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Works depicting communities of Latin American, Middle Eastern and North African descent, Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islands natives still show significant differences when compared to the demographic composition of the United States as a whole.
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Native American(Native Americans)The United States of America OfIndigenous peopleIs the general term for.1492ToEuropeIt is a general term for ethnic groups that lived in the area before Caucasians reached the present North American region.Of this groupidentityFormation includes regional context, presence of siblings in the area of residence, Native American specialsReservation placeFactors such as distance to and are related.2013Current,Federal governmentIt is said that there are 566 tribal groups recognized by the government, and 70 more at the state government level..
"Native American"Or"イ ン デ ィ ア ン","American IndianThere are various debates over names such as "(en: Native American name controversySee).In the United StatesNative americanToイ ン デ ィ ア ンBesidesAlaska OfEskimoIs included, and moreNative HawaiianIt may also include indigenous peoples in and other United States territories.Also,Native AmericansSometimes referred to as "Native American" as a whole.
In this articleThe United States of AmericaOf the indigenous peoples of the mainlandイ ン デ ィ ア ンTo handle.For Alaskan Indigenous PeopleIndigenous Alaska, About Native HawaiiansNative HawaiianPlease refer to.In the following, "Indian" is often used in this article, but "Indian" in this article refers to "Indigenous people in the continental United States."
Native AmericanY chromosome haplogroup TheHaplogroup QMake up the majority. Q systemKet people,Selkup peopleSuch asSiberiaYou can see it in a part ofEurasiaIt is a system that is not often seen in[Note 1].. Other,Na-Dene languagesFor the people who speakHaplogroup C2 (Y chromosome)Is also accepted.
Most genotypesNorth Asia,East AsiaBecause it is common with Native American ancestorsSiberiaからBeringiaIt is certain that they have migrated through.There are various theories in that age, and there is a view that there were multiple waves.On the other hand, in eastern North America, it is quite frequent in Europe.Y chromosome-R,mtDNA-XIs observed at some prehistoric timeEuropeIt has also been pointed out that there may have been direct migration from[Note 2].
In the northern tribes, the skin color is red-black and the nose is high and raised, and many people have an eagle nose.AlsoAge of DiscoveryAfter that, mixed race with Europeans,AfricaBlackMany tribes have advanced mixed races with.
ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIs home to the largest number of Indians in any city in the United States, with 2014 in 22 Things Indian (Mohawk,MohicanEtc.) live in New York.Indians who live in urban areas and in white towns outside the reservations are called "city Indians."
Many tribescornAs a staple foodCommon bean,Pumpkin,CucumberEtc. were cultivated.Many tribes combine hunting, fishing, gathering and agriculture,プ エ ブ ロExcept for, many tribes lived more or less mobile lives (Pueblo lived solely on agriculture such as corn and settled in condominiums called Adobe, a rare life for Indians. T).Livestock before contact with EuropeansTurkeyとdogwas.Dogs are still used as food in ceremonies by the tribes.Common Indian dogThere is a dog breed called.In North AmericaboarA kind ofPeccaryAndSheepFellowBig hornEtc., but these areDomesticationWas not done.
Of the Indian food culturePemmican[Note 3],Succotash, "Fried bread (Fried red) ”And others are still well known today, and some have been incorporated into the food culture of the American people.Corn, pumpkin and melon, important crops in the United States,Common bean,tobacco,Red pepperWas originally cultivated by Indians.
Southwestプ エ ブ ロTribes andNavajoWas brought in by the Spaniards from the early 19th centurySheepBegan to graze.Their livestock population is federally limited, and over-livestock on annual checks are forcibly drowned by white directors.
California whaling peopleMakahIt is,1999On May 5, the federal government broke the treaty and banned it for 17 years.Gray whaleFishing with thisPotlatchIt was revived together with the festival.Sea shepherdUnder the pressure of threats and harassment from anti-whaling groups and the arrest of fishermen by state police.2007Whaling was carried out again on September 9.Despite being the only treaty-guaranteed tribe in the United States, they are currently being criticized and prosecuted by non-related parties and parties across the United States.
Rocky mountainsThe surrounding tribesPine nut[Note 4] ,AcornWas the staple food.Once a year, the village was completely uninhabited when the tribes went out to collect acorns.The acorns were stored in a storage hut, ground into flour, processed into bread and eaten.
The northeastern and northwestern coastal tribes are traditionallysalmonSmoked and used as a staple food for one year.But,Reservation placeThe current situation of salmon fishing is becoming more difficult year by year due to the construction of dams and the deprivation of fishing rights.In the northeast, some tribes have only recently been recognized for the revival of traditional salmon fishing. 1960sRed power movementSo the first major protest was the "fish-in" movement, which broke federal and state law to protest over the right to fish for salmon.
Consider hair as a source of spiritual power and cherish it as sacred.Also, as Europeans used to go[Note 5], It is a means to show the belonging of the tribe by having a common hairstyle.
The Indian hair seen in old photographs is very beautiful and long.Following this, the old Indian man who appears in Hollywood movies is also depicted as a hairy person.However, because they did not know the braid method of the plain tribe mentioned above, many of them are drawn wearing a hair band called a war bonnet, which is made up of eagle feathers.Men and women sent to the Indian Boarding School, described below, as part of their assimilation policy had their hair cut short upon admission.Among the city Indians living in the city, although they are often assimilated into white culture and have short hair, long hair has been revived in recent years.American indian movementWhen (AIM) was founded, young Indians first began to grow their hair to regain Indian identity.is thishippieIt also influenced the culture.
It has been touted like the barbarism peculiar to Indians.Scalp strippingHas long been important as a sign of war and honor among some tribes, but in the first place18st centuryBack and forthメキシコ,The United KingdomIt has its origins in the history of government agencies in the United States killing hostile Indians and Europeans and recruiting their head skins with bounties as evidence.
Scalp stripping itself is not an endemic custom that began with the Indians, but also existed in ancient Europe.Also, peeling and killing the head is separate, and those who have had their scalp often survive, and the baldness of the peeled marks is a great disgrace to Indian warriors. Was said.
With the spread of "scalp stripping" among young warriors in the northeastern and plains of the 19th century, they shaved their heads, leaving only the back of their heads to provoke enemy tribes, and fastened bone and wood fragments. The style of attaching eagle wings and tufts with tools became popular. (* Refer to the figure of the lower winkte)
So-called"Mohawk cuttingThe style of the northeastern part of the 17th centuryAlgonquinThe men were shaving the sides of their heads so that their hair wouldn't get in the way of shooting the bow when hunting.
Modern winter clothesanorak,Parker TheArcticInuit andEskimoBased on the winter clothes ofKayaking,CanoeStill faithfully inherits the design of what the Indians used.LacrosseIs one example of the spread of northeastern tribal sports around the world.
Most Indian societies were sexually free.The roles of men and women are left to individual judgment, and in IndiaHijraSocial engaging in priesthood likeHermaphroditismHad a stronger position than Hijra.These beings have been thoroughly suppressed by whites and have disappeared as a social role, but in addition to some of the Mexican and Pueblo tribes, there are so-called "" (figure on the right) in Sioux society. ,Women's clothingIt's gone, but it's still alive.AnthropologyPeople "" the social hermaphroditism found in Indian society[Original 1]But the original meaning is "Male prostitutePoint toExonymTherefore, it is considered discriminatory and inappropriate.1990ToWinnipegAs an alternative name at the Native American-First Nations Inter-Tribal Gay and Lesbian Conference inOjibwe"Nish Manituwak", which refers to social hermaphroditism[Original 2]"(Meaning" two souls ")Borrowing a translationdid"Two spiritWas voted to be used.
