Robert De Niro x Tommy Lee Jones x Morgan Freeman, presented by the inedible Jijii ...
If you write the contents roughly
Immediately pull out the script of Saite, who had been sloppy, and carry out the former star Duke (Jones) from the old man's home and start shooting the western drama.
1970s Hollywood.Robert De Niro who is threatened to kill, Tommy Lee who does not die even if killed ... → Continue reading
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Long time ago
The first Elderly Housing with Care in Japan was by British Elizabeth Thornton1895(MeijiIn 28 years) only for elderly womenTokyo cityShiba WardWas established in.. After that, the Elderly Housing with Care, which remained in a private / religious facility, was first positioned in the national system.1932(Showa7 years)Relief methodAnd after the war1950It was enacted in place of the old law in (25)Welfare ActBecause of the name of the YoroinEndowment facilityWas changed to 1963 (Showa 38).Elderly Welfare ActByNursing homeRenamed and systematized to the present.
- Special elderly nursing home
- Living facilities for the elderly requiring long-term care specified by Cabinet Order (Elderly Welfare Act20 of Article 5).
- Nursing home for the elderly
- Facilities aimed at caring for facilities for the elderly in environmental and financial distress, as well as providing guidance, training and other assistance necessary for them to lead independent lives and participate in social activities. (Article 20-4 of the Elderly Welfare Law).
- Retirement homes
- A facility for the purpose of admitting the elderly, providing meals and other facilities necessary for daily life (Article 20-6 of the Act on Social Welfare for the Elderly), free of charge or at a low fee.Social welfare law(Article 65).
- New facilities such as "urban light-cost homes for the elderly" are being opened mainly in Tokyo.The standards are relaxed compared to general low-cost elderly homes so that even cities with high land prices can move in at low prices.
- Paid nursing home
- 1. Bathing, excretion or nursing care for meals, 2. Providing meals or other conveniences necessary for daily life and specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (housework such as washing and cleaning or health management) Facilities to do (Article 29 of the Act on Social Welfare for the Elderly).
In addition, there are some types of residential facilities for the elderly that do not have the name "elderly housing with care".Housing for the elderly with services(Law Concerning Stable Housing for the Elderly(Elderly Living Law) Article 5)Group home for the elderly with dementia(Article 5-2, Paragraph 6 of the Act on Social Welfare for the Elderly).
Geographical Survey InstituteUsed for elderly homesMap symbol TheHouseとCaneIs a combination of. this is2006(HeiseiFrom elementary and junior high schools nationwide in 18)Public offerIt was established based on the above, and is one of the first map symbols established by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan through open recruitment..
- ^ "Nursing home”. Kotobank. 2013/5/31Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Bunkyo Gakuin UniversityBulletin of Faculty of Human Studies (December 2009). 2013/5/31Browse.
- ^ a b c d e "About housing for the elderly living while receiving long-term care About housing for the elderly living while receiving long-term care ――Relationship between housing and services ――”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/5/6Browse.
- ^ roadmin (November 2020, 11). “Detailed explanation of the low-cost nursing home in Tokyo!What are the characteristics of a care house?”(Japanese). Elderly Housing with Care Search Guide. 2020/11/17Browse.
- ^ Geospatial Information Authority of Japan Map Department (January 2006, 1).New map symbol of Geographical Survey Institute decided by open call for participants for the first time". 2006 Press Release. 2012/8/6Browse.
Western(Seibugeki) is19st centuryThe second half of theThe United States of America OfWestern pioneer eraAt that timeFrontierMainly calledWestern United StatesSet in an undeveloped landmovies(Including TV movies)Novel.Western(Western) translation.
1860 eraLatter half·Civil WarAfterWestern United StatesThe plot of confronting outlaws and indigenous people with a white man with a pioneer spirit as the main character matches the pioneer spirit that white people pioneered the frontier.It gained great popularity and was formed as a genre of cinema with the rise of American cinema in the first half of the 20th century.
Therefore, "a movie of the pioneering era of the western United States in the latter half of the 19th century" is a western drama, which is characterized by "a young pioneer spirit full of emerging spirits unfolding with spectacular action." It can be said that the western drama is almost gone now, and it is said that it is a genre that cannot be established in the present America where the pioneer spirit is lost..
The definition of Western drama set in the western United States in the latter half of the 19th century (especially from the 1860s to the 1890s) is not always strict.Gary CooperThe starring "Unconquered People" is set in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the east before the Declaration of Independence.John Forddirected byHenry Fondastarring"Mohawk drumIs set in New York during the Revolutionary War,Cecil B. Demilldirected by"Northwest Mounted Police』Is in the 1880s, but the stage is Canada, and both are stories that open up undeveloped land and are regarded as Western plays.Also"Shoot for tomorrow!''North to Alaska''Wild bunchIs a story from the beginning of the 20th century, and "Shoot for tomorrow!"North to AlaskaIs Alaska, "Wild bunchAnd othersSeven in the wildernessIs set in Mexico, but it is considered to be a Western genre.
And finally, during World War I, "CimarronIs in the Western drama, but the same writer wrote "GiantsIs a 20th-century story set in Texas and is not considered a Western drama.Also set in Southern Atlanta, the story of the Civil War, "Gone with the wind] Is not included in the Western genre.
Westerns have gone through history with movies.And Western drama is a unique genre that Hollywood has built up, and it can be said that it was born because of the United States, which has a history of pioneering the West.The story of a pioneer who has lived steadily in the harsh nature while struggling with many difficulties is the pride of Americans, including the frontier spirit and dreams, and the American dream itself..
