]..I was born at my mother, Ichi's parents' house, the Zenji Miyazawa family in Kajicho, but five days later, on August 5,Eastern Akita PrefectureTo the epicenterRikuha earthquakeOccurs.Ichi housed KenjiEjiko Cover your upper body while holding (a basket that holds and protects infants) with both handsNembutsuWas chanting[5]..Masajiro was traveling for work, so Masajiro's younger brother Jisaburo named it "Kenji".[4].

When he was three years old, his father's sister, a goat, who had returned from his marriage, said, "Shoshinge""White bone textI heard him recite it and recited it in front of the Buddha together.[6].1902(35th year of Meiji),dysenteryHospitalized for 2 weeks.Masajiro, who cared for Kenji, was also infected.Catarrh catarrhGastrointestinal weakened for life[7][8].1903(Meiji 36), Hanamaki KawaguchiOrdinary elementary schoolEntered (renamed Hanashiro Jinjo Elementary School two years later).The grade was excellent and all subjects were instep for 2 years. 6 years and 3 yearsHomeroom teacherEizo Yagi told the students "Unseen Parents" (Gorai Motokawa OfadaptationbyMaroWork "Homeless child") And" Why there is salt in the sea "(Folk tale"Why is the sea water spicy』) And told fairy tales, which had a great influence on Kenji.[9]..Later, when Kenji reunited with Yagi, he said, "The basis of my fairy tale and nursery rhyme ideas was around the third and fourth years of the vulgaris department."[10].mineralGathering,昆虫 OfSpecimenHe became enthusiastic about making stones, and when he was 11 years old, he was nicknamed "Ken Ishiko" by his family.[11]..Hanamaki sponsored by my fatherBuddhismParticipating in the summer seminar of the association, the invited lecturerAkegarasu HayaAlso took care of[12].

1909(Meiji 42) April, Iwate Prefectural Morioka Junior High School (currentlyMorioka Daiichi High School) Enrolled in.DormitoryEntered the "Jikyo Dormitory".His grandfather, Kisuke, was the son of a merchant and thought that his successor, Kenji, did not need to study, so his father, Masajiro, persuaded him to go on to school.Kenji, who hated second-hand clothing stores in the family business, was pessimistic about the future, and his grades declined.[13]..Enthusiastic about mineral collection and constellations,Mt. Iwatesan,Nanshozan,Mt.I walked in the mountains near Morioka and collected a large amount of rock specimens.[14].. Since I was in the third gradeIshikawa TochigiAffected byTankaProduce[15].1913(TaishoIn the 2nd grade), when the 4th graders were harassed by the new superintendent who was replaced from the 4nd semester, such as stepping on their feet during the night, all the 5th and XNUMXth graders were forced to leave the dormitory.Kenji goes to Seiyoin Temple in Kitayama, Morioka CityBoarding houseTo[16].

1914(Taisho 3) Graduated from Morioka Junior High School in March. In April, admitted to Morioka City Iwate Hospital, hypertrophicrhinitisHave surgery.The fever did not go down even after the operationTyphusHe was hospitalized until the end of May on suspicion of.Masajiro, who was cared for at this time, was also infected and hospitalized.It is said that Kenji was still liable to his father, who had fallen twice in his care.I thought about the nurse at Iwate Hospital that I met while I was in the hospital, and after leaving the hospital, I offered to marry my parents, but I was opposed because I was "too young".[17][18]..Masajiro was confused, "That was a terrible precocious part, and I was in trouble ..."[17]..Store number at my parents' housesericultureMasajiro who could not see Kenji spending gloomy days with the help ofMorioka Higher Agriculture and Forestry SchoolAllow students to go on to higher education.Kenji changed his mind and worked hard to take the exam.[19]..At the same timeShimaji DaitoTranslation "Kanwa contrast Lotus SutraI was so impressed with the "Nyorai Shoujutsuhin" in it that my body trembled.[20][21][Annotation 3].

Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School, Kokuchukai

July 1915 (Taisho 4),Morioka Higher Agriculture and Forestry School(CurrentIwate UniversityFaculty of Agriculture), And entered the dormitory "Jikei-Ryokan". At the entrance oath ceremony on the 16thPresidentRead the oath as[23]. following year,Scholarship studentIs selected and exempted from tuition fees[24][25]..In higher agriculture and forestry, I belonged to the second department of agriculture (later the department of agricultural chemistry),Soil scienceOf the manager who specializes inToyotaro SekiUnder the guidance of[26]..Seki was known as a sly person, but is said to have had a good relationship with Kenji.[26]..Around this time, I was reading the Lotus Sutra every morning.One year junior who shared the room in the dormitoryKanai HosakaBecome familiar with.Hosaka went on to study for rural improvement, and is said to have influenced the later concept of the Rasuchijin Association of Kenji.[27].1917(Taisho 6) July, Hosaka,Kenkichi Kosuge, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto (Kawamoto Ryokuishi) And others published the douujinshi "Azaria", and Kenji contributed tanka and short stories.1918(Taisho 7), Kenji, who was about to graduate, his father, Masajiro, remained at an agricultural school as a research student.Conscription inspectionIt is recommended to postpone, but Kenji wrote a special paper, "Inorganic components in humus vs. plant value".[2]And refused to postpone the inspection.Kenji, who wanted to go to the chemical industry, was not motivated to investigate the soil texture of research students, and his ethics did not allow the postponement of the inspection.[28].. On March 3, Kanai Hosaka will be dismissed due to the work released in "Azaria".Kenji protested the faculty meeting but did not pass[27].. Graduated from agricultural school on the 15th, remained as a research student,Hikanuki-gunCorresponds to soil texture survey[29]..This was a recommendation from Seki[26]..Kenji devoted himself to this work with sincerity and left the Lotus Sutra printed matter in the house where he was allowed to rest.[30]..Also for 5 years from this timeVegetarianTo live[31].. Aug. 4,Conscription inspectionReceived the second class B pass and was exempted from military service[27].. June 6, at Iwate HospitalPeritonitisI was diagnosed with this and stopped walking.For this reasonDrop outHowever, the soil texture survey continued until September and submitted a report.[32].. On July 7, when he returned to Hanamaki, he told Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, who had come to see him off, "I have no more than 4 years to live."[33].. In August, he wrote "Spider, Slug and Raccoon Dog" and "Twin Star" and read them to his family.[34].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,TokyoToshi, my younger sister who went on to schoolKoishikawa Branch, Tokyo Imperial University HospitalI was informed that I was hospitalized, and my mother Ichi and I went to Tokyo.Stayed at the inn "Undaikan" near the hospital, and the next day1919(Taisho 8) Until March 3 (until January 3 for Ichi) Nursing[34]..Toshi was initially suspected of having typhus, but fever continued and he continued to have a fever.pneumoniaDiagnosed[35]..In January of the following year, his condition subsided, and Kenji began thinking about his future work by going to the library.AlsoNational Pillar HallSatoshi TanakaListening to the lecture ofTakao Abe(At that timeTokyo Imperial UniversityEnrolled in the Faculty of Letters, laterKochi UniversityFrom (President)Sakutaro Hagiwaraof"Barking on the moon』Rent[36]..He wrote to his father, Masajiro, a plan to move to Tokyo and start a business such as polishing jewelry and manufacturing artificial jewelry to change his family business, but Masajiro opposes the unrealistic work.[37].. On March 3, he returned to Hanamaki with Toshi, who was discharged from the hospital, and began a life of helping his disliked family business."Convenient roof tiles (on cloth) purchased by Kenji in TokyoasphaltI painted something likeGalvanized iron(Substitute for board) ”sold well, and Kenji made a profit.record,Ukiyo-ePurchased[38].1920(Taisho 9) Graduated from an agricultural and forestry school research student in May.Recommended by an assistant professor, but declined because both father and son were thinking of going on to business[39]..Read through all 5 volumes of "Honka Myoso Shikimoku Lecture Record" by Tanaka Chigaku,National Pillar AssociationReceived in.Strengthen the Lotus Sutra faith and walk around Hanamaki town as a cold training while beating drums and chanting the title[40][41]. AlsoJodo ShinshuFather who is a disciple ofShakubukuRepeated fierce quarrels trying[42][43].