- Like putting eagle wings on the head and putting makeup on the faceStereotypeIs mainlyWesternIt is based on the style designed by the art clerk at the studio, referring to the appearance of the Indian ceremonies in the Great Plains.The stereotypes in the film were so popular among non-Indians that this style was adopted by tribes who were originally unconventional in the feather crown.EarlyHollywood moviesThen, it was regarded as an enemy of white pioneers, but in later years, the number of works that were regarded as heroes increased.
- Indians said from white peopleNoble savageIt has often been used as a romantic symbol of the United States.Names derived from the Indian language are often found in US place names and wildlife names.ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク OfTamany HalllikeDemocratic PartyVoting machinePrefers to use Indian language in politics.
- In Japan[Original 3]The poem called 』is an educator who is not an IndianWas created in 1954, and the poetry is not based on Native American folklore.The Japanese title took up this poem by himself without knowing that it was a creation of Nord.Kato TaizoIs a creation of.
- Indians have often contributed significantly to the survival of pioneers and early Americans in the New World.U.S. and CanadaThanksgivingCommemorates the 17th century when the Wampanoag and Pilgrim Fathers celebrated the autumn harvest together.Pocahontas,Squanto,MassasoitChief,SacagaweaAre an integral part of the founding myth of the United States. ..Early pioneer men often acquired the wisdom of Indian survival to survive in unknown lands.Many of them have wives of Indian women, and as a result, many Americans are of Indian descent.
- Many mixed races[Note 6] In the problem of mixed race with black peopleBlack IndianHowever, it is a source of persistent friction.They are discriminated against among the Indians and are often excluded from rituals due to differences in the rhythm of the dance.[Source required].. recent years,Cherokee,KiowaEtc. have ruled to recognize this as a tribal member.
- There are also cases where non-Indians forge and impersonate Indians in order to provide pensions to Indians.イタリアA prominent Indian actor who was an immigrantThere are also many spoofing simply from admiration, such as chiefs.
- University at Buffalo, New YorkHistorian Donald A. Grind et al., The democratic system of the United StatesIroquois FederationClaims that the democratic system is a model.By the way, the supporting political parties of Indians are traditionally the Democratic Party.
- obesityThe rate is high, with 2001% of men and 40.1% of women in the 37.7 survey.BMI indexWas over 30 obese. Also,Diabetes mellitusMorbidity is one of the highest in the world.
In 1881, the US Congress outlawed all Indian religious ceremonies.In the past, he was arrested just for talking about a "sweat lodge."However, despite the pressure of arrest and imprisonment, the Indians continued to inherit their faith.
Native American Church
Native American ChurchIs currently the most prevalent religion among Indians,ComancheLast chiefQuanner ParkerIs the founder.キ リ ス ト 教Incorporating elements of symbolic and spiritual customs from many different tribes1890 eraWas excitedPracticeChurch.By the way, Quana herself did not become a Christian in her lifetime.
Originally from MexicoHuicholIt is based on the "Peyote Hunting" ritual performed by Peyote, etc., and is a ritual arrangement of the spiritual vision brought about by Peyote and the procedure for obtaining its medicinal properties.
Reservation placeQuana, who fell ill with a serious illness when she first started living in Japan, wanted treatment by a curse.With MexicansTaramuriNative to Mexico by mixed-race womenPeyoteWith the backing of anthropologists, Quana organized this Peyote-based ritual as a Native American Church (in the United States, Peyote resides in Comanche).SouthwestOnly grows naturally).Peyote has been cracked down by missionaries as a "devil's fruit," but in recent years its use has been legalized against Indians.
The ritual isTippyIt takes place from night to morning insidePeyoteIt can be advanced by taking multiple doses.The main purpose is healing and prayer, and there is no Christian doctrine or sermon associated with the word church.
SiouxIn, the church's leaders report that one-third are involved in the Peyote meeting.CurrentlyLos Angeles,Minneapolis,Denver,Chicago,Rapid CityPeyote rituals are held in various Indian communities, and it is one of the purposes for non-Indians to visit the reservation.
Religion in the Southwest
Southwestプ エ ブ ロIn the center of the tribal settlementsAdobeThere are often old missions.Originally forcibly built by a Spanish missionary to convert indigenous peoples, it is now a prayer place for sacred rituals to farming-related spirits, photographed by outsiders. Shooting and copying are prohibited.
Also, since ancient times, the center of the villages of the Pueblo tribesKivaThere is an underground prayer place called, and prayers centered on corn planting and harvesting are held as an annual event.Whereas the Plains believe in the spirit of Buffalo, the food of their lives, the Pueblos are the "corn maidens" who deified the corn, their food of life.[Original 4] And "Mother of Corn"[Original 5] Believe in. In the 17th century, Spanish missionaries destroyed Kiva as a "devil's den."At the same time, the sacred mask was burned down, the curse and the priest were murdered, and finallyPueblo rebellionCaused. Even in the 20th century, events using Kiva continued to be suppressed.Even now, prayer events in Kiva are closed to the public except for tribal people.
ApacheBelieves in the spirit of the mountain called "Gun" and offers a prayer dance by a masked "Gun Dancer".Also,NavajoWill take several days to carry out an event of spirits called "Yaibichei" based on their myth.HopiAnd the tribeKachinaI believe in the spirit group.Both are masked events, and the clan (clan) Is the center.
A mythical motif common to the Pueblo, Hopi, and Zuni people is that "the world once perished, and second-generation ancestors emerged from the ground and became the present ancestors."The Navajo myth, which has a relatively short history since reaching the southwest, is said to have accepted the Pueblo myth.
A stone in the shape of a guardian animal given by my grandfather at birthAmuletThe habit of "fetish" is deep-rooted.
New mexicoEspecially brought by Spanish missionariesCatholicAnd Indian religion practice is often seen.Behind this is the once forced Christianity and the suppression of ancient beliefs.Pueblo rebellionMissionaries have made concessions to the ancient beliefs of the tribesmen, learning from what happened.The cultural chemist reports: "Pueblos ostensibly call themselves Catholic, but when the priests are gone, they begin ancient rituals."
specificPatron saintPueblo celebrates the patron saint's holy day with special dishes and also behaves to tourists visiting Pueblo.Of the Pueblo peopledrumPerforming, chanting, and dancingSanta FeSo regularlyMassIs also part of.
Religion in the northeast
Clan(clan) Is the basis for praying to the spirits related to farming and hunting.human sacrificeThe hearts and flesh of adversaries and leaders were ritually eaten as a source of spiritual power.Use animal masks such as deer for ceremonial dance.
In their myth, Hero Tan,VinlandSettled inVikingHowever, some point out the influence of Germanic mythology.Also, as the earliest colonial and missionary areas of the French, Catholicism is often seen.For exampleNew York StateIs closely related to the Iroquois who converted to Catholicism OfKateri TekakwithaChurch andNorth American Martyrs Church[Original 6] There is.
In areas where the British colonized,Pilgrim FathersContactedWampanoagLike a tribeProtestantSome tribes converted to. 17th centuryNew EnglandThen, the converted indigenous people said,, "Praying Indians").Their settlements were placed outside the settlements of the settlers to protect them from other Indians.King Philip the WarAfter the end, Praying Indians were put under house arrest in the village and later floated.Deer IsleMany died from hunger and illness.Ivy LeagueIs one ofDartmouth CollegeIs funded by tribal ministers for the purpose of indoctrination of the Indians.1769Was founded in.
Religion in the northwest
Basically, prayers to the spirits related to hunting.Large-scale rituals to pray for tribal prosperity take place in the springYutoThe tribe's "bear dance" is famous.
Mormonismと 呼 ば れ るThe Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsIn the vicinity of Utah, where the headquarter of the church is located, the church has been enthusiastically indoctrinated into neighboring tribes since the 19th century.Mormon's polygamy at the time was easy for Indians to accept.In the past, Mormons colluded with them and fought and attacked the wagon trains moving west to prevent them from invading Utah.Suppose some Israelites reached the Americas in ancient timesBook of MormonAccording to the scriptures, Indians are the promised people (although).AboveIt turns out that Indian ancestors are Mongoloids, not Israelis).