The idea of setting the western part has existed since the very beginning of film history, and in 1898, the first western drama was made in Edison's kinetoscope activity photography. In 1895, the Lumiere brothers created the first cinematograph (screen projection method), and eventuallySilent movieAppeared in 1903, the first full-scale western movieEdwin S. Porterdirected by"Big train robberyWas created.It's a simple story in which the vigilantes chase and defeat the robbers who attacked the train, but the audience is excited by the edited screen of moving images such as running around on the train, murder and blasting the safe, chasing and shooting. Eventually, the Western drama was actively produced with action for sale.This "Great Train Robbery" was an epoch-making work that arranged the basic skeleton of the subsequent Western movies, and had a great influence on the history of the movie...However, the film was shot in eastern New Jersey, near Edison, and the western nature wasn't on screen.At that time, shooting was only possible in the eastern part, the story was in the western part, and all shooting was done in the eastern part. In the 1910s, Edison's patent dispute arose, and the trust forced the filmmakers who did not have Edison's patents to be eliminated (later Edison was defeated in court) to avoid paying patent fees. Those who moved to the distant west found a good place to make a western drama on the outskirts of Los Angeles, California.With the abundant sun and the beautiful and magnificent scenery in the background, the filming of the western drama proceeded without any shortage of locations, and this became the center of film production.That was Hollywood.
Western star and director
In the western wilderness, confront adversity, defeat evil, and make a gunman who is kind to the weak (women and children) the main characterPrize moneyThe pattern was to duel with the inquirer who was hung, to chase a stagecoach, to rob a bank, to have a cavalry, and to contend with an indigenous Indian.RealSheriff(Wyatt Earp,Wild Bill Hickok) AndGunman(Bat Masterson,Billy the Kid,Jesse James) As a theme, the western drama that portrays the pioneer spirit (frontier spirit) in the background of the wilderness of the western United States attracts many people and enters the western pioneering era.NostalgiaWas agitated[Note 1]..It praised the pioneering spirit of the late 19th century western pioneer era and praised it as a development of America.
The basis of these westerns is the existence of a strong and brave hero, and the actor who plays that hero has become a western star.Bronco Billy Anderson, who appeared in the early days[Note 2]Is "Bronco Billy"[Note 3]He starred in the series and appeared in a serial film produced in one volume (up to 1 minutes) each week for seven years.
After Bronco Billy, he was a Broadway stage actor.William S. HartAppeared in a dashing appearance of a two-handed pistol and fascinated many spectators with a style like "Knight of the West".Hart was completely different from the Western actors up until then, and while showing the spirit of chivalry in the foreground, he was often forced into a lonely and tragic position, which strongly touched the audience. He was involved not only as an actor but also as a producer and director, and silent works such as "Shishi Shishi" (1925) were screened in Japan, leaving a big mark on Western films.
And at about the same timeHarry careyAppeared and became popular in the "Cheyenne Harry" series from 1917 to 1919.Harry careyIn later years, he played a supporting role and appeared in "Daytime Battle" and "Akakawa" after the war, but his name is remembered as a silent western star.Most of this "Cheyenne Harry" series was produced and directed after he was called Jack Ford at the time.John FordHarry Carey had a close relationship with the Ford family, his son Harry Carey Jr. later became a valuable supporting player in the John Ford Westerns, and Harry Carey's wife was a later masterpiece of the Ford Westerns. Appeared in "The Searchers".
John FordIs my brotherFrancis FordHe entered the film world and eventually became a film director while serving as an assistant to Frances, who was involved in many of the productions of Western plays during the silent era.Custer`s Last Fight"[Note 4](1912) He has produced works such as "Whirling Child" (1921) and "Western Yesterday" (1924).In this silent period, as mentioned aboveEdwin S. Porter,Francis Ford,William S. Hartother thanStuart Paton,Lynn F. ReynoldsFilm directors such as have left numerous films in Westerns.Other Western stars included William Farnum and Tom Mix.
After World War I, directed by James Cruze, "Cover carriage』(1923) was produced.This movie is not a hero story by a star, but a story of a group that moves westward through the western wilderness while fighting against the ferocious nature and indigenous people, creating a new western drama that is completely different from the previous western drama.John FordIn 1924, the western pioneering epic "Iron Horse" centered on the construction of the transcontinental railroad, and in 1926, "Three bad guys] Was being produced.
And in 1927 with "Jazz Singer"TalkieLater made "Gone with the Wind" and "The Wizard of Oz"Victor FlemingThe director produced "Virginian" in 1929 and was selected as the lead role.Gary CooperWon the title of Western star in this work.Then in 1936Cecil B. DemillDirector'sPlainsman』, Played the leading role Wild Bill Hickok, and became a big star by showing skillful gun judgment while involving a tragic love with Calamity Jane played by Jean Arthur.
Meanwhile, 1930Laor WalshOn the director's "Big Trail"John FordWas unknown at the timeJohn WayneI recommended and selected him as the leading role, but it ended in unpopularity, soJohn WayneAfter that, he continued to appear in B-class westerns for nearly 10 years.Then, in 1939, he gained experience as an actor in a B-class movie.John WayneIs selected againJohn FordIsStagecoach』Produced,John WaynePlayed the leading role, Ringo Kid.This movie depicts the stagecoach running, the Indian assault and the gunman duel, and the life patterns of the passengers on the stagecoach, raising the reputation of the western drama rather than just an entertainment activity, and even today the western part before the war. Recognized as the highest peak of the play.
During this period, he made a masterpiece of the silent movie "Big Parade".King VidorThe director produced the Western drama "Billy the Kid" (1930) and "Texas Rangers" (1936), also silently made "The Squaw Man", and re-movied in 1931 after Torquay. didCecil B. DemillThe director involved the construction of a transcontinental railroad, overturning trains, raids, confrontation with evil, and love in 1939 after "Plain Children".Joel McCreastarring"Great PlainsThe following year, in 1940Gary Cooperstarring"Northwest Mounted Police』Produced in the same 1939Henry kingBy the directorTyrone PowerPlayed Jesse JamesRoad to hell』, Directed by George MarshallJames StewartAnd Marlene Dietrich starring "Dust』, In 1940William WylerDirected by Judge Roy Bean, who left his name in Western Pioneer HistoryGary Cooperstarring"Western man] And other works called masterpieces of Western drama were announced one after another.
