Photo Movie "Hell's Garden" (from top left) Rina Kawaei, Miyuki Oshima, Kenichi Endo, Eiko Koike (from bottom left) Masanobu Katsumura, Satoru Matsuo, Tomomi Maruyama (C) 2021 "Hell's Garden" Production Committee
"Hell's Garden" Rina Kawaei, Miyuki Oshima, Eiko Koike, Kenichi Endo and others are on OL and character videos are also lifted
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, Etsuko instinctively said, "I thought it was an urban legend!"
Rina Kawaei, Miyuki Oshima, Eiko Koike, Far ... as an additional cast of the movie "Hell's Garden" starring actress Mei Nagano. → Continue reading
Mainly on the latest information on domestic and foreign movies & TV dramas, the "now" of entertainment, which has become a hot topic on the Internet such as animation and overseas gossip, is transmitted daily with news!
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
urban legend(Toshidensetsu,British: urban legend) IsModernOrmodernSeems to have spread toOralIs a kind of.Daijirin The second edition explains that "among oral rumors that originated in modern times and whose grounds are ambiguous or unknown."
Spreading the concept of urban legend,The United States of America OffolklorePerson,Jan Harold BrunvanAccording to the urban legend, "private sectorNarrative"(British: folk narratives) Is a subclass of "legend" (British: legends),LegendIsOral OfHistory"(British: folk history) Or "pseudo-history".
Urban legends are told and believed by "ordinary people" in the private sector.
An urban legend writer who is a leading figure in urban legends OfWatsuu UsaAbout the urban legend, "It is said that it was experienced by a person who could not be identified, not a close relationship called" friend of a friend ".ConsolidationIs a story that flows brilliantly. ".. "Urban legends are'stories that haven't actually happened'that are said to have really happened," he said. "A story about falsehoods experienced by humans who are unlikely to exist.".
Hiroshi Matsuyama, an urban legend collector, said, "A strange rumor that is told as an event that happened to people who seem to be familiar, such as'friend of a friend', but who do not actually know their faces or names.".
An exaggerated urban legend
Watsū Usa said, "(As of 2007) there are a lot of books related to urban legends, but many of them have different nuances. The word" urban legend "is included in the title in a symbolic and mechanical form. To"The root of the sense of incongruity is the number of stories that are bound by the word urban legend. Certainly, some urban legends have a strong ghost story element, but not all ghost stories are urban legends. Scary stories = Never an urban legend"Contradicting the definition, I have introduced a story that has not actually happened (by the media) with the adjective" it really happened "."It has said.
The concept of homogeneity with urban legendsFrance OfSociologistIsEdgar MorinIn 1969, he wrote a book, "Rumor of Orleans: Rumors of Female Kidnapping and Its Mythical Action."First mentioned in.. In Frenchlégen de urbaine. "
In early 1979, Jan Harold Brunvan wrote in a book review of the journal of American Folklore... In the 1980s, Brunvan began to publish books on this phenomenon and became well known externally.
The word "Urban Legend" first appeared in Japan in 1988 by Jan Harold Brunvan's book "Vanishing Hitchhiker".Takahiro Otsuki, Yukihiko Shigenobu et al.Folklore"Urban Legend" as a translation of the coined word "Urban Legend" translated by.
At that time, Otsuki et al. Imported the concept of American folklore and had the purpose of trying to shake the stagnant Japanese folklore with the concept of "city." However, the original research method of "urban legend" was the same as the conventional oral literature research, and even in Japanese folklore, the paradigm was not renewed... Shigenobu himself, one of the translators, also states that the urban legend has been used by the mass media and that he is "depressed" about returning to the academic arena..
Until the term "urban legend" was proposed, various terms were used to refer to this phenomenon. "urban belief tales"(A story believed in the city),"urban narrativesSome people call it "(city experience)", It may not always spread in "city", so in contrast to traditional folk talesmodern legends"(Modern legend). Sociologists and folklore have the same meaning:contemporary legends".