Religion on the northwest coast
Religion on the west coast
US West CoastSince the latter half of the 18th century, the Spanish missionaries who settled in the country promoted the Christianization of Indians, and they were dominated by the name "" and used to work under the white farms and ranches and to supervise other Indian tribes. It was.
There are many fishermen, and there are many rituals to pray for a good catch of salmon and whales.Most of the dances are performed in the traditional residence "".
Religion in the plains
Lakota-Siouxof"Wakan TankaBelieve in "great spirits" such asAnimismIs the basis.He wears fur in buffalo and bear dances, but does not use masks in the dance. I think "White Buffalo" is a messenger of the Great Spirit.
A conscious boy, accompanied by a curse and a close relative, breaks into the Holy Mountain, and four days and nights (two days and nights for girls) alone, "a ritual to get a vision (a ritual to get a vision)Vision quest) ”And get revelation.This custom has recently become a "sweat hut" (sweating hut) before all rituals.Sweat lodge) ”Ceremony is becoming more and more popular.
There was no custom of human sacrifice, but the farmer was exceptionally praying for harvest.human sacrificeWas done.Men and women of other tribes were used for sacrifice.
Many plain tribes wrapped their bodies in blankets, placed them on trees, and buried them.MandanThe tribes and others lined up skulls in the tombs so that they could meet the deceased at any time.These funeral customs, despite crackdowns from the Christian church, were rapidly abolished at the end of the 19th century as the bodies were taken away by whites and turned into university research or spectacles.
Sun dance ritual
The plain tribes could unconditionally go to a "hunting paradise" if they died, so they thought that this world should be spent on fun.However, as "the power of nature will decline if left unattended"Sioux,Blackfoot,Cheyenne,KiowaMany plain tribes, such as tribes, pray for the restoration of nature and the prosperity of the tribes every summer solstice, and make vows to pray to the great spirits.Sun dancePerform the ritual.
In particularSiouxAs the most important point in this ritual,PiercingRitual ".This was the "Oath of Piercing" made in the previous year, which was erected in the center of the square with a buffalo leather rope, piercing the skin on the chest and back, piercing the wings of an eagle and a stick of bone.AspenIt is a penance to devote one's body to the Great Spirit by connecting the body with the "Sun Paul" and dancing and running while staring at the sun until the skin is torn off at the signal of Medicineman. (See figure).The most intense of piercings is running with a buffalo skull on your back, which increases the number of skulls depending on the degree of prayer.Those who have made a "piercing vow" at Sundance must do this four times each year from the following year.
This piercing penance isMandanThe tribe is considered to be the founder.The Mandan "Okipa" was once known to the white eastern community with detailed illustrations, but they didn't take it seriously as a grotesque nightmare.At this time, it was explained that "piercing is a test of the courage of young people and is a rite of passage to become a leader," and there is a document that explains in accordance with this even in modern times, but this is a mistake. A 19th-century Sioux warrior describes the piercing as "I dedicate it to the Great Spirit because my body is the most important thing to me."
Pete Catches, a 20th-century Sioux medicine man, described Sun Dance as "the'grandfather'of all rituals.""Whites can easily get rid of anything that suits them. 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ suffered on their behalf, but we Indians take the pain themselves and experience it with their own bodies. "Grandfather, I will dance next year. I will skewer my body and help someone recover. To perfect our people," he said.
Once whites cracked down on Sundance as a barbaric act, and the Indians had no choice but to hide it.Through tenacious negotiations and persuasion of the IndiansFranklin RooseveltOnly in this era was Sundance allowed.Still, only piercing was absolutely banned, but it was revived withSiouxTraditional school, Ray Deer[Original 7] It was spread all over the United States.In recent years, the regulations have been relaxed, and women's piercing has begun to be seen.For women, put a skewer on your wrist.
Religion in the southeast
Clan(clan) Is the basis for praying to the spirits related to farming and hunting.Muskogee,SeminoleThe tribe is locally harvested (Yaupon,Ilex vomitoria) The black drink "Black Drink" with decoction of leaves is drunk at the time of the ceremony.This drink is very important for the ritual, and the group displaced to Oklahoma is brewing alternatives.The name of the Seminole hero means "the one who takes the lead" in this "black drink" ritual.
From the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi coast, a tribal group called "" about 100 years ago built countless earthworks and mounds in the shape of animals that are hundreds of meters long.Ohio OfSerpent mound(Mound of the Great Snake) is one of them.It is a direct lineNatchezThe tribe remained until the French destroyed civilization in the 18th century.Inca Empire,Maya civilizationlikeSun godTo build a citypyramidHe was building a number of temples of the type.Only the Natchez tribe in North America had a social class of priests and monks.
On January 1889, 1, there was a solar eclipse and the earth was covered in darkness.The Indians, who were starving under the federal government's displacement policy, fought for fear that "the end of the world has come."Revelated in this all-tribe apocalypse,ネ バ ダ 州The belief that the prophet of Nono started as a guru is "ghost dance religion (religion)".
The followers of "ghost dance" wear holy clothes called.Wearing this shirt, men and women hold hands while singing the song of the spirit of the dead, and by spinning around in a circle, the clothes of the believers will bounce off the white bullets, and even before the whites came. The doctrine that the buffalo herd of prairie is returning isReservation placeEnthusiastic support from the starved Indians due to the displacement to the Great Plains and further northwest, it quickly spread.
It was the Sioux curse who began the ghost shirt doctrine of not allowing bullets to pass through.As a result, the federal government has cracked down on the Sioux, saying that this doctrine would make Indians more rebellious.Wounded Knee MassacreHappened.The genocide quickly wiped out ghost dance as its followers were wiped out. How afraid the federal government is willing to shoot bullets after 100 years isSiouxDuring the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee in the Pine Ridge Reservation1975ToWounded KneeWhen reviving ghost dance inFederal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) It can be inferred from the fact that the investigators were hiding and monitoring this.
TexasCadAt the Reservation (), ghost dance is not subject to repression and is an annual event that continues to this day.However, the way of dancing is different, and I don't know if it is exactly the same as the above ritual.
Eagle feather method
Indians are the only ethnic group in the United States that requires a federal permit to practice their religion. "((Eagle feather law) ”Is only an individual who can prove to have a federally approved tribe as an ancestor,Bald eagleとGolden eagleIt stipulates that you may be empowered to use your feathers religiously or spiritually.Laws are racist for both Indians and non-IndiansTribal sovereigntyHe has often argued for the value and validity of this "eagle feather law" as infringing.It is a long-standing practice for Indians to give non-Indians eagle feathers, which the law prohibits, but has become a mere ghost.
Indians and cigarettes
Tobacco leaves are a sacred and cleansing tool for Indians, and pipes are more than just smoking tools, both of which are essential to all rituals.During ceremonies of any tribeSageTobacco leaves are used to purify the leaves, and the sacred leaves are called "" or "".パ イ プUsedsmokingIs done.The pipe acts as a communication with the spirits of the heavens, and the smoke of cigarettes acts as the medium.Most tribes hold sacred pipes from their ancestors.
The pipe ispassportIt also has the role of, and expresses the will of friendship.Whether Indian or non-Indian, it is absolutely unacceptable to make a mistake when spinning and drinking a peace pipe.Sandia PuebloIn the 18th-century peace ritual of the tribes, the Apaches, the Navajos, and the Comanche, swirled cigarettes were buried in the soil.Since then, there has been no conflict between Sandia and them.