Even during World War II, Howard Hughes directed Jane Russell's bewitching appearance.Rogue(1943),Laor WalshDepicts the annihilation of the XNUMXth Cavalry and the end of General Custer at the director's most renowned Little BighornErrol Flynnstarring"Spectacular Seventh Cavalry(1943),William A. WellmanBy the directorHenry FondaStarring "Cow thief(1943),Joel McCreaStarring Buffalo Bill Kodi, "Western King』(1944) and other works have been made.
The golden age of westerns
After the end of World War II, the Western drama entered the golden age and produced many masterpieces until around 1960.[Note 5]Many actors also starred in westerns, from among themGary Cooper,John Wayne,Henry Fonda,Gregory Peck,James StewartThese big stars grew up from the westerns.
John FordDirector'sHenry FondaStarring Wyatt Earp and the Clanton familyWilderness Battle(1946), andJohn WayneStarring and later said to be a cavalry trilogy, "Fort Apache(1948)Yellow ribbon(1949)Rio Grande Fort(1950), today's masterpieceSearchers(1956), andWilliam HoldenCo-starred with "Cavalry(1959),Howard HawksDirector'sJohn Waynestarring"Red river(1948),John WayneとDean Martinstarring"Rio Bravo(1958),Henry kingDirector'sGregory PeckStarring "The Gunfighter" (1950),Delmer DavesDirector'sJames Stewartstarring"Broken arrow(1950), andFred ZinnemanDirector'sGary Cooperstarring"Midday battle(1952),George StevensDirector'sAlan Ruddstarring"Shane(1953),John SturgessDirector'sBurt LancasterとKirk DouglasStarring "Duel in the Wilderness", which depicts the most famous duel in the history of western reclamation.OK ranch』(1957) and other masterpieces were released to the world.
"Searchers"Midday battle"ShaneThe three works of "" are the prewar "Stagecoach』Together withAmerican Film Institute(AFI) occupies the top of the Western category in the 1998 and 2008 "100 Great American Films", and in 1998, "Midday battleHowever, in 2008, "SearchersIs regarded as the top of Western movies.
Also at this timeJohn SturgessDirector "Escape of Fort Bravo", "Last Train from Gun Hill],Robert Taylorstarring"Ghost Town Settlement"[Note 6]And "the sixth man",King VidorDirector'sGregory Peckstarring"Midday battle"And" a man without stars ",Laor WalshDirector'sValley of death"Chase" "Duel one-on-three",Henry kingThe director's "unreliable group",Robert AldrichDirector "Apache" "Veracruz"Gun Fighter",William WylerBy the directorGregory Peckとチ ャ ー ル ト ン ・ ヘ ス ト ンStarring "The Big Country"WhenGary CooperStarring "Friendship persuading],Delmer DavesBy the directorGlen FordとVan heflinstarring"3:10 to Yuma],Richard Widmarkstarring"The Last Wagon"Glen FordStarring "Cowboy" andGary Cooperstarring"Tied neck tree],Anthony MannDirector'sWinchester Gun 73''Naked spur''A man from Laramie''River of anger''Far country''Stars shining in the chest''Western people],Edward DmitrickBy the directorHenry FondaとRichard WidmarkとAnthony QuinnStarring "WarlockAnd "Broken Spear", "Sunset Battle" directed by Stuart Gilmore, "Fort of Alamo" directed by Frank Lloyd,Robert WiseBy the directorRobert MitchumStarring "Gunshot under the Moon", directed by Nicholas RayJohnny guitar''Lawless champion Jessie James, George Marshall's "Burning Hood Car", Otto Preminger'sRobert MitchumAnd Marilyn Monroe's first cinemascope film "River of no return』, Director John HustonBurt LancasterAnd Audrey Hepburn starring "The Unforgiven, "The Proud Ones" starring Robert Ryan, directed by Robert D. Webb,Henry HathawayThe director's "Targeted station carriage" "Daredevil man" andGary Cooperstarring"Evil garden],Arthur pendirected byPaul NewmanStarringBilly the KidA "left-handed pistol" depicting the above was produced.
And in the 1960sJohn SturgessDirector'sYul BrynnerとSteve McQueenstarring"Seven in the wilderness],Michael curtizDirector'sComancheros],John FordDirector'sSergeant Rutledge''The man who shot Liberty Balance''Cheyenne, And the first 70mm film directed by John Wayne, produced and directed by a Western star.Alamo, Marlon Brando's "One-Eyed Jack", and the history of western pioneering in an omnibus as a family storyHenry HathawayとJohn FordAnd George Marshall's first Cinerama filmWestern Pioneer History] And other works were produced one after another.
B-class westerns and television westerns
Second World WarUntil the end of the movie, Western movies were a solid and popular genre of American cinema. In the 1930s, the number of Western plays exceeded 100, 1935 in 150, and nearly 1950 in 140 after the war. This increase in the number of productions is due to the fact that B-class movies were produced as an adjunct to the double-featured show that began in the 30s, and that many Western-class movies were produced as B-class works for about 50 to 70 minutes. Is.It was a simple and clear swashbuckler, with a clear story of good and evil and poetic justice. At that time, it was said that Western plays would definitely hit.During the period when it was made in such a large quantity that it was said to be a crude random production, the technology and possibilities of video expression were developed through trial and error, and the accumulation of capital due to the increase in sales of Western movies laid the foundation for the development of movies as an industry. However, it became a source of vitality for building a movie kingdom.