Runaway to Tokyo, to agricultural school teachers

1921(Taisho 10) In the evening of January 1, bound for TokyocarRide onRunaway..next morning,Ueno StationArrived atUguisudaniI visited the Kokuchu Kaikan and said, "Even if you're on your feetFlyerI asked him to do it, but he was soothed and moved to his father's acquaintance, the Rokutaro Kobayashi family.[44].HongoBoarding house in Kikuzakacho, in front of the University of Tokyo AkamonmimeographWork for the printing shop "Bunshinsha"[Annotation 4]..Work on the creation of "Lotus Sutra Literature" at the recommendation of Kochio[Annotation 5].. He wrote 1 manuscripts a month.MealsPotatoesWith tofu and fried tofu, I listened to a lecture at the Kokuchukaikan at night and participated in daytime street missions.[46]..I often sent letters to Kanai Hosaka recommending admission.My worried father, MasajirocheckWas sent but sent back[45].. April, with MasajiroIse,Mt. Hiei,NaraTravel.Masajiro tried to reconsider his adherence to the Lotus Sutra and the Kokuchukai, but Kenji's heart did not change.[47].. In July, it broke up with Hosaka, and after that it became estranged. In mid-August, of "Toshibyoukisugukaere"telegramReceive the manuscripttrunkPack in and return to Hanamaki[48]..He told his family that he wrote the manuscript instead of holding the straw.[49].

On December 12, Hienuki County Hienuki Agricultural School (renamed to Iwate Prefectural Hanamaki Agricultural School the following year)TeacherWill be.It was a small school locally called "Kuwakko University"[50]..December issue of the magazine "Patriotic Women" and the following year1922(Taisho 11) Published "Yukiwari" in the January issue.The manuscript fee of 1 yen received at this time is said to be the only manuscript fee in life[51]..The 80 yen salary of the agricultural school was used for recording, purchasing books, eating and drinking, etc.I used to put 20 yen in my house as a boarding house, but I'll give it some reason.Even so, I had to spend three days, so I bought it at a bookstore and sometimes borrowed cash.My colleague Goro Okudera (died in 3)tuberculosisI send 30 yen every month[52]..He also made friends with Hanamaki High School music teacher, Kato Osamu Fujiwara, and enjoyed watching records and eating and drinking.[53].

1922(Taisho 11) On November 11, Toshi's condition suddenly changed due to tuberculosis, and he died at 27:8 pm.KenjiClosetPut your face in and cry "Toshiko, Toshiko"[54], The messy hair of the corpsetongsCombed in[55].. Write "Eternal Morning," "Pine Needle," and "Silent Roar." The funeral on the 29thShinshu Otani SchoolKenji did not attend because it was held at the temple, but he appeared at the time of the casket, carried the casket, and put half of Toshi's remains in the round can he brought.This remains was later delivered to the Kokuchukai headquarters.[56]..For the next six months, KenjiPoetryDid not make[57].1923(Taisho 12) In July, at the request of a farm student to get a jobKarafutoTravel. Write poems that think of Toshi, such as "Aomori Elegy" and "Sakhalin Elegy"[58].

Poetry collection and fairy tale publishing

1924(Taisho 13) April 4, "Image Sketsuchi Spring and Shura』Published.I brought it to the Yoshida Printing Office in Hanamaki and published 1000 copies at my own expense (list price 2 yen).The name of the publisher is Sekine Bookstore in Tokyo.I asked a person named Kitaro Sekine to distribute the book in Tokyo and entrusted 40 copies, but SekineZokki bookI shed it asSecondhand bookstoreIt was sold for 50 sen[59][60]..The book didn't sell and Kenji almost donated it, but in JulyDadaist OfJun TsujiBut"Yomiuri ShimbunIntroduced in the essay serialized in.Of the poetSonosuke SatoAlso mentioned in the magazine "Japanese Poet" No. 12 as an example to a young poet "to have originality like Mr. Miyazawa".[61].Nakahara ChuyaBuys the Zokki book of "Spring and Shura" that was sold at the night shop for 5 sen and distributes it to acquaintances[62]..December 12, the same year, "Ihatov fairy tale The Restaurant of Many Orders』Published (list price 1 yen).Zenichi Chikamori and Shiro Oikawa, who were juniors of Takano Morioka and made pamphlets for pesticides, planned to publish after seeing Kenji's manuscript, and printed and bound in Tokyo while struggling with the cost of publishing.I made 60 copies under the name of the publisher "Koharasha", but it didn't sell at all, and Kenji borrowed 1000 yen from his father and bought 300 copies.[63][64]..book ofIllustrationTakeo Kikuchi, who was in charge ofRed Bird』\ Presided overSuzuki MiyoshiI sent "Taneri seemed to be biting at the same time", but "That manuscript isロシアI'll bring it to you. "[65]..However, in January of the following year, a one-page advertisement for "A restaurant with many orders" was published in "Akai tori".It was free with the kindness of Miekichi[62].. July, the poet'sShinpei KusanoParticipate in the douujinshi "Gong". November 11, in HanamakiKitakami RiverTo small boatTohoku Imperial UniversityGeological paleontology classroomIchiro HayasakaBatagurumi (Batagurumi) collected by Kenji, guiding the professorWalnutOld species)fossilCooperate with academic research.Kenji named this place "British Coast"[66].

Rasuchijin Association

1926(Taisho 15) Retired from Hanamaki Agricultural School on March 3st.In the letter to my younger brother, he wrote that he would quit in law due to the transfer of the principal.[67]However, in a letter addressed to Yoshimatsu Sugiyama on April 4, the previous year, he decided to resign, saying, "I will stop next spring and become a farmer of the mainstream."[66].. In April, he left his parents' house and moved to a separate house of Shimoneko Sakura, where Toshi used to live in medical treatment, and renovated.The surrounding area was cleared to create fields and flower beds.Here, vegetables such as Chinese cabbage, corn, tomatoes, celery, and asparagus are cultivated, as well as tulips.HyacinthThe flowers bloomed.Kenji has vegetablesCartHowever, the rearcars were a luxury item for the farmers at that time, and Kenji's agriculture was seen as a rich hobby.[68]..I laughed and forgave even if I brought vegetables without permission.We have wrapped up the money without participating in joint work such as repairing waterways in rural areas.[69]..He also wrote a poem about the harassment of all Chinese cabbage in the field being stolen.[70]. "Rasuchijin AssociationAgricultural school graduates and nearby serious farmers are gathered asfertilizerStarted training, record concerts and music orchestra practice. June Draft "Introduction to Farmers' Art"[71].. He tried to practice peasant art, saying, "There can be no individual happiness until the world is completely happy."We also opened a fertilizer design office and provided free consultation on fertilizer calculation.This situation is written in the poem "Let's calculate it."[72].

Moved to Tokyo on December 12nd.Typewriter,Cello,organ,EsperantoLearn a language and watch a play.The money relied on his father. 18th,Kotaro TakamuraI'm visiting.Year-end flower return[73]. 1927(Showa2 years) February 2, "Iwate DailyOn the second page of the evening edition, Kenji's activities are introduced under the heading "Efforts to create rural culture / Hanamaki youth volunteers / Organize local people's associations / Return to natural life".This isSocialismSuspected of being educated, he was interviewed by the Hanamaki police.After that, the meetings of the Rasuchijin Association became irregular, and the orchestra was temporarily disbanded.[74].

Around this time, elementary school teachersTsuyu TakaseWomen often come to the association.Takase tried to take care of Kenji's personal belongings, but Kenji tried to avoid her kindness by using absenteeism and painting his face with ashes.When people gathered at the association, Takase treated him to make curry rice, but Kenji refused, saying, "I'm not qualified to eat."Angry Takase rang the organ violently[75]..After that, she began to speak badly about Kenji, but her father, Masajiro, said, "When you first met a woman, you would have laughed with sweet words and white teeth." Scolded[76].