Henry Crow Dog, a 20th-century Sioux medicine man and father of Leonard Crow Dog, affirmed this when asked about the pros and cons of selling Indian pipes at souvenir shops, saying, "For Indians. The pipe is the same as the Bible for whites. "
Sioux Indians make pipe pans from red stones (pipestones) that can only be found in Minnesota.This mineral is a painterGeorge CatlinIn honor of "((Catlinite) ”.According to Sioux folklore, catlinite is made of ancestral blood.The catlinite quarry, the material for the holy pipe pan, was considered a neutral land for all tribes.After a long period of illegal occupation by whites who broke the treaty, the Sioux now have possession and only Indians can mine catlinite here.
- The holy number for Indians is "4".This number, which represents the four directions, the four seasons, etc., is the basis of all truth.
- Religious leaders of the Indians generally say, "MedisonmanIs called, and in anthropologyShamanIt is classified as a kind of.In their words, it is called exclusively by the name meaning "saint."
- Many Indians participate in tribal religious rituals rather than religion.SpiritualityAlthough regarded as a form of, in practice religion and spirituality are often used synonymously.
- Caucasian from around the 1960sNew ageFrom generation to generation, some have used Indian religious rituals as a business, and on top of that, "Ese witch doctors" who demand money in exchange for ritual acts are rampant.Traditional leaders called these Ese religions "』And warn. "We do not solicit like whites, and all rituals are free," is the attitude of traditional religious leaders.
- Indian religious ceremonies and events used to take place endlessly over several days.But,Reservation placeIn the era, many ceremonies and events were "forced by the reservation inspectors from outside who thought this was too long.American independence day"Or"Christmas","Veterans DayIt came to be done collectively on the anniversary of the government.In addition, some rituals have been banned by the government and have not been held for more than half a century.
- For Indians, "dancing" is an expression of prayer.Traditional dances unique to the tribe have spread throughout the United States since the 1970s.Pow Wow(A grand dance festival of inter-tribal exchange), it is being revived as a dance competition.Pow Wow is a celebration, not a religious ritual, so it is open to non-Indians.
History since modern times
Clash with immigrants
Indians who first came into contact with Europeans often easily came from Europe because Indians were not immune to endemic disease in Europe.EpidemicI was infected with it and was killed.The Indian population has plummeted and Indian society has been hit hard.The horses and weapons they saw for the first time also panicked the Indians, leading to the rout of thousands of Indians against just a dozen Spanish knights, and these struggles robbed them of their land.17st centuryFrom the first half of18st centuryPutting together the history of the long struggle to the endIndian WarCall.
Lenape族とPhiladelphia,Wampanoag族とPlymouth Colony,ConcordIn some cases, settlers and Indians have made peace and coexisted for a short period of time, but the number of settlers has increased and the demand for new settlements has increased, resulting in bankruptcy.
In the early stages of settlement, abducted Indians, those convicted in court, and those captured in the warslaveIt was legal to buy and sell as.
French indian war,American Revolutionary WarIn many cases, European countries were involved in the conflict over the colonies because they formed an alliance with the Indian tribes as a force (Indian War).Even if they entered the war with due consideration of their interests, the fate of the tribe who ended up on the side of the loser was harsh.
Land and water sources are deprived by the development of large-scale farms in white society,BuffaloThere are many records of conflicts over natural resources such as.History records that whites intentionally tried to infect infectious diseases by giving them blankets with pathogens in order to eradicate Indians.
December 1890, when Europeans came to the AmericasWounded KneeThe massacre of the Whites ended the Indian War.In the end, an estimated 1000 million Indians were killed by 95% of the direct and indirect slaughter of whites.
But before that, SpainSanto Domingo,プ エ ル ト リ コ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,キ ュ ー バAs a result of conquering and murdering, sickening, or enslaving almost one million indigenous people there, most of them became extinct, and pure blood was definitely extinct.furtherInca Empire,Maya empire,Aztec EmpireCivilized powers such as the Inca have a population of up to 1600 million, but have plummeted to 108 million, due to the slaughter of the Spaniards by violent colonial policies or the plague from Europe. As far as the territory of the Aztec Empire is concerned, it is estimated that the pre-conquest population was about 1100 million, but the 1600 census drastically reduced the indigenous population to about 100 million.
Spain's colonial policy has wiped out more indigenous peoples than the United States and Canada, with 2000-3000 million people.
Indian extermination policy
In the 19th century, "Indian Forced Emigration ActWas enactedAndrew JacksonBy the president, "Reservation place"Indian tribes that do not follow institutional displacement will be extinct."Indian extermination policyWas pushed forward.is thisPresident Ulysses GrantAndGeneral William ShermanFurther strengthened by these, the war of genocide spread further to the west."" In the southeastSeminole WarIs one of the largest interstate wars between whites and Indians, and Jackson is in this battle.Scorched earth operationThorough annihilation by. The "Seminole Wars" are now "IndiansVietnam War"It is called.
Cherokee Tears Journey
For a long time governments have enacted laws and are narrowReservation placeI squeezed the Indians into and pretended to be legal.Among them, the famous one1838From October1839Until MarchCherokeeThere is a forced migration.This was because a gold mine was found in the Indian territory and the land price soared, and I noticed it (at the time of enactment of the law described later).PresidentAndrew JacksonBut"Indian Forced Emigration ActWith the Cherokee who lived in the southeastern United StatesSeminoleTribe,Choctaw,CreekTheIndian Territory(CurrentOklahoma OfOzark PlateauIt was moved to (near).
More than 1,000 of the 1 people died during the harsh winter months by land and many were forced to travel 2,000 kilometers on foot.Later, among the Indians, this tragic event was called "Trail of TearsIt came to be called.
Navajo Tears Journey
1862 years,Kit carsonThe Navajo tribe who surrendered due to 300MilesBosque Redondo more than (about 483km) away[Note 7] I was forced to relocate to a scorching barren land on foot.RuggedSangre de Cristo MountainsThis journey, which crosses New Mexico almost completely, is "Long walkIs called.They were forced to farm there, but farming on thin desert lands was not possible.
In 1868, the tribe was allowed to return to its original land in a tenacious objection, but the reason for this exception was that the land of Navajo was of no value to whites at the time.DesertI was fortunate that it was.Hundreds of Navajo people, including women, children and the elderly, died on this round trip.I returned to my hometown, but there is already a neighborhoodHopiHas settled down, and the place name in Navajo has been lost.It is also the cause of the ongoing land conflict between Navajo and Hopi.
Crazy Horse and Geronimo
Indians are forced to sign a one-sided treaty with the US government, and the government repeatedly breaks it unilaterally.Some IndiansRed cloudSome have accused the Indians of resistance on the part of the federal government.Under these circumstances, he never signed the treaty.Lakota OfCrazy horseMade the pioneers trembleApache OfJeronimoAlthough their resistance produced some results, in the endU.S. ArmyWas succumbed to by his troops. Crazy Horse was re-evaluated by non-Indians in the late 20th centurySouth DakotaBlack HillsThe world's largest stone statueCrazy Horse MemorialIs under construction, but has received fierce opposition from the traditional school.
Ghost Dance and the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre
1868By the Sioux and the U.S. Government, the Sioux Sanctuary in South DakotaBlack HillsPromised to belong to the Sioux forever,George Armstrong CusterWhen he found a gold mine in the Black Hills, pioneers broke into the Black Hills in search of gold and the treaty was broken.
A peaceful Indian country will be returned to the desperate western Indian tribes by dancing ghost dances.終末Faith was all the rage.Afraid of this religion, which believes that bullets do not work, whites ban ghost dance and Sioux ghost dance leadersincludingA group of South DakotaWounded KneeI was taken to.According to the white story, one person resisted with a gun, but according to the Indian story, more than 200 people were slaughtered just by holding a knife and not letting go.Wounded Knee Massacre).This is where the battle between the federal government and the Indians ends. 1890May 12That is.
In American history, 1890 is considered a glorious year when the frontier disappeared and the west was won, but for Indians, 1890 is the year when Native Americans were conquered for the time being.