From a B-class westernJohn WayneIs a growing starRandolph Scott,Joel McCreaOrAudie MurphyWas also called a B-class western star[Note 7]..Besides this, Charles Starlet[Note 8], Hoot Gibson, Buck Jones, Ken Maynard, Johnny Mac Brown andHopalong Cassidy"[Note 9]The famous William Boyd and the musical Western as a sub-genre of the B-class Western became popular before and after World War II, and Gene Autry and Roy Rogers are engraved in its history as singing cowboys. Ray Enright, Joseph Kane, André De Toth, George Sherman, as directors of the B-class Westerns.Rudolph Maté,Budd Boetticher, Allan Dwan, Russell Rouse, etc. were active, and eventually some directors who took a big megaphone after the director of a B-class movie appeared.Directed by Ray EnrightRandolph ScottとJohn WayneとMarlene Dietrichstarring"Spoiler, "Western Judgment", "The Lawless Road" directed by Joseph Kane, "The Last Station Carriage", "Springfield Rifle" directed by André De Toth, "The Bounty Hunter", "The Bounty Hunter", George・ Sherman's "Battle Arrow" "Natural Non-resident",Rudolph MatéDirector's "Valley of Desire" "Three Rogues",Budd BoetticherDirectors such as "Ambush of the Plains" and "Duel Commando Fort", Allan Dwan's "Privately Penalized Woman" and "Catle Queen of Montana", and Russell Rouse's "Desperate Shot" and "Basque Death Corps".
And from the time when the B-class western drama declined, television western drama was actively produced, a star was born from television, and a director of a western drama movie was born. "Wanted Dead or Alive"Steve McQueen, "Maverick"James Garner,Rawhide"ofク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドAndJames Coburn,Charles Bronson,Lee MarvinIs an example, from a director from televisionSam PekinperBy the directorRandolph ScottとJoel McCreaStarring "Afternoon Battle",Gordon DouglasDirector's "stagecoach"[Note 10],Andrew V. McLaglenDirector "Shenando River",Don SiegelBy the directorAudie MurphyStarring "Two-handed gun", starring Elvis Presley "Burning plain child] And other works were born.
And from the beginning of the 1960s, the popularity of Western drama declined.Almost at the same time, the western TV drama declined, and "Rawhide," which was a popular program in Japan at that time, was discontinued in the United States and appeared.ク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドWent to ItalySergio Leonedirected by"Wilderness Bouncer(1964), at the same time that the macaroni western was noticed, he quickly won the title of Western star.ク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドEventually, he became active in the era of the decline of Western drama.
The transformation of the western drama
The character image drawn by the western drama is basically the main characterWhiteAnd it ’s strong and correct.Moral discipline』Is the essence of the story, and come to cheer there (of the Army)cavalryThe corps is a "good role" and the indigenous people who face itイ ン デ ィ ア ンIs often referred to as a "villain".The battle between whites and Indians depicted in the play has many historical facts, but few mention the cause of the battle (land sovereignty).
However, in due course, repulsion and remorse for content that was different from historical facts (which is convenient for white people) became a strong motive for the decline of Western drama.After the war, the drama of poetic justice could not keep up with the diversifying changes in values and ethics..
1940 eraの半ば頃から、フロンティア精神を肯定してそこに主人公(ヒーロー)がいて無法者や先住民を倒す「西部劇」という一つの図式が崩れ始めた。1950年のDelmer Davesdirected by"Broken arrow』Is not a scheme that the indigenous people are others and threaten the white community, but from the side of the indigenous people, they portray them seeking peace rather than preferring fighting.It entered an era when the civil rights movement aimed at improving the status of black people became increasingly fierce at that time.human rightsAmid growing awarenessイ ン デ ィ ア ン,BlackThe way of drawing was criticized, and the reality that could not be mere poetic justice emerged, and it was forced to face the problems that the Western drama had abstracted up to that point..
そしてもう一つの図式である勧善懲悪で、開拓者精神を肯定する強いヒーローがいて悪を倒すそれまでの図式も崩れていった。自分の名誉のためだけにインディアンを見下し、結果自身の連隊を壊滅させてしまう騎兵隊の中佐（『アパッチ砦』のHenry Fonda）、町の誰からも助けてもらえない保安官（『真昼の決闘』のGary Cooper), A man who is obsessed with revenge (of "Searcher"John Wayne), The farmer who kills people as a bounty hunter just to regain the farm (of "Naked Spur")James Stewart）が主人公の西部劇が40年代から50年代にかけ多数製作されて、それまでの映画にあった悪に立ち向かうヒーロー像がもはや存在せず、何が正しくて何が悪いか、明らかにしないままにただ主人公の人間らしさが主になって、そこではもはやヒーローが描きにくくなったのである.
At this time, there were many works in which the distinction between good and evil was ambiguous and complicated.Exciting and dynamic action, confrontation between heroes and villains, showing flashy gun judgment, etc., the atmosphere as a whole became heavy and dark even though there was a showcase..Laor WalshDirector'sValley of death』" Tracking ",Anthony MannDirector'sNaked spur],King VidorDirector's "Daytime Battle",Henry kingDirector's "Handgun King" "Unreliable Group",John SturgessDirector's "Sixth Man", George Sherman's "Natural Absent",Delmer DavesDirector'sTied neck tree, Directed by Nicholas RayJohnny guitar],Edward DmitrickDirector'sWarlock』AndFred ZinnemanDirector'sMidday battleThe protagonist is not trusted by anyone, has trauma in his heart, wants to die, and is forced into an isolated and unsupported battle.Kawamoto says that American society, which experienced an unprecedented war after the end of World War II, "shows that it has become difficult to make a simple and clear western drama in which strong and correct heroes play an important role." Saburo says.