1928(Showa 3) March,Isawa DistrictSuizawacho (currentMizusawa) From a wealthy familyizu-OshimaVisited Nanao Ito, who lives in Japan.Ito moved to Oshima for tuberculosis treatment and consulted to get Kenji's advice on building a gardening school here (the school disappeared with the death of Ito in 1931).[77]..This visit was with Ito's younger sister, ChieMatchmakingHowever, according to Chie's recollection, Kenji did not seem to have any idea about marriage.[78]..But in 1931,Moriso PondKenji said, "I might marry Mr. Ito."[79].

He was busy with fertilizer consultation and rice cultivation guidance, but on August 8, he collapsed due to a high fever and was diagnosed with bilateral lung wetting at Hanamaki Hospital.After that, he became sick at his parents' house.[80][81].

Tohoku crushing stone factory engineer, death

1930(Showa 5), ​​the physical condition is recovering, and the production of literary poetry is started.[82].. July,Higashiiwai District OfRikuchu Matsukawa StationThe former owner of the Tohoku crushed stone factory, Tozo Suzuki, visited.Suzuki isLimestoneWe are planning to sell cheap synthetic fertilizer with potash fertilizer, and Kenji agrees.[83]. 1931(Showa 6) On February 2, the Hanamaki branch office of the Tohoku crushing stone factory was opened.His father, Masajiro, was worried about getting the sickly Kenji out, and was thinking of financing the factory to set up a branch office in Hanamaki and let him work.[84]..However, Kenji, who became an engineer, runs to the west by modifying the product, drafting advertisements, ordering and selling products, etc.[85]..During the off-season, lime cannot be sold.Therefore, Kenji thought about using lime as a wall material, and on September 9, he went to Tokyo with a 19-kilogram product sample packed in a bag.The next 40th,Kanda SurugadaiRyokan "Hachimankan"[Annotation 6]Stayed at, but collapsed due to high fever, prepared for death, to familyWillwrite[87].. On the 27th, he calls his father with the intention of farewell.Masajiro asks Rokutaro Kobayashi from Tokyo, and the next day Kenji returns to Hanamaki and soon becomes ill. In November, "Rain Nemo Makes"write[88].

1932(Showa 7) In March, "Children's Literature" Volume 3Biography of a Guscouboli"Presentation.The illustration isMunakata Shiko[Annotation 7]..Work on the production of literary poetry and the elaboration of past works on the sickbed[90]..Since the winter of the previous year, I haven't seen a doctorbeeryeastI just drank a decoction of bamboo skin[91][92].

1933(Showa 8) From September 9th to 17th, the festival of Toyagasaki Shrine was held, and Kenji sat down with a chair at the gate.Mikoshi,FloatI saw it.The next morning, a farmer who saw Kenji at the gate last night came to consult.After talking, Kenji has difficulty breathing and is diagnosed with signs of acute pneumonia by the visiting doctor.That night, another farmer comes to talk about rice cultivation and fertilizer.Kenji changed his kimono and consulted carefully for about an hour before being taken to the hospital room on the second floor.Seiroku, who was worried, went to bed with him, but Kenji said, "I'll do all of this manuscript for you, so if you want to get it out of a small bookstore, you can."[93].. On September 9, at 21:11 am, I suddenly heard a voice chanting "Nanmu Myōhō Renkakyo", so when my family hurriedly went to the hospital room on the second floor, Kenji said.HemoptysisI had a deep blue face.When Masajiro asked, "Is there anything I can say?", Kenji said, "Please make a thousand copies of the national translation of the Lotus Sutra." "My lifelong work delivers this sutra to you. And please write that you touch the heart of the Buddha and that you may be on the best and right path. "When Masajiro replied, "You're pretty good," and went downstairs, Kenji said to Seiroku, "I was praised by my dad."Ichi, who remained in the hospital room, gave Kenji a drink of water and wiped his body, repeating, "Oh, I feel good." At 1:37 pm, my breathing changed and I died as if the tide was low.Age at death is XNUMX years old[93][94]..The funeral is of the Miyazawa familyBodhi TempleIt was run in. 18 years later1951In 26, the Miyazawa family converted to the Nichiren sect, and the graveyard was moved to Hanamaki City.In addition, the Kokuchukai gave the legal name "Shinkinin Sanbichi Kenzen Men".TokyoEdogawa-kuA part of Kenji's remains is stored in the Kokuchukai[95].

Work and evaluation

The only one published in lifeCollection of poemsAsSpring and shura, Also as a collection of fairy talesThe Restaurant of Many Orders』There is.In addition, there are few works that were posted or contributed to magazines and newspapers during his lifetime (""Yamanashi''Biography of a Guscouboli"Such).However, the manuscript fee received by Kenji is the fairy tale "Patriotic Women's" posted in the magazine "Patriotic Women's".Snow migrationIt is said that it was only 5 yen obtained in.

However, due to the fact that it has been attracting attention since he was alive, mainly immediately after his death.Shinpei KusanoMany works have been published due to the efforts of.the firstComplete worksAs early as the year after his death (although it is partly recorded from the entire work)Keiichi NonokamiIt was published by Bunpo-do, which was run by Jujiya Bookstore, and subsequently published by Jujiya Bookstore, which bought paper molds from Bun-do, from 1939 to 1944.War timeBelow, "Ame Nimomakezu"Destructive private serviceThe image of Kenji as an investigator was completed.[96].. After the warChikuma ShoboHas been published several times (including paperback editions)#Work listreference).Seen in Kenji's way of life and works after the warhumanismWhile sanctifying, there were also movements for re-evaluation, such as criticism as a reaction and the controversy over "Ame Nimomakezu".

Even after Kenji's work is completed, it may be rewritten one after another and become a completely different work.This is the same for works published in magazines, and the change itself can be said to be one work. There is also a description in the "Introduction to Farmers' Art" that "permanent unfinished this is completed".[97]..Many works were left undecided after death, and some works were left undecided many times.FixThere were many cases where the editors of the complete works had difficulty in reading because of the traces left behind.Against this background, based on a thorough investigation of the manuscript, "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" (Chikuma Shobo, 1973-77) was published to clarify all the forms in sequence, and the contents of the works were organized.Since then, there has been an increase in the movement to comment on Kenji and his works as the subject of literary research.Psychiatry,Earth science,physicsThere are also many discussions based on other areas and historical backgrounds.[98].

In 49, 1982 years after his death, the Hanamaki City Kenji Miyazawa Memorial Hall was opened on Mt. Koshiozan in Yasawa, Hanamaki City.[99].

Draft surveys seemed to have almost exhausted Kenji's manuscript, but his birthplaceGodownIt was announced in April 1 that one draft of an unpublished poem (written on the back of the topographic map) was discovered, and it was recorded in the separate volume (Chikuma Shobo) of "New School Book Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works".[100].

What covers the world of the work widely is the contrast between the author's own wealthy origin and the miserable circumstances of the local farmers.AtonementFeelingSelf-sacrificeThe spirit.Buddhism, which he has been familiar with since childhood, has also had a strong influence.The main opportunity isJodo Shinshu OfAkegarasu HayaThese lectures and sermons can be mentioned.Especially at the age of 18, he was a scholar of the same sect.Shimaji DaitoIt is said that he was deeply impressed by reading the Lotus Sutra.Due to this rise in the Lotus Sutra faith, Kenji laterNationalismHe joined the traditional Hokke religious group "Kokuchukai", but the Hokke sect was different from the Miyazawa family at that time, so he deepened his confrontation with his father.Factors such as devotion to the weak and hatred of the strong seem to be closely related to these circumstances.In addition, the feeling of loss given by the death of his sister Toshi as a good understanding person added a shadow peculiar to subsequent works.