"Indian Boarding School"
After the "American Frontier" disappears, whites begin to focus on their assimilation to deal with the Indian problem.Australia OfAboriginalAnd the far northEskimo,Chinese minorityEtc., depending on the master raceAssimilation policyHas been systematically conducted in North America since the end of the 19th century.A typical example is PennsylvaniaCarlyleof"Was the founder and principal of the school"Kill the Indians (barbarians) to save humans."[Original 8]The Indian child, represented by the slogan, is separated from the parent and "Indian boarding schoolIt is a compulsory study of Christianity and Western culture under the guidance based on military training, banning Indian culture and language.Some people survived assimilation policy lost their language and other local culturesMixedAs the transformation progresses, there are few pure tribes left.
There was no business administration or economics in the departments of these "Indian Boarding Schools", and only techniques such as shoe repair and handicrafts for repairs were taught.Students deprived of tribal language and graduatedReservation placeWhen I returned to Japan, there was no shoe store or tailor, and the skills I learned were of no use, forcing me to work in a white town as an unemployed person.Until a generation ago, Indians were banned from tribal language due to compulsory education of assimilation policy, and if they spoke tribal language at school, they would be punished with soap for "speaking dirty words". Received from a white teacher.From this experience, many people can only speak English.
In response to this, since the 1970s, there has been a movement to establish "tribal schools" by Indians for each tribe.Founded in 1971 in California as a school of complete autonomy for Indians,(Abbreviated as "DQ University"), but it is in danger of closing due to the loss of approval, the decrease in the number of students, and inadequate fund management.In recent years, in the midst of these movements, tribal language learning has been adopted in tribal schools due to concessions from the federal and state governments, and language communication between the current generation of school children and three generations or older who do not understand English. Has come to be realized in some cases.However, after all, tribal languages are not practical outside the reservation, so the future is drawing attention as to how to preserve the endangered language and develop it culturally.
"Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)"
Another social system that fundamentally destroys the Indian community and causes serious problems such as an increase in suicide rates is meaningless.Foster parent system".This involves selecting and forcibly picking up prenatal Indian families who have been identified as having difficulty living due to poverty and raising them in white families without knowing their real parents.This was also part of a one-sided grassroots volunteer who was born from the idea of "killing Indians and saving humans" from the perspective of white people, but they are a white family and have no culture and history as Indians. They are not taught and can only be raised as whites.Eventually, when they realized, the kids said, "I'm neither an Indian nor a white man."identitySuffering from the loss of alcohol, most continue to produce the tragedy of becoming alcoholic or committing suicide in their teens.
In a national survey conducted between 1969 and 1974, indeed 25% -35% of Native American children were separated from their homes and placed in white homes by state courts and welfare agents. In 1974, the compulsory boarding school system and foster parent system were criticized as "a kind of kidnapping."
In 1978, it was enacted by the federal parliament in response to Indian protests against this serious disaster and criticism from international public opinion for "cultural genocide.""(ICWA).The decree does not leave the decision on whether or not to foster a foster child to the state or agency, but to allow the child's tribal council to grant jurisdiction.The foster parent system, which is meaningless with the enforcement of this decree, has finally been abolished in recent years, but some states do not allow it, and it is still due to the ignorance and incomprehension of white people.Ethnic cleansingIs being executed and is in an unpredictable situation.
In 2000, the United States and the BIA apologized for these assimilation policies as criminal acts. (→ ""BIA's historic apology")
Fight to protect rights
Indian Movement by Red Power
Once between the United States and the IndiansReservation placeThere have been treaties over 371 rights, but this has been neglected at all.In the first place1879ToPoncaOf the tribeStanding Bear) With the chiefOmaha tribe OfSuzetteとSusanIndians were not recognized as humans until Sister La Fresca won the Supreme Court's illegal decision on tribal displacement.For the first time in this ruling, the Supreme Court acknowledged the statement that "Indians are humans" by adding it to the ruling.For more than a hundred years, various individuals and groups have been conducting political activities to rectify the abolition of discrimination and the restoration of autonomy and rights of Indians.
In the activities that were the earliest organizations,1911Environmental protection activist (Laura Cornelius) andOmaha tribeThere is a "" caused by Western-educated elites in the east, such as the La Fresca sisters.They created "International Indian Day ()" and made "International Indian Day ()" on October 10th.Columbus Day(Columbus's anniversary of the American "discovery") ", with the slogan" The day the Indians discovered white America! "
1944Backed by the influence of the Indians' contributions in World War II,Washington DCHeadquartered in "National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)) ”Was formed, sending representatives from each tribe as a pressure group, and“ roaring redwatchdogWas called.
They dressed in Western clothes instead of traditional costumes and exercised from Western culture, so they gained support from mainstream Americans.However, from the younger generation of Indians, "white Christianization"Hiawatha,Pocahontas,TontoI was ridiculed and couldn't get support and sympathy.
Based on this1961In Chicago, of the SiouxVine Deloria, Jr.),Walker River・ PaiuteMel tom(Melvin Thom), PoncaClyde WarriorThe NIYC / The National Indian Youth Council was formed around young college-educated people such as (Clyde Warrior), (William Pensoneau), and the Navajo Kiowa.They said, "The younger generation should speak up."Indian Human Rights DeclarationWas drafted and announced.This was the predecessor of "AIM", and its leaders later joined AIM.
Also, from the 1960s to the 1970s, he called himself Black.BlackBy usCivil rights movementExcitement (Black power), And in response to this, the movement to demand the restoration of rights of these Indians that started at the same time was "Red power movementIt was called and attracted attention.There is such a statement in the movement at that time as an expression of the difference in the direction of the movement between blacks and Indians. "Blacks want to be among whites.But we Indians want to get out of the white'
The National Indian Youth Council later led the following Northeastern Fisheries Rights Movement and became the founder of "".Assiniboine OfHank Adams(Hank Adams) Is produced.In particular, he protested the hunting and fishing rights deprivation law against Indians, which was decided at that time.State of WashingtonIt was noted for its "fish-ins" protests, which "illegally" catch fish here and there.
Founding of AIM (American Indian Movement)
Among the red power1968On July 7th (Dennis Banks),Clyde Bellecourt(Clyde Bellecourt, The first AIM representative), etc., have not received university educationSlumFounded by a bloody young man who grew up,American Indian Movement(AIM) Is especially famous.
I met in a prison in Minnesota and put together a plan for two yearsOjibweAfter their release, the tribal banks and bell courtsMinneapolisHeld a formation tournament in Japan and started various activities to restore the rights of Indians.Initially, the name of the organization was "CIAC (Concerned Indian Council)", but it was changed to the current "AIM" in September due to objections to the overlapping reading of "CIA". The name "AIM" comes from an Indian female member saying, "You guys want to say anything, Aim, a goal, so why not use AIM?"
Unlike the groups mentioned above, they call themselves "Skins", wear AIM jackets and badges with the words "Indian Power" and "Indians and Pride", stretch their hair, knit, beads and bones. I put on a necklace and put eagle feathers on my hair and hat. AIM's youth sought out traditional medicinemen and sought their help in order to gain spiritual backing.They were a generation deprived of language and culture by assimilation, and were characterized by emphasizing the return of ethnicity as an Indian by practicing traditional religious ceremonies.
Leaders first1970ToSiouxWith the support of traditional religious people, they practiced ancient religious ceremonies.1971Made a vow of piercing "Sun Dance" and revived "Ghost Dance".From the SiouxLeonard Crow DogMany (Leonard Crow Dogs) and from the Ojibwe (Eddie Benton-Banai), OklahomaMuskogeeAlready a few traditional medicinemen, such as Phillip Deere, supported them mentally.