"city-"(British: urban)adjectiveIs used to mean "urbanized" rather than to indicate an area such as "urban, urban". Therefore, the narrativeTraditionOfcultureIf it is not derived from, it is called an urban legend even if the setting of the narrative is a farming, mountain and fishing village.
According to Brunvan's Vanishing Hitchhiker, "legend" in an "urban legend" means "the speaker speaks of it as an actual event.".. The translator of the book also describes this "legend" as "a cluttered toy box-like genre of oral literature called'small talk'.".
Even an urban legend that looks new at first glance has an ancient originmyth,Folk taleResearchers such as Jan Harold Brunvan have pointed out that it is often the case, or it is often a reprint of another older urban legend..
Many urban legends have completely unknown origins and grounds, but some have some grounds. Certain (usually nothing) facts are often legendary with tail fins. For example, "Tokyo DisneylandOne of the origins of the urban legend that "there is a huge basement underneath, where gambling and other activities are held," is that the facility actually has an underground passage for employees. (There is no facility in the basement.MaihamaThe area near the sea from the highwayLandfillSo it sinks).
Death by coconutOriginated from research papers, but was generally exaggerated in the process of propagation.
Features of urban legends
Urban legends that propagate around cities have the following characteristics..
- Derived from past incidents and accidents.
- Derived from the place.
- The origin is uncertain or difficult to identify.
These elements are intricately intertwined and have the modern characteristics of oral tradition and obtaining information via the Internet.
In addition, most of the contents of urban legends are very likely, and often include lessons learned..
Its news is a characteristic of urban legends that are different from old legends.
According to Jan Harold Brunvan, urban legends are "the'news' that are presented to us in a fascinating way, with more meaning. Must have an appeal of these various pieces. For example, in other entertainment-filled modern societies, legends will be unheard of. Legends have survived as lively, "factual," like the news of the night on television. Also, it's like a daily news broadcast of peopledead,injury,KidnappingTends to be involved in tragedy, tragedy, and scandals. ".. Therefore, urban legends often include some sort of scandalous topic:
- MurdererDue to poisons and pathogens汚染,幽 霊"Scary story" such as
- Specific existence (occupation, social class, race, raceSufferEtc.)Discrimination・ Something such as prejudicetaboo(Xenophobia,Dislike foreigners,JingoismDirectly connected to)
These elements of urban legends are "'maybe it really happened', satisfying our desire to know and understand bizarre, scary, dangerous, and annoying events." is there.
However, urban legends do not necessarily deal only with these "underground" scandals, but also with joke-like and curious scandals that include some sort of nonsense fun. Not all are horror and horror, and some are touching.
Urban legends are told as an event that really happened, but the narrator did not actually confirm the truth, and he was told that he was a "real event," so he believed it and told the next person. I'm just telling.. It has the persuasive power to say that a story that has not actually happened is told like the truth and sometimes says "I know the experiencer"... Urban legends contain fragments of truth, and "fragments" vary from actual events to existential people... One of the characteristics of urban legends is the aspect of "truths connected by lies", and by fitting the truth into the key points, the whole story is conveyed as the truth..
Urban legends add truth and anxiety, so the characters and place names in the legend are chosen to be familiar to the speaker or listener. And the legend is, in fact, "friend of a friend"(FOAF, so-called" friend of a friend ") is told as the truth that happened to people close to us, or it is introduced as" this is a story that appeared in the newspaper. "
In many urban legends, the fun and eerieness of the story is the main thing, and it is in the legend.person-Company-Place nameChanges from time to time to something familiar to the speaker and listener.
For example, "Earthworm meat (or giant rat) is used for hamburgers in fast food restaurantsAccording to urban legends such as "Three-legged chicken is used for fried chicken in fast food restaurants," sometimes it is called "fast food restaurant."McDonald'sIs selected, but at other times "" is selected.Lotteria"Or"Wendy'sOther fast food restaurants are selected. Sometimes, more specifically, individual fast-food outlets such as "McDonald's in front of the station" and "Lotteria near the police box" are even targeted. For the above reasons, even if there are many urban legends about people / companies with high name recognition, it cannot be concluded that the person / company is the origin.