And it was also in the dark air of "Red Scare" that hit Hollywood at that time.Anthony Mann,Fred ZinnemanIt is said that the world depicted by the artist brought about the transformation of Western drama..
This is1960 eraWhen you enterCivil rights movementAt the same time, it led to the decline of Western drama.1960ToJohn F. KennedyBecame president and took a strong stance on eliminating racial discrimination, and along with this, the conventional production code did not work and the number of production decreased sharply.And so-called in Italy etc.Macaroni WesternWhen many westerns calledSam Pekinperdirected by"Wild bunch], Many works that were influenced by the macaroni western were born.
Under these circumstances, Western plays could not stand on the simple dualism of good and bad, and in the early 1950s, the number of productions was about 100 per year, but in the latter half of the 1970s, a quarter of a century later, the number of productions dropped sharply to just one digit. Go.
With the rise of New Cinema, directed by George Roy HillPaul NewmanとRobert RedfordStarring "Shoot for tomorrow!A masterpiece like "" was born, and also directed by Arthur Penn "Little giant"And director Ralph Nelson"Soldier BlueWas released in 1970, and "Soldier BlueIs 1864Sand Creek MassacreBased on this, the genocide case was drawn from the standpoint of the indigenous people who were the victims, and it became a hot topic at that time.
In the 60s and 70s, despite being influenced by Spaghetti Western, Burt Kennedy's "Return of the Seven", "Support Your Local Sheriff", and Richard Brooks' "Professional" and "Bite the Bullet" , Directed by Don Siegelク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドWith the starring "Midday Death Fight"John WayneStarring "Last shootist, Ralph Nelson's "Duel at Diablo",Mark RydellBy the directorJohn WayneStarring "11 Cowboys", Robert Siodmak's "General Custer", Michael WinnerBurt LancasterStarring "Tracker",Sam PekinperBy the directorチ ャ ー ル ト ン ・ ヘ ス ト ンとJames CoburnStarring "Mr. Dundee",William HoldenとRobert RyanStarring "Wild Bunch",Andrew V. McLaglenBy the directorチ ャ ー ル ト ン ・ ヘ ス ト ンStarring "Great duel』, VeteranHoward HawksDirector'sEl Dorado''Rio Robo],John SturgessDirected after the duel of Wyatt EarpJames GarnerStarring "Tombstone and Battle",Henry HathawayBy the directorSteve McQueenStarring "Nevada Smith"John WayneStarring "Elder brothers] And [Courageous pursuit] And other western plays were produced.
After the 1970sク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドStarring / Director "Wilderness Stranger(1973)Outlaw(1976)Pale rider(1985)The Unforgiven(1992),Lawrence KasdanDirector'sSilverado(1985),Kevin CostnerStarring "Wyatt Earp(1994),Kevin CostnerStarring / Director "Dances with Wolves(1990)Wild Range Last Shoot』(2003) and other excellent works have been born.However, the charm of Western movies, which were once popular as swashbuckler movies, has already been lost.
Today, Western plays are produced, but few, and have not produced masterpieces that are on par with past works.This is because the scheme as a story cannot be made and the genre as a western drama has not been established.On the other hand, historical evidence, costume setting, and gun action are expressed with incomparable accuracy from past works, and entertaining action movies such as "Toomstone" are also made. ..
Western movies from other countries
In Germany (then West Germany), starring American actor Lex Barker, "Apache" from 1961 to 1965.[Note 11]"Daishucho Winnet" and "Ambush of Silver Lake" have been produced and released in Japan.Many of these films were American actors who were not blessed with Hollywood and went to Germany and Italy..
In ItalyMacaroni Western[Note 12]Called in 1965ク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドStarring "Wilderness BouncerWas a big hit, and a large number of mid-sized western stars, whose jobs in the United States had decreased, appeared in large numbers.[Note 13], Numerous macaroni westerns were produced and temporarily caused a big boom.From among themク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドOutsideGiuliano Gemma,Franco Nero,Lee Van CleefStars such as were born, but there were many bad works, and eventually they headed for decline.
HoweverSergio LeoneDirectingEnnio MorriconeMusic has never been seen in Westerns before,ク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドThe appearance of a stubble gunman throughout the whole story is the head familyHollywood OfMaleIt cannot be denied that it affected.
The macaroni western is produced with a free idea that ignores historical facts, selling action and cruel scenes, and the location is mainly taken in Spain and Durango in Mexico, which has a desolate desert area. Already in the 1960sHollywoodWas ending its history as a filming location and was known as the filming location for Ford's Westerns.ArizonaHowever, the cost of staying soared and the rental fee for horses also increased, and Durango in Mexico was selected as the location.
Western drama has been very popular in Japan since before the war, and a phenomenon called the gun boom was born after the war, especially around 1960, and Nikkatsu made a drama like the western drama, which is said to be a stateless movie at that time. Was not enough[Note 14]..However, in the field of historical drama, Akira Kurosawa's "Seven Samurai" was remade in the United States to become John Sturges's "The Magnificent Seven", and "The Magnificent Seven" became "The Magnificent Seven" and entered the world of western drama. It will have an impact.
Typical Western movie
Since the 2000s
- Wild Range Last Shoot(2004)
- 3:10 at the time of decision(2007)
- Assassination of Jesse James(2007)
- Appaloosa Battle(2008)
- True Grit(2010)
- Django Unconnected(2012)
- Magnificent Seven(2016)
- Wilderness Oath(2017)
Foreign-made western movies
A western movie made in a foreign country other than Hollywood.
After World War IItv setWith the advent of, many western television plays were produced, forming a large genre.They are1960 eraProsperous until the beginning, and at the same time, "Rawhide''Laramie Ranch] And many other works were imported, and at that timeTV programIt was very popular as the mainstay of.