They took tactics to appeal to the media and collaborated and supported various organizations.At the suggestion of a Ponca female activist, they all vowed to stop drinking and revived young people drowning in alcohol into "Indian warriors."Their protests were focused on two points: "holding a big rally and gathering people's sympathy" and "clarifying the issue thoroughly", and advocated anti-violence.For organizational governance advisors,Iroquois FederationLeader's (Oren Lyons) Is attached.
1969In November, the first "National Indian Youth Council" was held in Minneapolis, with thousands of Indians from all over the United States participating. AIM also joined the group, with Sioux activists such as Russell Means and a university professor (Lee Brightman) joining AIM. AIM has formed the "Educational Affairs Committee" and has filed a lawsuit against the Board of Education demanding a permanent ban on the discriminatory "Mine Sota North Star" among American standard history teaching materials, and has made Indians "barbarians". This was achieved along with the deletion of the discriminatory expressions in the textbooks that were treated.Even when Indian children are enrolled in white schools, they are quickly disgusted by these discriminatory textbook content and fall short.Also, byIndian boarding schoolIn order to counter "Education of language, historical culture, art and tradition for Indian children by Indians"1970The first "School of Survival" was opened in Minneapolis.1975The "American Indian Survival School Association" was formed by Hank Adams, and this movement spread to other states and Canada.
In addition, AIM has formed a "Police Countermeasures Committee" against the violence against Indians by white police officers on the reservation, which has been hidden in the darkness as well as against black people.He organized a patrol vigilante and filed a trial in an operation to take a picture of the scene of violence by white police officers, did not allow them to be rubbed off, and refrained from violent acts by police officers.In addition, the request for recruitment of Indian police officers was realized.
AIM female members, including Mary Jane Wilson, raise awareness of how judges, juries, and social workers think and respond to whites, and how Indians are being mistreated in the fields of education and medicine. And demanded the abolition of "social welfare" such as the "foster parent system" that white people are doing in the name of "good intentions".
AIM was formed in Minneapolis, OhioClevelandThe organization was expanded in Cleveland, and young people from other tribes participated one after another, even though the members were originally only Ojibwe.Milwaukee, Chicago ,,, Denver,Oklahoma City,Seattle,Auckland,San Francisco, Los Angeles, etc., increased the number of bureaus in the United States.Under these circumstances, the occupation of the BIA building in Washington DC and Wounded Knee in South DakotaBlack HillsThey took a series of large-scale actions, such as demanding their return and occupying them, and marching from San Francisco to Washington as a protest by more than 1500 Indians. (→)
Said about these AIM movements: "We are landowners from the origin of this continent.The landowner just started collecting rents.'
These radical words and deeds are radical for whites, and the Islamic black movement group "Black panther partyThe movement, which was also linked with, began to be suppressed by force.Among them, "" which attracted an international responseWounded Knee Occupation CaseAfter the occupancy was lifted, it developed into a fierce court battle between AIM and the federal / FBI, and since then, the state / federal government has intensified its anti-AIM campaign, making AIM an anti-national criminal group. Between 1973 and 76, about 300 AIM-related Indians were set on fire and shot by Oglala Chair Wilson's private gang and the BIA and FBI, killing at least 67 people. State Attorney General William Jancro (who has been charged by AIM for rape and assault on an Indian girl), who led the AIM hunt, described the situation as "Pineridge is more dangerous than Phnom Penh under Khmer Rouge. That's it. "
At that time, the situation surrounding Indians in the 1960s was on the verge of extinction.Various Indians were deprived of their rights and numerous tribes were declared extinct.Russell Means called themselves "in the Mayflower protestCritically endangered raceWas called.The Red Power movement was a national movement that exploded in order to explode.
Marlon Brando and Red Power Movement
Hollywood actorMarlon BrandIs one of the Americans who has supported this since the inception of AIM, both financially and politically.The brand was famous for demanding high movie performance fees, which were often funded by Indian rights groups.He also acted in various protests such as "Fish in Protest".
The biggest influence was in 1972, "Marlon Brando Academy Awards Decline"Will.This is the movie "GodfatherInAcademy Award for Best ActorAt the award ceremony, an "Indian woman" was made to attend as a proxy and made a protest statement related to the Indian issue.HollywoodThere are various speculations that a Filipino woman played the role of this "Indian woman" because of the brand's speculation that "a fake is a fake", which is ironic that white people have played a random Indian. Was on the market, but in realityNative American(Mother is French, German, Dutch, father isWhite mountain apacheAnd in ArizonaYaqui)Whenプ エ ブ ロ"Little Feather" (of Native American lineage)Sacheen Littlefeather) Has appeared and raised the issue of racial discrimination in American movie works, especially the issue of racial discrimination against Native Americans...The Hollywood world became a fuss, and since then, the Hollywood movie "WesternThe Indian as a simple villain disappeared from "", effectively destroying the genre of "Western drama".
"Brian vs. Itasca County" Trial
The "" that happened in the midst of this rise in red powerBrian vs Itasca CountyThe court battle, called "(Bryan v. Itasca County)," has received historic reputation for drawing groundbreaking legal decisions regarding the rights of Indians since then.
1971, Minnesota ReachReservation placeThe Bryan brothers of the Ojibwe tribe, who live in Tokyo, bought a mobile home because they lost their home in a fire, but soon Itasca County charged them $ 147.95 as property tax.However, the Bryan brothers claim that the residence is on an autonomous Indian reservation and is not obliged to pay taxes.In response, the county appealed to the Minnesota Supreme Court for invalidation of the Bryan brothers' allegations, and the Bryan brothers appealed on the reservation.Eventually, the case was appealed to the US Supreme Court.
In 1972, the Supreme Court unanimously won the Bryan brothers against the case.The ruling was based on tribal sovereignty on reservations in six states, including Minnesota, approved by the U.S. Parliament in 1953, and the "Bryan Trial" that established the tribal sovereignty was followed by Indian rights issues. It became an important case (Article 6 of the Civil Code) that affected everything.This later became the legal basis for the establishment of the Indian Casino and led to its prosperity.
Nixon Administration and Red Power Movement
Richard NixonWas an unprecedented president who listened and worked on these Indians' rights restoration negotiations. The "Red Power Movement" cannot be separated from President Nixon.Nixon discontinued BIA's tribal dismantling policy from 1954, tribe,PequotAllows the revival of the tribe.President Nixon said, "Watergate caseWhatever the reputation, it was a big hurt for the "Indian people".
In 1977, the appeasement policy implemented by the Nixon administration was withdrawn one after another.CarterThe administration attempted to revive and summarize the pre-Nixon "Indian Eradication Policy", and the US House of Representatives and Senate congressReservation placeThe year when numerous bills such as "Resolving the" and "Depriving Indians of Autonomy" were submitted one after another, and not only AIM but also Indian tribal movement groups from all over the United States gathered in Washington DC and the largest protests took place. It became.
In this protest, what they called "one of the greatest ethnic crises" was "deprivation of the name Indian."starvedPlymouth ColonyThe "Indians" who fed and protected immigrants, taught agriculture, and provided a means of survival,Battle of the Little BighornWith Lieutenant Colonel Custer7th CavalryThe glorious "Indian" who defeated the "Indigenous Peoples of America" will be ignored by the name "Native American" and will be erased from the history of the United States along with the "reservation" and "autonomy". ,Ethnic cleansingIs a crisis against.Against this background, in the same year, the Indian delegationUnited Nations"Our ethnic name is Indian," he said in a resolution.
Major protests by Red Power
- 1964: "National Indian Youth Council"Fish-in protest'
- In protest of Washington's peculiar deprivation of fishing rights, young people from the state (Sid Mills) coached fish-ins around the state and sat down.ExerciseAssiniboine OfHank AdamsWas expanded to other states.Adams was seriously injured when he was shot by police during this sit-in, but he survived.