Also, in fairy tale worksOnomatopoeia(Onomatopoeia) is used a lot, and depending on the workverseIt is also a big feature that it uses a style with a sense of rhythm that is close to that of.Kenji's fairy tales were quite different from the children's literature works that were published in "Akai tori," which was the mainstream of the same period.

For Kenji's workCosmopolitanismIwate prefecture has a typical atmosphereAttachment to the hometownThat's rightMilitarism,nationalismThere are few works that directly reflect the elements.However, since I joined the Kokuchukai at the age of 24, although there are differences in the degree of activity and devotion depending on the time, I continued to be a member of it throughout my life, so I thought about its social activities and self-sacrificing ideas at that time.fascismThe relationship with the trend is also being discussed.In addition, socialist ideas that were popular at that time (such as Kanai Hosaka, my best friend)ユ ー ト ピ アThought (""New village(Warrior alley) ”,“ ArishimaSymbiosisfarm(Arishima Takeo)",Tolstoy-Tokutomi Roka,Manchuria-Royal road paradise(Agricultural principlePersonKanji KatoAnd of the KokuchukaiKishi IshiharaThere is also an opinion that the influence of social thoughts such as) "should be considered.In his later yearsGalactic train nightAs seen inキ リ ス ト 教TypicalReliefIt can be seen that he also took up faith and reached religious tolerance to all humankind.Religious scholars have pointed out that the root of Kenji's thinking is based on the Lotus Sutra.[101][102]..This unique view of the world, which is a fusion of religious thought and natural scienceSecond World WarLater, it was evaluated by researchers outside Japan,1996In September, at the Kenji Miyazawa International Conference held in Hanamaki City to commemorate the 9th anniversary of Kenji Miyazawa's birth, researchers and translators from about 100 countries gathered.Historian OfDaikichi IrokawaIs mentioned in the book[103].

Kenji also tried to write poetry in Esperanto, which he learned, but it was published in 1953.Most of these works are translations and adaptations of their own works into Esperanto.[104].

1998By the time,Tetsuo YamaoriThere isprimary schoolWhen I gave a lesson at, Kenji's three works "Kaza no Mataburo''The Restaurant of Many Orders''Galactic train night, And asked the children what they had in common, and asked themselves.WindHe emphasized that the central problem of these three fairy tales, which plays a very big role, is "wind".At this time, one of the children said, "CatI tried to say, but I was surprised that Yamaori said "wind", but when I heard the story of Yamaori, I thought it was "wind".However, thisepisodeHearedHayao KawaiHas always considered the importance of the role of cats in Kenji's work, so from the hint of "cat and wind", the lack of catching the wind, the coexistence of tenderness and ruggedness, the point that even a small gap can enter. Feeling something in common with cats, he argues that the cats that appear in Kenji's work have exactly that kind of personality.Kenji's short story "Cat" has a passage that says, "I hate cats. When I think about the inside of a cat's body, I almost vomit."[105]..But this "cat"Tsuyu TakaseIs a pass-through expression, and it is pointed out that Kenji did not actually dislike cats (Masamura HiroshiWritten by "Ihatov Invasion-My Experience with Kenji Miyazawa"[Page number required]).

Statue

Childhood legend

Many "legends" have been handed down to Kenji, but especially in his childhood when he did not leave any materials.DeificationHas been pointed out to be tremendous.It was his father, Masajiro, and his younger brother, Seiroku, who supported this deification.Even if the legend wasn't a lieKiyomi YamashitaIs guessing[106]..現代ではIn modern timesTsukasa YoshidaThere are also books that destroy the image of saints, such as "Kenji Miyazawa's Murder Case".[107].

  • On June 2, 1896, about two months before birthSanriku Earthquake TsunamiBut right after birthRikuha earthquakeThere has occurred.Seiroku said that in the year Kenji was born, there were many disasters in the Tohoku region. It was a year that also implied that it was a road full of people (the life of my brother Kenji). "[108]..Also, on March 1933, 3 (the year of death), "Sanriku Earthquake(Science Chronology No.325) occurred, causing a major disaster.Immediately after the earthquake, the poet's1913-1996) Thank you note for sympathy[109]"The coast is really miserable," he wrote about the damage caused by the tsunami.[110].
  • When I was in Jinjou Elementary School, my classmates who wore red shirts were surrounded by everyone and were teased as "Mekashi".Kenji intervened and said, "I'm wearing a red shirt, so if you bully me, bully me."[111].
  • MenkoWhile playing with, one of my friends chased Menko and bleeding with his finger hit by a carriage.Kenji sucked his finger while saying "Itakabe, Itakabe"[111].
  • There was a student standing in the hallway with a bowl full of water as a punishment for mischief.Kenji, who went out to the corridor for the teacher, drank the water in the bowl, saying, "It's terrible, it's going to be difficult."[111].
  • In the second grade of Jinjo Elementary School, four elementary school students were swept away by the Toyosawa River and two died.Many people gathered and watched the lights of the ship searching for children from the top of Toyosawa Bridge.Kenji also saw this when he heard that his classmates were swept away, and later became a creative motif.[10].

科学

Since he was a mineral lover who liked to collect stones when he was a child, he was nicknamed "Ken Ishiko" by his family from around the age of 11.[11]..When I was in Morioka Junior High School, I used to collect minerals around Morioka on holidays and "Yanoneishi" along the way.Stone ball) I dared to go home on foot to collect[112]..When I was a research student at Morioka Higher Agriculture and Forestry School,Artificial jewelI once sent a letter to my father about a plan to start a manufacturing business in Tokyo (not realized).[113].

Many scientific terms and mineral names such as animals and plants, minerals, and geology appear in the work.[114].

There is also an evaluation as an instructor of agricultural technology that returns the soil science learned at the university to the farmers.[115].

Music

Kenji has a deep interest in music, so if you find timerecordI was buying.Since Kenji buys records frequently, his favorite musical instrument store says that he can sell a lot of new records for the local stores.The United KingdomHeadquartered inPolydor RecordsReceived a letter of appreciation from[116][Annotation 8].

Beethoven,DvořákI used to listen to this song.When he was a teacher at an agricultural school (1921-1923), he also wrote music himself.Twenty-odd songsLyricsAnd eight of themCompositionIf you[117].

gramophoneDamaged the bamboo needle used as a record needle inSound qualityHe has also invented a needle that enhances.米 国ビ ク タ ーAlthough the sample was sent to the company and it was not commercialized, the idea was highly evaluated.[118].

Diet and vegetarianism

Kenji became a research student of Morioka Takano after entering the Lotus Sutra faith for five years from 1918 (Taisho 7).Vegetarian lifeDid[31].. In a letter addressed to Kanai Hosaka on May 5,sashimi,Savory egg custardAfter eating a small amount of food, he describes his feelings of sympathy for the creatures he can eat.[119].TokyoAt the inn "Undaikan" where I stayed to take care of Toshi, for KenjiVegetarian foodSaid that he gave me[35]..While running away from Tokyo,potatotofuFriedJust eat[120],beriberiWhen it becomesBuckwheat noodles,Barley rice,Winter melonI drank the juice[121].. A letter to Tokuya Seki dated August 1921, 10 blames carnivorousness for beriberi.[122].

When I was a teacher at an agricultural school, I didn't care about vegetarian food, but with colleagues and acquaintances.Eating outEnjoyed.The soba restaurant "Yabuya" in Hanamaki was called "Bush" and I used to go there.tempuraJapanese buckwheat noodlesCiderIt was standard to order together[123]. AlsoEel bowl,Bowl of rice and fried fishWas also a favorite[124]..Willing to do it yourselfliqueurI didn't drink, but when I was encouraged to drink with friendsWedBut I drank it like I drank it and returned it.Sometimesた ば こI sometimes smoked[125]..Also when fellow teachers get togetherKato FujiwaraThe answer was, "Human beings live by eating the lives of things. Is there a world where we can live without committing others?"Visiterian Festival』Writing[126].