- Annie, get the gun（KRT、現TBS、1957年3月〜9月；1958年3月〜9月 フジテレビ 1960年1月〜1961年7月)
- lone Ranger(KRT, now TBS, August 1958-February 8 Fuji Television July 1959-December 2)
- Bat Masterson(NET, current TV Asahi, February 1959-March 2)
- Gun smoke(Fuji TV, March 1959-May 3)
- Rawhide(NET, current TV Asahi, February 1959-March 11)
- Pistols(Fuji TV, December 1959-December 12; Nippon TV, February-August 1961)
- Western Paladin(NHK, April-June 1960, TBS July 4-March 6)
- Cheyenne(KRT, now TBS, May 1960-August 5)
- Laramie Ranch(NET, current TV Asahi, February 1960-March 6)
- Bonanza(Kartwright Brothers) (NTV, July 1960-April 7)
- Wagon train(NTV, October 1960-April 10)
- Rifleman(TBS, November 1960-December 11)
- Bronco(TBS, November 1961-December 5)
- Maverick(NET, current TV Asahi, February 1961-March 5)
- Security Officer Wyatt Arp(NTV, October 1961-April 9)
- Virginian(NET, current TV Asahi, April 1964-January 4)
- The Big Valley(NET, now TV Asahi, November 1965-June 11) Later broadcast on Tokyo channel 1966.
- 0088 / Wild West(Fuji TV, March 1965-May 12)
Depiction of indigenous people in westerns
By the time Columbus reached the Americas, there were already indigenous peoples on the North American continent.When I arrived in North America, I misunderstood that I arrived in Indiaイ ン デ ィ ア ンIt is said that by the time the British created their first colony in the early 17th century, North America had a population of about 100 million and about 500 tribes...However, the battle with whites began around the time the western development progressed.The history of western settlement was also the history of indigenous persecution and slaughter.And in 1870, during the western reclamation era, the population dropped sharply to just 2.
In the early 20th century westerns,イ ン デ ィ ア ンWas treated as a hero, but when the Western drama moved to an action-centered entertainment film, the Indians said,FrontierIt became a villain that harmed, and was a symbol of wickedness and ferocity for white pioneers.
Westerns dictated the image of Indians.The Indians who appear in the play routinely wear flashy feathers on horses, swing their hatchets around, and attack with the voice of "Awawawawa" and battle cry.These are ridiculous except for straddling horses and putting on feathers.Their costumes were also conceived by the studio designers, and most of them are played by white people, and have no material value.
Also, in the Western drama, "Grand Chief and War chief who obey all Indian warriors under the command" appear, which was born from the white misunderstanding about Indian culture.Basically, the Indian societyCollaborative systemDemocracyIt is a society, and there is no such absolute power person... Both "Daishucho" and "War Chief" are completely fiction, and despite being characters in Western plays that do not actually exist, by being released worldwide, "酋長Is a tribal chiefIt has become more widespread in the perception of false Indians.
Wearing a feather decoration, which is a custom of the tribes of the plains, he speaks a single word of English with no expression ("Indian, Usotsukanai" is a typical example of this in Japanese dialogue)StereotypeAfter that, people all over the world heard the word "Indian" and it became the first image that came to mind.Radio and TV series "lone RangerThe hero's companion, "Tonto," is synonymous with "white-skinned Indians" among Indians.
In the 1950s, from reflection on how to draw Indians like this,Broken arrow"Apache" was produced, and in the 1960s, "Mohawk drum(1939), John Ford, who had drawn only Indians as a villain after drawing a typical Indian, began to draw the Cheyenne tragedy in "Cheyenne" (1964), and in 1970. Is "Soldier Blue』The scene where the cavalry massacre the Indians is depicted.
Directed and starred in "One-eyed Jack" in 1960Marlon BrandIs an Indian rights organization "American indian movement』(AIM), and has been counseling and exercising since the establishment of the group.1973To the movieGodfatherWhen he won the Academy Award, he had an "Indian woman" attend the award ceremony on behalf of him and read a message about how Indians were treated unreasonably in the Hollywood Western drama.[Note 20]..Film actor, AIM activist and spokespersonRussell MeansIn an interview about Hollywood movies, said:
We only have to have two different forms of what Hollywood wants from Indians in the film.We dress in leather during the summer.Or we saySkins"(2002) or"Smoke SignalsYou have to be a drunken socially ineligible person, like a movie like (1998)..
One Saturday afternoon in the 1940s, I went to see a movie with my brother Dace at the Esquire Movie Theater in Vallejo, California.Cowboys and Indians appear in the movie, and while the crowd is screaming, the march trumpet rings, the cavalry shoots, and the Indians are unavoidably killed.Dace didn't seem to be able to see it.He covered his face with his hands.We were like that when you were 8 or 9 years old.You are probably the upcoming movie ("Last of Mohican』) You would think that the Indians might win unlike that.Well then then we leave the cinema.And this is a real story, after which our brothers back to back against Mexicans, Filipinos, Chinese and blacks, just as Indians fight whites in the movie. Had to fight in.All the kids in these neighborhoods tell us. "Hey Indians, I'll hit you with all my might!".
A pistol that appears in a western drama
Western plays, often the subject of gunmen, range from those based on accurate evidence to those that have been modified from modern firearms to make them look like they are.FirearmAppeared as a prop.The most symbolic oneColt Single Action Army(SAA) Revolver, commonly known as "Peace Maker"[Note 21]AndColt M1851likeSingle actionRevolverHandgunIs. The SAA is Colt's masterpiece gun, with 1873 manufactured in 1940 years from 67 to 35.
With waist beltholsterIn single actionRotary handgunThe cowboy style that contained the movie was a classic of the western gunmen that appeared in the movie.Even in Japan, the popularity of single-action pistols such as the Colt 45 has risen with the growing popularity of Western drama, and many manufacturers have said that.Toy gunThe product was sold.