- 1967: "By the SiouxProtest against Buckskin Curtain and Participation in Rev. King's Peace March'
- Moderate Tribal Council Chairman (Robert Barnett) and Traditional Medicineman (Henry Crow Dog) on the Rosebud Reservation,John Fire Lame DeerTwenty-one men and women went to New York with the support of a photographer (Richard Erdoes), and the company is doing to Buckskin Curtain.Reservation placeProtest against unauthorized overfishing of wildlife fur from.at the same timeRev. KingParticipate in the peace procession of black peopleCivil rights movementInteract with groups.
- 1968April 10: "Columbus Day protest'
- "" In San Francisco,Italian americanPresided over by the federationColumbus DayIn a skit at a celebration to celebrateColumbusMeeting with the man in the role, hiswigThe one that was stripped off.The black joke didn't make sense to the Italian Federation, and police were convened and glared at.
- Mohawk OfRichard Oaks(Richard Oakes),Sante-SiouxFamous poetJohn Trudell(John Trudell) And other 69 Indian youths who call themselves "All Tribe Indians" were originally Indian lands.San FranciscoOffshoreAlcatraz IslandDemands landing, land rights and federal treaty confirmation of Indians. AIM members also participated in response to a request for support.They are1868Declared territory of Alcatraz Island in protest that the treaty to return the surplus land of Alcatraz Island to Indians was signed with the US government but has not yet been implemented, and became the Indian Cultural Center Occupied the island for a year and a half. Responding and sympathy from Indians and whites other than AIM members, nearly 1 Indians moved to the island at one point by setting up tipis.However, electricity and water were stopped by the government, and the number of people decreased.1971The FBI and armed police landed all at once on June 6.A deportation took place and the 11 remaining on the island were arrested.Richard Oakes was murdered by a white racist the following year.
- 1970: "AIM"Mayflower protest'
- On "Pilgrim Fathers 150th Anniversary Day", AIM's Russell Means and others boarded and raised the AIM flag on the mast.Plymouth Rock"TrackProtested by burying it with one car's worth of earth and sand.
- 1970: "Occupation'
- Indian students protest that the university in South Dakota is illegally embezzling aid for Indian students. AIM also received a request for assistance.
- 1971: "San Francisco Former U.S. Military Base Occupation'
- Korean WarAt that time, the Indians requested that the land of the Indians, which had been forcibly confiscated by the US military and used as a missile communication base, be returned for the purpose of constructing an educational facility.Overturning the unfair ruling of the City Education Agency, the first junior college with complete Indian autonomyGreat Peacemaker-Quetzalcoatl UniversityWas founded here.
- 1971: "MilwaukeeCoast GuardBase occupation","Minneapolis Coast Guard Base Occupation","HollywoodProtest against unjustified Indian statues in the movie'
- August 1971: "Sioux AIM"Mount Rushmore Occupation'
- On August 8, the U.S. government requisitioned it as military land, saying "I will return it when World War II is over."SiouxThree Sioux women were carved in the president's face in protest of trying to incorporate 200 million acres of land in a national park without returning their promisesMount RushmoreSit-in protest.Sioux AIMs participated in this, including a request for total payment of timber resources illegally logged by the U.S. government from Sioux land.Black Hills OfSiouxOccupied it for several months seeking confirmation of ownership.
- 1971: AIM's "AIM" in ArizonaIndependence Day protest"When"5 mile march'
- FlagstaffCity policePow WowIn response to the practice of unfairly indiscriminately arresting about 300 Indians and cleaning them up after the Independence Day celebration as a social service obligation.Hopi,Navajo,プ エ ブ ロAIM protested after receiving a request for assistance from the tribesChicanoIn collaboration with the movement, this system was abolished.In addition, in the stateStupidIn the city, a five-mile protest march was demanded to investigate an Indian boy, Philip Salejo, who was shot by a white man.
- 1972March 3: "AIM"Yellow Thunder murder protest march'
- Pine Ridge in FebruaryReservation place1 Indians gathered to arrest and redo the investigation of a white group who killed the Oglala man Yellow Thunder for fun, and demanded legal protection against the Indians.Approximately 6 people beat the drums, raised the Star-Spangled Banner upside down, and marched in traditional costumes to the Nebraska City Hall.Gordon's whites were in a state of panic, frightened by Indians like the "Western".
- April 1972: "AIM"OjibweFishery / hunting right confirmation protest'
- A total of 200 protests to the State Department of Natural Resources against whites hunting and fishing in the reserve without an Ojibwe permit.
- November 1972, 11: AIM's "From San Francisco to Washington, DC""When,"BIA Building Occupation Case'
- AIM will hold the presidential election day on October 10rd.Los Angeles,SeattleArrived in Washington, DC on November 200nd, after a protest march by an Indian caravan of 1500 tribes from three locations in San Francisco to Washington, DC.But,US Interior MinistryRefused to accept them and did not have an inn, so 4000 Indian men and women were BIA (Nariyuki).Bureau of Indian Affairs,Bureau of Indian Affairs) Stayed in the headquarters building and occupied the barricade for a week until November 11.During the siege of the police, he made 7 requests to the federal government.
- The main items are "Federal confirmation of non-compliance with the treaty against 1869", "Return of 400 million acres of land taken from Alaskan Indian tribes", "Return of a total of 1 million acres of land of Indian tribes other than Alaska". , "Opportunity to speak in Washington Parliament", "Withdrawal of abolition bill with", "Reconstruction of extinct tribes in Oklahoma", "Abolition of BIA", "Protection of Indian religion", "To tribes" Return of sovereignty ”,“ Implemented since the 1950sIndian eradication policyWithdrawal of ".These 20 requirements later became the basic platform of AIM.AIM also confiscated a number of evidences of adhesions and corruption from BIA headquarters and brought them to light.
- 1972: "UAINE"Mayflower protest'
- United American Indians of New England(UAINE) membersPilgrim Fathers OfThanksgivingProtesting against, (Mayflower II)ofBritish flagWas replaced with the flag of the Indian tribe.
- AIM members armed and occupied Wounded Knee for 71 days, demanding reforms of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) of the Interior Ministry and a fact-finding survey of reservations. Fighters with the FBI, state police, the military, and the BIA have killed two people on the Indian side.One of the leaders, the Sioux "OSCRO" activist (Pedro Bissonette), was shot dead by the BIA in December.Russell Means back to BIAliverWas punched out and seriously injured.Also, of AIMLeonard Peltier(Leonard Peltier) Islife sentenceHe has been imprisoned even now when his innocence has been proved.
- 1974: "By Canadian IndiansOccupation'
- Protests against the Canadian government to restore the rights of Canadian Indians. AIM also received a request for support and participated in the occupation.
- 1975January 1: "Menominee"Former monastery occupation'
- Warriors pay for land and medical facilities confiscated from the tribeWisconsinRequested the government to surrender the abandoned monastery.After 35 days in the fortified monastery, the state sent troops into a stalemate. AIM also participated.As an intermediary negotiator, the actorMarlon BrandAlso joined the castle.
- 1978April 2: "'
- More than 400 Indians, whites, blacks, Asians and Japanese travel 4828 kilometers (3,000 miles) from San Francisco's Alcatraz Island to Washington in protest of the BIA's development of Indian land. The one that marched.IndiansWhite HouseIn front of the gateTippyWas built.The Longest Walk is "Trail of TearsIt is a reproduction of the hardships of Indian forced migration, such as Dennis Banks.Jim ThorpeIt was conceived as a peaceful protest in commemoration of the achievements of.Jim Thorpe's children also participated.Since then, it has been held every year until now.
Protests after Red Power
- 1983 : Black HillsSanctuary (Bear Butte) Lakota proceedings against tourism development.