Also, an urban legendCategoriesToConspiracy theory,Pseudo science, Or gossip, demagogy, etc. may also be included. The definition of conspiracy theory and that of urban legends have some similarities and some dissimilarities. The conspiracy theory, which has been disproved but continues to spread to the world, is also an urban legend. The factual conspiracy theory is not an urban legend.
Urban legends are often outlandish in common sense, so rational explanations may be attempted to add truth. For example, the urban legend that "a giant crocodile lives in the sewers of a city" explains that the existence of a crocodile is the survival and proliferation of a pet crocodile that was washed away in the toilet without being kept.
One of the characteristics is that the ending of the story is very well done. When it is communicated to others as a topic, it is thought that it is easy to spread by word of mouth because it does not make others bored.
Propagation of urban legends
Urban legends are like endless message games involving tens of thousands of people... As an important factor in propagation,真 実There is something that is said as. According to Jan Harold Brunvan, "What is said to be'this is the truth'is the typical circuit in which legends are formed," and "whether this fact is an ancient folk tale, the city. It doesn't change whether it's a legend or not. " Urban legends are "similar to ancient folk tales, they are told seriously and spread from mouth to mouth." Legend is, according to Brunvan, Folk History, a pseudo-history..
Propagation by mass media
Urban legendMass mediaIt may also be disseminated by. This is an important element not found in ancient folk tales. Also unfoundedGossip (rumors)Newspapers and TV information programsfactRumors may develop into urban legends by misreporting.
As an example of newspapers and magazines introducing non-existent stories as "true stories", the December 1983 issue of "Ski" published the urban legend of "skiing naked" in "Montreal Gusset" magazine (English edition), Which was introduced as an unprecedented blunder... Also aired on TVSantiago Airlines Flight 513 IncidentIs also an example of reporting the creative word as a fact.
In addition, if there is no direct damage due to the content reported by the mass media, the parties and related parties will not immediately ask the mass media to correct or apologize.False positiveIt can be said that this is one of the factors that keeps spreading. Urban legends tend to spread and become more established as the number of people who believe in them increases due to news reports. With tail fins that are intriguing to the story,trendCrowd psychology to keep up with information, as well as generalMassesMany people like gossip, which is also a factor in accelerating this. Also, than the truthSensationIn some media that value, the description "This is not a true story" may be placed in a place that is difficult to find and the reader may be encouraged, which may be the origin of urban legends.
Midnight broadcastEtc.ShareIs validcommunityWhen newspapers and television introduced urban legends as urban legends, it was said to be a "fact" among readers and viewers.MisunderstandingMay begin to occur and, in fact, be disseminated by being transmitted to the surroundings.
Spread of the Internet
The trend since the 2000s isインターネットContent is the mediator of urban legends.On the Internet, individuals who used to have no means of sending information to society in general can freely send any information, so it is an environment where new urban legends are easily born and spread.Anonymous large size with many usersElectronic bulletin boardDue to its system, information tends to change rapidly when transmitting information like a message game..
Derivation of urban legend
As a specific example, regarding the story that "a grandmother who put a cat in a microwave oven and killed her sued a microwave oven manufacturer", "that story was widely used as a joke by a law teacher." , "That story was originallyPL methodAlthough no one can prove it, such as "an analogy when explaining", it can be mentioned that it shows a plausible origin.
Works dealing with urban legends, etc.
A Japanese TV program about urban legends
- "Overdoing urban legend』(Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Series, August 2007, 8-Present) -Moderator:Koji Imada,Koji Higashino
- ^ a b c Jan Harold Brunvan "Vanishing Hitchhiker" p.24
- ^ a b Jan Harold Brunvan "Vanishing Hitchhiker" p.14
- ^ Was President Lincoln really a hero of the Ono messenger? An urban legend leader reveals!Cinema Today November 2012, 10
- ^ a b c d Watsū Usa "The true identity of the urban legend-Have you ever heard of such a story? 』Shodensha <Shodensha new book>, 2009, page 4.