Self-catering during the Rasuchijin Association was an extremely rough meal.riceCook together and transfer to a colanderwellI hung it inside and ate it frozen in winter.Side dishIs fried tofupickles,TomatoAnd so on[127][128]..My mother, who was worried about Kenji's body,AzukiPutHittsumiI have delivered it, but I did not receive it[129]..Even if I fell down due to acute pneumonia and became ill, I didn't stop eating vegetarian food.Chicken eggsAlsomilkAlso refused[130]..IchicarpI heard that the living liver is effective for pneumonia,OblateI used to take it as a wrapping medicine.Kenji, who heard the contents from his younger brother Seiroku, shed tears and said with a deep blue face, "I should die as much as to take the life of a living thing" and "Never do that from now on." Tears vegetarian[131].

Love / erosion

Kenji is a lifetimeSinglewas.To my friend Kato Osamu FujiwaraLibidoThe waste is your suicide, you can't do a good job. ", And warned against the manifestation of libido.When Hisaya Seki met Kenji one morning,IwateIt was revealed that he went to Toyama Ranch and walked all night, and spent the night fighting sexual desire.When I was a teacher at an agricultural school, many stories of matchmaking were brought in, and my parents wanted to get married, but Kenji refused to accept it.[132]..He told Fujiwara:

If you're a woman who comes to the table in the fresh field like dew, exchanges greetings, serves a bowl, disappears quickly, and comes again in the morning, even if I get married I like it.Sometimes it's fine if my cello gets out of tune, listens to fairy tales and poems, and patiently plays all the movements on the record. — ("Portrait of Kenji Miyazawa")[133]

virginityIt is said that it was, but "IchinosekiHanakawadoPlaygroundThere is also a testimony that he smiled brightly and talked that he had climbed to the tower "(" Portrait of Kenji Miyazawa "), and the truth is unknown.[134]..In his later years, when he visited Soichi Mori, he said about asceticism, "It didn't do anything" and "It was completely wasteful."EroticI want to write about it, "he admitted that he had changed.[135].

Kenji is an ukiyo-e collector, especially "Wain (Japanese seal)Spring painting) ”Was collected so that the height would be 30 cm.[136]..I brought them to those agricultural schools and enjoyed criticizing them with my colleagues.[137].Habarok EllisI have "Sexual Psychology" in a translated bookProfanityThe part that becameSendaiI went to the bookstore and read the original book to confirm[138]..When asked about this book, he answered, "I want to teach my child (a student at an agricultural school) not to make a mistake in sex."[136], Actually to the studentsDirty talkIs like an adult fairy tale and rests your head. "" It doesn't hate anyone, it doesn't hurt people, it's not bad. Sex is a natural flower. "[139].

I met Kanai Hosaka, a one-year junior who I met when I was enrolled in Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School, and became a close relationship with each other, calling them "lovers". A frank expression of emotion was recognized, and the text written in the letter sometimes became an expression as if it was addressed to a lover.He was strongly influenced by Kanai both emotionally and ideologically. Especially, when he was in his twenties, he and Kanai climbed a mountain and talked with each other to spend the night when "Night on the Galactic Railroad" was established. Is reflected richly, and if the character "Giovanni" is Kenji himself, some researchers think that "Campanella" represents Kanai Hosaka.[140].

Other

  • 1916In the spring, a skit was planned at a social gathering in the dormitory of Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School, and Kanai Hosaka, who was a first-year student at the time, wrote the script.Drama"Human Modae" was performed. Kenji, who was in the second grade and was also the director, played the role of "Omniscience God Darkness", and Kanai himself played "Almighty God Agni".The keyword "Shura" that appears in this script by Kanai is "Spring and shuraIt is said that it influenced the word "Shura", which is also the keyword of Kenji's work afterwards.[141][142].

家族

The founder of the Miyazawa family is said to be Masaru Fujii, who moved from Kyoto to Hanamaki.The offspring changed their surname to Miyazawa at the beginning of the Meiji era.One of the offspring, Uehachi Miyazawa, was the first to prosper the kimono shop "Miyaemon" in Hanamaki.It is said that the child's second generation, Uehachi's, became more and more popular, and he also purchased from Kyoto and Osaka.The third son of Uhachi is Kenji's grandfather Kisuke.Kisuke was serious and enthusiastic about his work, but when he split his house, he could hardly share his fortune, and he lined up used clothes at the store.PawnshopStarted[143]..Kisuke's eldest son, Seijiro, began helping out in the family business when he was 15 years old, and when he was 17, he traveled to Kansai and Shikoku by rail to buy a large amount of used clothing and new and old items that were out of fashion, and not only sold them at stores.WholesaleI was there.It also succeeded in investing in stocks, and many in the neighborhood.Peasant landTo have[144]..At that time, in the local area, "Maki Miyazawa (clan)" was a major force that cut Hanamaki.[145].

Grandfather Kisuke
1840Born September 9th 1917September 9 sunset (16 years old)
He enthusiastically helped the family business with "a solid item that looks like a stone with metal fittings", but after splitting the house, he ran a second-hand clothing store and a pawn shop.This shop was called "Miyaemon Kamado" because it was separated from "Miyaemon".
Grandmother Kin
1851Born September 4th 1913September 3 sunset (12 years old)
Shiwa-gunHizume Town(CurrentShiwa Town) Married from Sekiya.Sekiya is wealthyGo-Shogi,Qin,三味 線Although he liked performing arts, Kin had a simple and sturdy personality.Kenji's younger brother Seiroku states that many of the aspects that appeared in Kenji's fairy tales and poems seemed to come from Kin's artistic qualities.[146].
Father Masajiro
1874Born September 2th 1957September 12 sunset (1 years old)
Enliven the family business inherited from Kisuke and make "Miyazawa Shoten" prosper.He is deeply interested in Buddhism and created the "Hanamaki Buddhist Church" at his own expense and held a Buddhist class every year for the locals.AlsoPublic welfare officer,Mediation committeeFor a long time, and for the achievement of putting together 800 disputesBlue ribbonHas received the award[147].. "If I didn't know BuddhismMitsui-MitsubishiI think I could have made a lot of money. "[148].
Mother Ichi (maiden name Miyazawa)
1877Born September 1th 1963September 6 sunset (30 years old)
Ichi's parents' Miyazawa family is also a descendant of Souta Fujii, and Ichi's father (Kenji's grandfather), Zenji's shop, was called "Miyazen."Build huge wealth in general merchandise stores, Hanamaki Bank,Hanamaki Onsen,Iwate Light RailroadMade an effort to establish[7][Annotation 9]..He said that he was born with a compassionate personality and was born to do something for others while lying with his young Kenji.[150].
sister·Toshi
1898Born September 11th 1922September 11 sunset (27 years old)
He has excellent grades since he was a child, and has been the chief at Iwate Prefectural Hanamaki High School for four years, and at the graduation ceremony he will serve as the president.After graduation, in TokyoJapan Women's UniversityFaculty of Home EconomicsPreparatory courseEnroll in.It is said that he was allowed to leave his parents' house because an article about love with a music teacher was published in a local newspaper before graduating from girls' school.[151]..He is hospitalized before graduating from a women's college, but is allowed to graduate.After recovering my physical condition, I was in charge of English and housework as a teacher at my alma mater Hanamaki Girls' School, but the following yearHemoptysisAfter that, lead a medical treatment life[152].. Died November 1922, 11 at 27:8 pm[56].. I was 24 years old.
Sister Shige
1901Born September 6th 1987September 9 sunset (20 years old)
Younger brother·Seiroku
1904Born September 4th 2001September 6 sunset (12 years old)
Taking over the family business on behalf of Kenji, wholesale and retail of building materialsmotor-radioOpened "Miyazawa Shokai", which deals with second-hand clothing dealers, which Kenji hated.[153]..After Kenji's death, he worked hard to publish the entrusted manuscript and was involved in compiling complete works and research books.[154].
Sister Kuni
1907Born September 3th 1981September 1 sunset (12 years old)