There are many variations of single-action pistols of this era, but especially in the Spaghetti Western, the leading role is a 5.5-inch metal cartridge case, the villain's boss is a long barrel such as 7.5 inches and large, and many others are 4.75 inches. In many cases, the type of gun was decided according to the role of the owner, such as a metal cartridge case type pistol or a percussion type revolver.
The leading star is required to be proficient in gun play such as unstoppable shooting and continuous shooting, and splendid spins.Gary CooperIsPlainsman』(1936)Cecil B. DemillAs a result of discussion withTwo-chome pistolI practiced hard shooting for two weeks and created a famous scene.
When the movie became color and eventually widened to a landscape screen, Red Rod Wing, who had been a returning soldier of the Korean War since the mid-1950s, became a leader in handling firearms and became a pistol technique for many stars. Was taught.Names such as Alva Ojara and Doyle Brooks have been handed down to this gun play instruction, but when the movie went from silent to talkie, it was still before its debut.John WayneThat was the one who taught gun play toWyatt EarpThere is a story that he was the person himself.
"Fanning" that shoots at high speed by pulling out the pistol with the trigger pulled and hitting the hammer with the other hand.[Note 22]The technique called "Wilderness Battle』In the name supporting playerWard bondIs the first technique that was shown.
Incidentally,John WayneThe gun play with the Colt 6-shot gun was actually skillful (showing a glimpse of it as a "searcher"), but it was too big (slightly thick waist) and did not suit, so on the advice of director John FordWinchesterIt is said that he used a gun (rifle) habitually.He was later told that no actor would look better with a rifle.
The Winchester gun was a rifle devised by Oliver Winchester, initially a six-barrel rifle, but in the same 6 when the SAA went on sale, a 1873-barrel "73 Winchester gun(M1873, commonly known as Winchester Gun 73)[Note 23]) Appeared, and it is said that this Winchester 73 was also manufactured in 1873 units during the 1932 years from 59 to 72 and spread widely in the western part of that time.However, it was unpopular with the US Army at that time, and Winchester guns were not used in military relations such as cavalry in the 19th century.Therefore, historically, when the cavalry used a rifle, a single-shot Springfield gun was used instead of a Winchester gun, and in 1876 the XNUMXth Cavalry under General Custer was wiped out by the Indians with the Little Bighorn. It is said that there is a "true theory" that the side is a series of Winchester guns and the cavalry side is using a single-shot Springfield gun...However, in Western movies, it is common to see cavalry shooting with Winchester guns.The gun used by Steve McQueen, who starred in the TV "Wanted Dead or Alive", is a shortened barrel of this Winchester gun, commonly known as Randall Custom.By the way, the Winchester gun used in movies and television is not the famous M1873 but the successor M1892.
These two guns, the "Single Action Army" and the "Winchester M1873," were later referred to as the "guns that conquered the West.".
- ^ cowboyThere were many black people in the town, and there were many foreigners such as Chinese in the town.The Chinese have appeared in Western plays "Wild Bill" (1995) starring Jeff Bridges, "Once Upon a Time in China & America / Tenchi Fengyun" (1997),Jackie ChanStarring "Shanghai Noon』(2000). "The War Wagon』(1967)Kirk DouglasThere is also a scene where he eats Chinese food with chopsticks.
- ^ Real name Gilbert M. Anderson. 1882-1971.Originally a vaudeville performer, he played three roles in the first full-scale western drama, "The Great Train Robbery."It is said that this first Western star was completely useless in horseback riding and shooting, and was played by a substitute.Later, "Bronco Billy" was produced starring Clint Eastwood, but it has no direct relationship with Bronco Billy Anderson himself who appeared in "Big Train Robbery".
- ^ A total of 1907 pieces were produced in the "Bronco Billy" series from 1914 to 375.In addition, there is a theory that the number reached 1908 from 1915 to 500 in another document.
- ^ As the title suggests, a 30-minute silent movie about the annihilation of General Custer and the Seventh Cavalry at Little Bighorn.Francis Ford starring and directingGeneral CusterAlso plays.It is said to be the first Western movie to depict the end of General Custer.
- ^ The period from 1946 to 1951 after the war is said to be the golden age of western drama, and many works that are excellent not only in quantity but also in quality are made. However, this theory presupposes that the number of Western plays produced increased significantly, peaked in 1950, and then dropped sharply, but the sharp drop after 1952 was that the B-class Western plays were abolished. Is the cause of the decrease, and although it decreased in quantity, it is rather qualitatively many masterpieces after 1952.
- ^ "OK ranch decision" and "Last Train from Gun Hill''Ghost Town Settlement] Is said to be a duel trilogy of Starges.
- ^ Later became the 40th President of the United StatesRonald ReaganWas also a B-class movie star.
- ^ The Durango Kid series is known.
- ^ William Boyd, who starred after the warHopalong CassidyIt is well known that the film of the series was purchased, re-edited and aired on the TV version with the advent of television, and related products became popular and built a huge wealth.Even in Japan, a television edited version of this B-class western drama was broadcast under the title of "Our Cassidy" in the early days of television.
- ^ A remake of John Ford's 1939 film.
- ^ A different movie from "Apache" (1954) starring Burt Lancaster, directed by Harald Reinl.
- ^ In the United States, it was called "Spaghetti Western", but in Japan, it emphasizes the sense of language and ease of calling.Macaroni WesternWas called.
- ^ Among them were Lee Van Cleef and Jack Elam.
- ^ "Fast-Draw Guy" released in April 1961.Produced by Nikkatsu, directed by Takashi Nomura, starring Joe Shishido.It was called "Western made in Japan" when it was released, but it was written in Kinema Junpo that "Japanese movies have no such stupid works."However, it is a hit as a movie box office.Eiji Oshita describes it as a Japanese-made "miso soup western".