- ^ Hiroshi Matsuyama, "Three-legged Rika-chan Doll-The Legend of the City at Midnight," East Press, 3, pp. 2003-4.
- ^ Watsū Usa "THE Urban Legend RELOADED" Shinkigensha, 2007, p. 18.
- ^ a b Watsū Usa "The true identity of the urban legend-Have you ever heard of such a story? 』Shodensha <Shodensha new book>, 2009, page 3.
- ^ Watsū Usa "The true identity of the urban legend-Have you ever heard of such a story? 』Shodensha <Shodensha new book>, 2009, page 6.
- ^ Buddha: La Rumeur d'Orléans
- ^ Career Urban Legend StoryMynavi News April 2012, 9
- ^ Iikura 2012,91.
- ^ Journal of American Folklore, 92, 362. Japanese translation: "Rumor of Orleans-Rumor of female kidnapping and its mythical effect"ISBN-4 622-04907-4
- ^ Homepage of Faculty of Humanities and CultureFaculty of Humanities and Culture, Kyoto Gakuen University
- ^ Iikura 2012,91-92.
- ^ Iikura 2012,91-93.
- ^ Shigenobu 2012,103.
- ^ a b Jan Harold Brunvan "Vanishing Hitchhiker" p.21
- ^ British: netlore
- ^ British: Internet
- ^ British: Folklore
- ^ Brunvan[Source required]
- ^ Power zone that also consumes "rumors" Shibuya "Urban legend" is born in this way?Shibuya Keizai Shimbun February 2003, 2
- ^ a b c d Watsū Usa "THE Urban Legend" Shinkigensha, 2004, p. 34.
- ^ Jan Harold Brunvan "Vanishing Hitchhiker"
- ^ Jan Harold Brunvan "Vanishing Hitchhiker" p.37
- ^ Hiroshi Matsuyama, "Three-legged Rika-chan Doll-The Legend of the City at Midnight," East Press, 3, p. 2003.
- ^ Brunvan 1991, p. 122.
- ^ Brunvan 1988.
- ^ Matsuda 2014, pp. 104-106.
- Yoshiyuki Iikura "Until the Urban Legend Becomes" Content ": 36-2013 of the Urban Legend" "Oral Tradition Study" No. XNUMX, XNUMX
- Yukihiko Shigenobu, "The Melancholy of" Urban Legends "", Oral Tradition Studies, No. 36, 2013
- Jan Harold Brunvan"Vanishing Hitchhiker-America of Urban Imagination"Takahiro Otsuki, Yukihiko Shigenobu, translated by Yuko Sugamoto, Shinjuku Shobo, 1988.ISBN 978-4-88008-116-8.
- Jan Harold Brunvan "Chalking Doberman" Hitoshi Namekata, Shinjuku Shobo, 1990.ISBN 978-4-88008-128-1.
- Jan Harold Brunvan, Pets from Mexico-American "Urban Legends" Collection, Hitoshi Namekata, Noboru Matsumoto, Shinjuku Shobo, 1991.ISBN 978-4-88008-147-2.
- Jan Harold Brunvan, "Damn! What a hell," Welcome to the world of AIDS "is an urban legend from the United States," Hitoshi Namekata, Shinjuku Shobo, 1992.ISBN 978-4-88008-169-4.
- Jan Harold Brunvan, "Baby Train Goes", Hitoshi Namekata, Shinjuku Shobo, 1997.ISBN 978-4-88008-241-7.
- Misa Matsuda"Chapter 3 Urban Legends: 1980s-90s" "What is a rumor =" The oldest media "that transforms online"Central public opinion new company〈Chuko Shinsho 2263>, 2014, pp. 75-106.ISBN 978-4-12-102263-9.
- Hiroshi Yamamoto"Tondemo-bon Urban Legendary World" "Tondemo-bon World X" and the Society (ed.)Rakukosha, 2010, pp. 81-99.