Abbreviation

  • 1896(29th year of Meiji)
    • August 8-27 Kawaguchi-machi, Satokawaguchi-mura, Hienuki-gun, Iwate Prefecture (later Hanamaki-cho Oaza-ri Kawaguchi 303-cho, Kawaguchi-cho 295, now 4-11 Toyosawa-cho, Hanamaki-shi) Born as the eldest son of Masajiro and his mother Ichi.
  • 1903(36th year of Meiji)
    • April-Enrolled in Hanamaki Kawaguchi Jinjo High School.
  • 1909(42th year of Meiji)
    • April-Iwate Prefectural Morioka Junior High School (currentlyMorioka Daiichi High School), And entered the dormitory "Jikyo Dormitory".
  • 1914(Taisho 3)
    • March --Graduated from Morioka Junior High School.
    • April-Hospitalized and operated on at Iwate Hospital due to hypertrophic rhinitis.Fever continued after the operation and he was hospitalized until the end of May.
    • After leaving the hospital, he helped the house, but was allowed to go on to school and worked hard to study for entrance exams.
  • 1915(Taisho 4)
    • April-Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School (currentlyIwate UniversityEntered the dormitory "Jikei-Ryokan" at the top of the Faculty of Agriculture).
  • 1916(Taisho 5)
    • March-Selected as the only scholarship student in the second part of agriculture (agricultural chemistry major) and exempted from tuition fees.
  • 1917(Taisho 6)
    • July-with Kanai Hosaka and others from the same schoolDoujinshiFirst issue of "Azaria".Announced tanka.
  • 1918(Taisho 7)
    • March 3-Kanai Hosaka is dismissed.
    • March 3-Graduated from Morioka Higher Agriculture and Forestry School.He continues to be enrolled as a research student and conducts soil texture surveys in Hienuki-gun.
    • April 4-Passed the second class in the draft inspection, exempted from military service.
    • June 6-I was diagnosed with pleurisy and hoped to drop out as soon as the soil texture survey was completed.
    • December 12-My sister Toshi is admitted to a hospital in Tokyo due to pneumonia and goes to Tokyo with her mother to take care of her.
  • 1919(Taisho 8)
    • Encounter Sakutaro Hagiwara's poetry collection "Howling at the Moon".
    • He plans to manufacture and sell artificial jewelry in Tokyo, but he meets his father's opposition.
    • March 3-Toshi is discharged and returns to Iwate.Help the family business.
  • 1920(Taisho 9)
    • May 5-Graduated from a research student.
    • October-Joined the Kokuchukai.I ask my father to convert.
  • 1921(Taisho 10)
    • January 1-Visit to Kokuchukai headquarters in Tokyo.He stayed in Hongo Kikuzaka and wrote many fairy tales while working.
    • August-Toshi returns home due to illness.
    • December 12-Hiranuki Agricultural School (later)Hanamaki Agricultural School) Become a teacher.
  • 1922(Taisho 11)
    • January-"Yukiwari" was announced in the December and January issues of the magazine "Patriotic Women".
    • November 11-Toshi died of illness.
  • 1924(Taisho 13)
    • April 4-Published the poetry collection "Spring and Shura" at his own expense.
    • December 12-Published a collection of fairy tales, "A restaurant with many orders".
  • 1925(Taisho 14)
    • July-Participated in the poet Shinpei Kusano's douujinshi "Gong".Announced the work.
  • 1926(Taisho 15)
    • March 3-Retired from Hanamaki Agricultural School.
    • April-Self-catering at a separate house in Shimoneko Sakura, Hanamaki Town.private schoolEstablished "Rasuchijin Association".
    • December 12-Go to Tokyo.Learn cello, typewriter, organ and Esperanto.Visited Kotaro Takamura's house.Return home at the end of the year.
  • 1927(2)
    • February 2-Kenji's activities are introduced in the evening edition of "Iwate Nippo", but he is suspected of being a socialist education and is heard by the police.Since then, the meetings of the Rasuchijin Association have become irregular.
  • 1928(3)
    • June-Visit Nanao Ito of Izu Oshima for agricultural guidance.
    • August 8-Collapsed due to overwork and diagnosed with bilateral lung wetness.Return to my parents' home and recuperate.
  • 1930(5)
    • May --Received a visit from Tozo Suzuki, the owner of the Tohoku crushed stone factory.
  • 1931(6)
    • February 2-Recovered physical condition and became an engineer at the Tohoku crushing stone factory.Responsible for advertising and sales of lime fertilizer.
    • September 9-I fell down due to fever while I was in Tokyo to sell my products, and wrote a suicide note to my family at the inn.
    • September 9-Return to Hanamaki and live a recuperative life again.
    • November-Write "Ame ni Mo Makezu" in your notebook.
  • 1932(7)
    • March-Published "The Biography of Guscovdori" in the second volume of "Children's Literature".
  • 1933(8)
    • September 9-Death due to acute pneumonia (age 21).Commandments"Shinkinin Sannichi Kenzen Boys".

Work list

fairy tale

* Is a work released during life

There are many memos that Kenji listed the titles of his own fairy tales (it is said that he was planning a collection of his own works), but in some of them, the above four works are "boy novels" or It is grouped as a "feature".

Poetry

If the title is enclosed in [], the final form of the manuscript is untitled, so the first line is used instead of the title.The Chinese numeral before the title is the opus number that Kenji wrote in the manuscript.

  • "Mental sketch Spring and shura』Collection
    • "Introduction"
    • "Refractive index"
    • "Spring and Shura"
    • "Vacuum solvent"
    • "Koiwai Farm"
    • "Mt. Iwate"
    • "Highlands"
    • "Prototype Kenmairen"
    • "Eternal Morning"
    • "Silent roar"
    • "Aomori Haruka"
  • Collection of "Spring and Shura Vol. XNUMX"
    • "Ichiroku Olympic Pass ”
    • "One nine Sunny weather ”
    • "XNUMX Kaoru Blue ”
    • "XNUMX Industrial Union Youth Association "
    • "XNUMX [The humidity and wind of the night are lonely] ”(The title in the sequential form is“ Petals of Karma ”)
    • "XNUMX Farewell "
  • Collection of "Spring and Shura Vol. XNUMX Addendum"
    • "Walk of Mr. Pamir"
  • "Spring and Shura Vol. XNUMX"
    • "XNUMX spring"
    • "XNUMX [I will dig the soil] ”
    • "XNUMX [Tomorrow's rice field] "
    • "XNUMX Field Master "
    • "XNUMX Japanese style blows all over the river valley "
    • "XNUMX [Do not work anymore] ”
  • "Colloquial poetry manuscript"
    • "Third art"
    • "Fire Festival"
    • "Pastoral"
    • "Landowner"
    • "Night"
  • Collected in "Ship"
    • "Bed"
    • "Say with your eyes"
    • "[Ding Ding Ding Ding]"
    • "[The wind is calling with the front]"
    • "[Come on leather now]"
    • "[Hands are hot and feet are swaying]"
    • "Night"
  • "Addendum Psalm I"
  • "Fifty literary poetry manuscripts"
    • "[Itatsuki Yume Minayamishi]"
    • "[Water and a strong avalanche wind]"
  • Collection of "Hundred Poetry Manuscripts"
  • Collection of "literary poetry undecided manuscript"
  • "Star Tour Song"
  • "Mental song"
  • "Song of Porano Square"
  • "Twin Stars"

水彩画

* All titles are tentative titles.