- ^ Director Otto Preminger.Starring Marilyn Monroe and Robert Mitchum.It was shot with the first cinemascope in a Western movie.
- ^ Director John Ford.Starring John Wayne.It wasn't so highly rated at the time of its release, but it is now regarded as the best work in the Western world.
- ^ Produced and directed by John Wayne.It was shot at 70mm for the first time in a western movie.
- ^ It was produced by four directors, including John Ford and Henry Hathaway.This is the first feature film produced in Cinerama.
- ^ "Squaw" is an Indian woman, but it is now a derogatory term that has been strongly protested by Indian groups.
- ^ However, this "Indian woman" was actually a non-Indian Filipino woman (she was punished by the actors' union).It's an Indian parody played by the above-mentioned crappy whites, and the brand's response to Hollywood has paid off, but this has caused him to blunder his illustrious career and earn his trust in the film world. Lost.
- ^ It is also famous for the name "Colt 45".There is a TV movie with the title of this pistol as it is.
- ^ With a single-action revolver, you can't shoot even if you pull the trigger without triggering a hammer.Fanning is a method of firing at high speed by hitting a hammer from above with the palm of your hand while pulling the trigger.It is called this because it looks like it is fanning.At the end of the 19th century, you can shoot just by pulling the trigger without causing a hammer.Double action"Has appeared.
- ^ The movie of the same name starring James StewartWinchester gun '73There is
- ^ "Introduction to American Culture" edited by Kentaro Sugino Sanshusha p36
- ^ "Movie Dictionary" 188P "Western Drama" by Rikiya Tayama David, Inc. Published September 1987
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 206P
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 207P
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 209-211P
- ^ a b "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 215P
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 222P
- ^ See "NewsWeek Japan Edition" May 2009th and 5th, 6, 13-42 pages [The Greatest Movies 91]
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 221P
- ^ "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama 213-214P
- ^ See "B-class movies-to the back of the film" 91-92P 94-98P Ken Masubuchi Written by Heibonsha Published in August 1986
- ^ The titles, directors, and leading actors of each Western movie are the books of "The Great Western Movie," "Invitation to the Western Movie," "Learn a Man by Watching the Western Movie," and "Hollywood Film History Lecture." Each material / index in is quoted.
- ^ "The Great Western Drama" 12-13 pages Go Osaka Saburo Kawamoto Published May 2001 Shinshokan
- ^ "Listen to the voices of Indians" (World Photo Press) Special article "American Indians in Movies"
- ^ "American Film Principle" 166-167 pages edited by Masaaki Oba Film Art Co., Ltd. Published in October 2002
- ^ "Invitation to Western" 182P Dark Western Dark Charm by Saburo Kawamoto
- ^ "Invitation to Western" 185P Dark Western Dark Charm by Saburo Kawamoto
- ^ "Hollywood Movie History Lecture" 68P Transformation of Western Drama by Shigehiko Hasumi Chikuma Shobo Published September 1993
- ^ "Eureka" May 2010 issue 5P Clint Eastwood special feature Seitosha March 90 issue
- ^ "The Great Western Drama" 172-173 pages Go Osaka Saburo Kawamoto Published May 2001 Shinshokan
- ^ See "Everyone liked Nikkei Action" 153P by Eiji Oshita Kosaido Publishing Published in 1999
- ^ "I learned a man by watching a western drama" 56-57P See the tragic history of the indigenous people Shin Ashihara, Shodensha new book, published in March 2006
- ^ "Crazy Horse" (by Larry Mcmurtry, Penguin LIVES)
- ^ From the interview article "Russell Means Interview with Dan Skye of High Times" (May 2009, 5) on Russell Means' official website "Russell Means Freedom"
- ^ "Entertainment WeeklyFrom the interview article "Acting Against Racism" (October 1995, 10) in the magazine
- ^ See "Invitation to Westerns" pages 14-17
- ^ See "I learned a man by watching a western drama" pages 102-103 Shin Ashihara, Shodensha New Book, published in March 2006
- "Great Western" Tsuyoshi Osaka Written by Saburo Kawamoto Shinshokan Published in May 2001
- "Invitation to Western" Tsuyoshi Osaka Kawamoto Saburo Kikuchi Hideyuki Tetsuro Nagata Kazuo Nawata Masataka Miyamoto PHP El New Book PHP Institute Published April 2004
- "I learned a man by watching a western drama" by Shin Ashihara Shodensha new book published in March 2006
- "American Film Principle" Genre Film Rise Masaaki Oba ed. Film Art Co., Ltd. Published in October 2002
- "Hollywood Movie History Lecture" Transformation of Western Drama by Shigehiko Hasumi Chikuma Shobo Published in September 1993
- "Bungei Shunju SPECIAL, Movies Taught Life" Best 10 by Genre "Western Drama" by Go Osaka Published in July 2009
- "Movie This Hundred Years-A Perspective from the Region" Chapter 9 Western Drama Kumamoto University, Film Cultural History Course Published in June 1995
- "B-class movie-to the back of the film" by Ken Masubuchi Heibonsha Published in August 1986
- "American TV Movie of Memories" by Sota Setogawa Heibonsha Shinsho Published in April 2014
- "SCREEN Special Edition" Nostalgic Foreign TV Series "" Kindaieigasha, published in May 2006
- "Weekly TV Guide Separate Volume" TV 30 Years "" Tokyo News Service, published on February 1982, 2
- "Kinema Shunho Extra Edition" Golden Legend of Television-50 Years of Foreign Television Dramas "" July 1997, 7 Issue
- "The Complete History of TV Dramas" 1953-1994 TV Guide Tokyo News Service Published May 1994
- "Separate volume Kurashi no Techosha" Cinema no Techo-250 masterpiece guides "" published in December 2009 Kurashi no Techosha