  • "Sunflower and Mountain"
  • "Moonlight Denshinbashira"
  • "Ghost of the Hand" or "Chemical Garden"
  • "Mimizuku"
  • "cat"
  • "Akadama"

Other

Complete works

  • "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Bunkodo (1934-1935) 3 volumes
  • "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Kushiya Bookstore (1939-1944) 6 volumes, separate volume 1
    • Volumes 1, 2 and 3 are created by taking over the paper pattern of the complete collection of Bunpodo editions.
  • "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo (1956-1958) 11 volumes, separate volume 1
  • "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo (1967-1969) 12 volumes, separate volume 1
  • "Complete Works of Kenji Miyazawa" Chikuma Shobo (1973-1977) 14 volumes (15 volumes)
  • "Shinshu Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo (1979-1980) 16 volumes, separate volume 1
    • A complete collection of popular editions newly compiled based on the "School Book" edition.
  • "Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma paperback> (1985-1986, 1995) All 10 volumes. Volumes 9 and 10 are published in 1995
  • "[New] School Book Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo (1995-2009) 16 volumes, separate volume 1 (19 volumes)
  • "Kenji Miyazawa Collection" (2016-2018) 10 volumes, 120th anniversary publication

Works based on Kenji Miyazawa

* For a visualization of the work, refer to the item of the relevant work.

Honoring facility

Related item

Geographical relations

person

  • Moriso Pond
  • Shinpei Kusano --Kenji The person who made the most effort to re-evaluate.However, the relationship was mainly correspondence, and he never got acquainted with him before he was alive.
  • Kotaro Takamura --Through Kusano, he had a relationship with Kenji in his lifetime and cooperated in the publication of his posthumous work.Kenji's younger brother during the warSeirokuIt is evacuated to Hanamaki at the end.
  • Sojiro Saito --A Christian who had a close relationship with Kenji. There is a model theory of "Rain Nimo Negative Kezu".
  • Toyotaro Seki --Instructor at Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School.
  • Kato Fujiwara ――A music teacher at Hanamaki High School, she makes friends through music.
  • Jinjiro Matsuda --A person who was inspired by Kenji and practiced rural promotion in his hometown of Yamagata Prefecture.After Kenji's death, he published "Kenji Miyazawa Masterpiece Selection".
  • Yoshiyoshi Sasaki - folkloreResearcher.I had an exchange with Kenji in my later years.
  • Satoshi Tanaka - National Pillar AssociationLeader of.
  • Kaneko Shichirobei - Morioka DomainBill of accountsSo, from Kenji's point of view, he is a great-grandfather (paternal grandmother's grandfather).

Other

Related literature

A book that deals with biography in general or a dictionary-style book

  • Yasumasa Sato (ed.) "Separate Volume Japanese Literature No.6 Kenji Miyazawa Must-Have" Gakutosha, 1980
  • "Kenji Miyazawa"Shinchosha Co., Ltd.<Shincho Japanese Literature Album>, 1984
  • "[New] School Book Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Volume 16 (2001) Chikuma Shobo, XNUMX (biographyIncludes materials and chronology)
  • Yoshinori Watanabe(Edit) "Kenji Miyazawa Encyclopedia"Diligence Publishing,Year 2007
  • Taijiro Amazawa-Kaneko Tsutomu・ Sadami Suzuki (ed.) "Kenji Miyazawa Ehatov Gakuenji"Hirobundo,Year 2010
  • Shirō Hara"Sadamoto Kenji Miyazawa Vocabulary Dictionary" Chikuma Shobo, 2013
  • Setsuya Nakamura (Arrangement); "Ihatov Songbook: Kenji Miyazawa's Song",Mother earth, August 2006, 2
  • Setsuya Nakamura (Arrangement): "Ihatov Songbook: Kenji Miyazawa's Song", Mother Earth, November 2006
  • Setsuya Nakamura (Arrangement): "Ihatov Songbook 2: Kenji Miyazawa's Song", Mother Earth, September 2010, 9
  • Setsuya Nakamura (Arrangement): "Ihatov Songbook Complete Works of Kenji Miyazawa 2 (Kenji Miyazawa's Song)", Mother Earth, March 2014
  • Setsuya Nakamura (Arrangement): "Kenji Miyazawa Song Collection Ihatov Song Collection 1", Mother Earth, July 2015, 7

Work theory / writer theory

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Dedicated photo by autograph date[1].
  2. ^ Takafusa SatoOld calendarBorn on July 7th, presumed to be a mistake due to the notification in the lunar calendar on August 19st of the lunar calendar[4].
  3. ^ Kazumiki Chiba is "Nyorai Shoujutsuhin" by Kenji.Good doctor sick child(A child who drank poison made his fatherAntidoteI was told that my father died, and I returned to my sanity and took medicine.寓 話), And speculates that unhappiness may have been an opportunity for him to make a leap forward.[22].
  4. ^ BunshinshaPacific WarlaterKamaishiBecame longTomin SuzukiThe pattern at that time was written down as "Kenji Miyazawa at the time of brush cultivation" (Chikuma Shobo version Kenji Miyazawa complete works separate volume "Kenji Miyazawa study", 1958).
  5. ^ There is a memo in the "Ame ni Mo Makezu Notebook" that Kochio recommended the production of "Lotus Sutra Literature", but according to Kochio, there is no such memory, just the Lotus Sutra training.PriestFarmers, not to doplowhoe, The merchantabacus, The literary scholar said that it is the correct practice to hold the pen and spread the Lotus Sutra on each road.[45].
  6. ^ The site isCasals HallThe position is estimated to be near the center of the stage of the hall.[86].
  7. ^ Later, Munakata recalled that he had little memory of this work.[89].
  8. ^ In the "Records" section of "New Miyazawa Kenji Dictionary" (Tokyo Shoseki, 1999) edited by Akira, "The president of Polydor sells records well, so I contacted Hanamaki's Takaki Shoten and was the best in town. When I mentioned the name of collector Kenji, I received a letter of appreciation from the president to Kenji. "
  9. ^ Actually, it is more accurate to say "cooperation" rather than "effort".Hanamaki Bank says that Zenji was invited as an officer, and Iwate Light Railroad also cooperated as a shareholder.[149].
  10. ^ Later, after elaboration, the title was changed to "Three people who graduated from Tokuma School".[155].

Source

  1. ^ "New School Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works Vol. 16 (2001) Addendum / Materials Addendum / Biographical Materials" Chikuma Shobo, 303, p.XNUMX
  2. ^ a b "Morioka Higher Agricultural and Forestry School 13th Business Certificate Award Ceremony"Government Bulletin" March 1918, 3,2016/9/21Browse.(Lower left corner of left page)
  3. ^ Michitada Kato "Handbook of Common Languages" (revised edition) Hamajima Shoten, February 2010, 2, 3, 343 pages.ISBN 978-4-8343-1000-9. 
  4. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 12.
  5. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 25.
  6. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 14.
  7. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 13.
  8. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 38.
  9. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 17.
  10. ^ a b Horio 1991, p. 29.
  11. ^ a b Horio 1991, p. 31.
  12. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 19.
  13. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 25.
  14. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 26-27.
  15. ^ Horio 1991, p. 54.
  16. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 34-35.
  17. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 36.
  18. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 52-53.
  19. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 37-38.
  20. ^ Horio 1991, p. 69.
  21. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 86.
  22. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 88-91.
  23. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 42-43.
  24. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 45.
  25. ^ "Special student selection Morioka Higher Agriculture and Forestry School"Government Bulletin" March 1916, 3,2016/9/21Browse.(Bottom of left page).
  26. ^ a b c Horio 1991, p. 124-126.
  27. ^ a b c Writer's book 1989, p. 54.
  28. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 52.
  29. ^ Horio 1991, p. 95.
  30. ^ Horio 1991, p. 130-135.
  31. ^ a b Horio 1991, p. 96.
  32. ^ Horio 1991, p. 100-102.
  33. ^ Horio 1991, p. 146.
  34. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 56.
  35. ^ a b Horio 1991, p. 103.
  36. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 58.
  37. ^ Horio 1991, p. 106-109.
  38. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 59.
  39. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 62.
  40. ^ Horio 1991, p. 113-114.
  41. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 64.
  42. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 81.
  43. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 140.
  44. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 70-71.
  45. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 74.
  46. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 84-87.
  47. ^ Horio 1991, p. 117-118.
  48. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 77.
  49. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 87.
  50. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 80.
  51. ^ Horio 1991, p. 161.
  52. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 243-246.
  53. ^ Horio 1991, p. 210.
  54. ^ Horio 1991, p. 166.
  55. ^ Horio 1991, p. 208.
  56. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 88.
  57. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 89.
  58. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 93.
  59. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 219-222.
  60. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 121.
  61. ^ Horio 1991, p. 222.
  62. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 108.
  63. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 105.
  64. ^ Horio 1991, p. 235.
  65. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 240-241.
  66. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, p. 112.
  67. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 119.
  68. ^ Chiba 2014, pp. 246-248.
  69. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 138-139.
  70. ^ Kenji Miyazawa. "Seventy-three [To the roots of stolen Chinese cabbage] Spring and Shura Vol.”. Aozora Bunko. 2016/10/21Browse.
  71. ^ Kenji Miyazawa. "Outline of Farmer's Art”. Aozora Bunko. 2016/10/21Browse.
  72. ^ Kenji Miyazawa. "[Let's calculate] Spring and Shura Addendum”. Shinra Information Service. As of October 2016, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/10/21Browse.
  73. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 134-136.
  74. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 139.
  75. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 143-144.
  76. ^ Horio 1991, p. 360.
  77. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 153.
  78. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 111.
  79. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 154.
  80. ^ Horio 1991, p. 278.
  81. ^ Writer's book 1989, pp. 158-159.
  82. ^ Horio 1991, p. 287.
  83. ^ Horio 1991, p. 371.
  84. ^ Horio 1991, p. 379.
  85. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 182.
  86. ^ Ochanomizu Square Building A --NPO Kanda Kanda Society
  87. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 256-257.
  88. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 191.
  89. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 195.
  90. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 199.
  91. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 198.
  92. ^ Horio 1991, p. 462.
  93. ^ a b Writer's book 1989, pp. 207-209.
  94. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 259-261.
  95. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 178.
  96. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 214.
  97. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 180.
  98. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 181.
  99. ^ Miyazawa Kenji Museum --Hanamaki City
  100. ^ "Kenji Miyazawa, unpublished poem on the back of the map New work for the first time in more than XNUMX years”. Asahi.com (April 2009, 4). As of October 8, 2016オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/10/13Browse.
  101. ^ Akira Masaki(Speaker) (August 2012, 8). Why did Kenji Miyazawa convert from Jodo Shinshu to the Lotus Sutra faith?Nichiren sect.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQnEDI-QYhA&list=PL29809B3CE9F5C44B 
  102. ^ Akira Sadakata""Night on the Galactic Railroad" and the Lotus Sutra"Bulletin of Tokai University. Faculty of Letters" Vol. 64, Faculty of Letters, Tokai University, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 110-88, ISSN 05636760, NOT 110001048402,2016/9/21Browse.Page 110.
  103. ^ Daikichi Irokawa "The Light and Darkness of Kenji Miyazawa as Seen by Historians" "History of Daikichi Irokawa: Modern Light and Darkness" Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha, p. 2, January 2013, 1.ISBN 978-4-8188-2254-2. NCID BB11426978. 
  104. ^ "Kenji Miyazawa, self-translated Esperanto poetry collection". 2016/9/3Browse.(This site contains edited works, not published)
  105. ^ Hayao Kawai "Cat is deceptive" Shinchosha, May 2000, 5.[Page number required]
  106. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 30-34.
  107. ^ Chiba 2014, pp. 2-3.
  108. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 11.
  109. ^ "Letter to the poet Minoru Oki Kenji Miyazawa Society Bulletin No. 31”. Kenji Miyazawa Society. As of February 2006, 2オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010/11/10Browse.
  110. ^ Tsutomu Publishing Co., Ltd. "Moonlight" 2, Tsutomu Publishing, July 2010.ISBN 978-4-585-05226-5.[Page number required]
  111. ^ a b c Horio 1991, p. 36.
  112. ^ Horio 1991, p. 63.
  113. ^ Horio 1991, p. 136.
  114. ^ Hiromu Sakurai "Kenji Miyazawa's Elementary Picture Book-Elements and Minerals that Color Works"Chemistry, 2018, p.3,ISBN-978 4759819663
  115. ^ Materials related to Kenji Miyazawa - Iwate UniversityFaculty of Agriculture Agricultural Education Museum
  116. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 95.
  117. ^ Setsuya Nakamura "The cosmic sound of composer Kenji ◇ Elucidation of the musical sense created by fairy tales, leaving eight songs with unique rhythms""Nihon Keizai Shimbun" morning edition December 2018, 7 (cultural aspect) December 17, 2018 reading.
  118. ^ Kenji Miyazawa Lovers Association "Kenji Miyazawa Episode 313" Fusosha Publishing Co., Ltd., October 1996, p. 10.ISBN 4594021085. NCID BN15493836. 
  119. ^ "May 1918, 5 Envelope addressed to Kanai Hosaka (no envelope)”. Kenji Miyazawa's Fairy Tales and Poetry Shinra Information Service. As of September 2016, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/9/3Browse.
  120. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 68.
  121. ^ Horio 1991, p. 456.
  122. ^ "(August 1921, 8) Envelope addressed to Seki Tokuya”. Kenji Miyazawa's Fairy Tales and Poetry Shinra Information Service. As of September 2014, 12オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/9/3Browse.
  123. ^ "Kenji Miyazawa Toyabuya”. Iwate Hanamaki Specialty Wanko Soba Yabuya. As of January 2017, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/9/3Browse.
  124. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 156-157.
  125. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 97.
  126. ^ Horio 1991, p. 214.
  127. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 142.
  128. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 152-153.
  129. ^ Chiba 2014, pp. 36-30.
  130. ^ "June 1932, 6 (to Saichi Mori) Draft”. Kenji Miyazawa's Fairy Tales and Poetry Shinra Information Service. As of September 2016, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/10/13Browse.
  131. ^ Horio 1991, p. 459-462.
  132. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 356-357.
  133. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 145-146.
  134. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 105.
  135. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 186.
  136. ^ a b Horio 1991, p. 355.
  137. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 69.
  138. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 106.
  139. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 107.
  140. ^ Chieko Sugawara, "Kenji Miyazawa's Youth: Around" The Only Friend "Kanai Hosaka" (First Edition) Takarajimasha, August 1994, 8, p. 5.ISBN 4-7966-0839-7. 
  141. ^ Kenji Miyazawa "<New> School Book Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works" Chikuma Shobo, April 1997, p. 4. 
  142. ^ Chieko Sugawara, "Kenji Miyazawa's Youth" The Only Friend "On Kanai Hosaka," Kadokawa Shoten, 1997, Chapter 2, pp. 3-XNUMX.
  143. ^ Horio 1991, pp. 13-15.
  144. ^ Chiba 2014, pp. 23-30.
  145. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 10.
  146. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 16-17.
  147. ^ Horio 1991, p. 18.
  148. ^ Chiba 2014, p. 25.
  149. ^ Yamashita 2008, p. 33-34.
  150. ^ Chiba 2014, pp. 36-37.
  151. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 68-69.
  152. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 85.
  153. ^ Writer's book 1989, p. 136.
  154. ^ Yamashita 2008, pp. 34-35.
  155. ^ Kenji Miyazawa "School Book Kenji Miyazawa Complete Works Vol. 7" Chikuma Shobo, 1973.
  156. ^ Kuzebanko "Toddler Bungeibu" Literary spring and autumn, 2012, p. 10.ISBN 978-4-16-375750-6. NCID BB10774414. 

References

  • Seishi Horio "Yearbook Kenji Miyazawa" Chuokoron-sha <Chuko Bunko>, 1991.ISBN 4122017823. 
  • Osamu Yamauchi, "Chronology Writer Kenji Miyazawa," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1989. 
  • Kazumiki Chiba "Kenji Miyazawa: All the Saihas are Negafu" Minerva Shobo, 2014. 
  • Kiyomi Yamashita "The Power of Kenji Miyazawa" Shinchosha <Shincho Sensho>, 2008. 

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