- 1985: Ohlone "Protest against the destruction of a tribal communal graveyard'
- San FranciscoBay areaMuwekuma of "Mission Indians" inAuroneProtest against the destruction of the ancestral cemetery and the construction of a shopping center.The Ohlone tribeExtinct tribeTherefore, it is the white side's argument that this is "excavation of ruins" and does not correspond to "excavation of graves".The female chief (Rosemary Cambra) was so angry that she was arrested for beating anthropologist William Loop with a shovel at the excavation site while the TV was being broadcast live, and was disqualified as a nurse and lost her job with her husband. .. 1 Ohlone bones ignore tribal protestsUniversity of California, BerkeleyAdded to the Indian Remains Collection at the Hurst Anthropology Museum.There is still a dispute over the return of the remains.
- QuebecMohawkHowever, in protest of the development of a golf resort by white people from their land Oka from the 1960s, the area was barricade-blocked for 78 days.It was a clash with the state army, causing casualties.
- 1992July 7: "Seneca"Protest against taxation'
- New York State protests that the state government has decided to tax the cigarettes and gasoline they sell in breach of the treaty and demanded the previous "unpaid" $ 5000 million, Cutter Blockade of National Highway 438, which passes through the Langus Reservation, for several days.A brawl with state police forces, causing numerous injuries to both sides.The Seneca tribe insists, "If you really want to tax, return the land you stole from us."The state has withdrawn its tax requirements for violations of the treaty.
- 2006: By the West Shoshone, "UN suit against underground nuclear test'
- Wind River Shoshone and surrounding tribes in the southwest, AIM and others, westShoshoneOf NevadaReservation placeThe Pentagon has been protesting for many years against the forced underground nuclear tests, the construction of a high-level radioactive waste depot in Yukka Mountain, and the resulting radiation damage, involving the Utah-Nevada State Assembly. At last, the Windriver Shoshone sent a delegation to the United Nations headquarters in Switzerland to bring these issues to the CERD (United States Department of Defense). On March 3, the United Nations notified the US government to "immediately stop" counter-accusations and oppression against the West Shoshone.In response, the US government canceled the 10-ton class nuclear explosion test scheduled for June 6.
- 2007October 10: "NANC", "File for return of remains to the University of California'
- Federal law guaranteed to Indians, "NAGPRA (Indigenous American Graves Protection and Repatriation Ordinance)Based on the NANC (Aboriginal NAGPRA Union) lawsuit against the university for the return of more than 1 relics and remains taken from various tribes by the University of California, Berkeley Hurst Anthropology Museum. Protest demonstration.
- 2007March 10: "AIM"Protest against Columbus Day Parade'
- ColoradoDenverAIM Denver bureau protest march to the "Columbus Landing Anniversary Parade" held by.Russell Means83 people were arrested.
- 2008November 11: "West Shoshone"Injunction against Cortez Hills Development Plan'
- West Shoshone Southfolk Band, Chimbisha Shoshone for Bush administration-approved development of gold mines and other mines in the Shoshone reserve in northeastern Nevada by Barrick Gold (scheduled from January 2009) , NGO "Great Basin Resource Observatory" filed a permanent immediate injunction in federal court.The planned development site is located in the tribal sanctuary, 1 acres wide and 900 feet deep open pit holes have eliminated the Holy Mountain, with 2,000 million tonnes of rock, 15 million tonnes of residue and 7700 million tonnes. It is estimated that the entire area will be filled with waste filtration materials. On December 5300, a federal court suspended the plan until the hearing and dismissed the injunction request.
Anti-Indian mascot movement
In the United States, it was not uncommon for universities and high schools to adopt Indian characters as sports team mascots until recent years when Indian groups protested that they were "racist."The use of Indian-themed team names in the professional sports world is widely known, for example.Cleveland Indians OfChief Wahoo(Chief Wahoo),Washington RedskinsThese "insulting caricatures" are now one of the most active protests for Indian rights groups.
The earliest case was the 1970 "Mascot protest at Stanford UniversityThere is.Stanford UniversityThe university's Indian students have offered to abolish the Indian mascots of the football team "Indians" who support them with random costumes and dances, and because President Richard Lyman accepted this, a white university There was a raging controversy from the people concerned, "Why abolish it?", And since then, the demand for abolition of these profane sports mascots has spread throughout the United States.President Lyman later said: "Where do we have the right to mascot all of a particular ethnic minority, like a bulldog or a tiger?"
In August 2005, in response to the rise of the "anti-Indian mascot movement"National University Athletic Association The (NCAA) has banned the use of Indian mascots described as "hostile and abusive" since the postseason tournament.
Along with this, in professional baseball teams such as "Indians" and "Braves", white cheering teams "wear feathers, beat drums, and swing a hatchet-shaped cheering bat (the customs of swinging a hatchet are in the first place). Indian groups have been protesting since the 1980s, saying that "it is an insulting calicature" against the support such as "It is not found in Indians".
Meanwhile, the University of Utah in Utah dissatisfied with the NCAA's decision and named the university's "UTE" and "Running Ute" teams.Trademark registrationAnd in returnUteI promised to pay the students a scholarship.However, protests are on the rise, with Ute students marching inside the university in 2008, saying that the university did not comply and did not pay scholarships.
SiouxIs in North DakotaIce hockeyTeam "Fighting Sioux (Fighting Sioux) ”Has been protesting for 30 years, centered on Sioux students of the same university, but the school rejected it as a“ traditional name ”in 2000. It has become a great debate with all Sioux tribes and states.Professor of Journalism, University of Texas at AustinRobert JensenIn a number of criticism speeches at North Dakota University in 2003, he said, "The Barbarian."Thomas Jefferson,Franklin RooseveltThat is the "Fighting Sioux".If there was a world where the Nazis beat the United States in World War II, "fightJew"What if the mascot name was born and has survived the tradition," he protests.The team's crappy Indian mascots have been wiped out and replaced with a logo by Ojibwe designer Bennett Brian.
Currently, certain protection policies and social security systems are in place, but it is difficult to restore the once-destroyed ethnic identity and lose the purpose of living.Alcoholic beverage,gamblingThere are also serious social collapse phenomena, such as cases of indulgence.Some people make traditional culture a spectacle and make it a tourist attraction to earn a living, while others live in harmony with the American community, but on the other hand, they are cut off from white and Western societies in the Indian reservation. Some people live in Japan.Some people keep traditional culture, but most of them are in barren areas and extremely poor areas, and they have problems today, such as being discouraged from working due to government subsidies.In this way, the long history of discrimination and ethnic conflict leaves a gap between the two, and it is not easy to repair the relationship.
In modern society, it is said that it is difficult to achieve social equality for Indians.At present, it is difficult to sufficiently improve the quality of life in terms of health care and education with government policies and small development funds.This is a serious problem, especially in the settlement.For example, in South Dakota, where the Sioux live.Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Is poorer than other settlements.The Sioux who live in this settlement earn one-third of the average American (the average annual income in 3 was 1).Dollar), The unemployment rate has tripled to 3%, and 85% of the population is set by the federal government.Poverty lineThe standard of living is below.Many families live without water and sewage, electricity, and telephones, with an average life expectancy of 47 for men and early 50s for women.Western hemisphereIs at the lowest level.2002The total agricultural output of the settlement is estimated at $ 3300 million, but less than one-third of the actual tribal income is said to be.
In this poverty, the proportion of minor suicides is more than three times the national average, and many reservations are ten times higher.Even within the last few yearsBlack footA tribe girl (18 years old at the time) was accused of drinking at school, and despite being an honor studentMontanaOn the reservationTranquilizerIngested a large amount and committed suicide.IdahoA 16-year-old boy on the Fort Hall Reservation hanged himself in a county prison, but just two days ago heRobert F. KennedyI had just discussed the situation with the Senator about the reservation.Some young people are addicted to drugs and long for gangsters, and in these difficult situations, Indians are trying to tackle these problems themselves.
Indian CasinoIn addition to management, some tribes are expanding into tourism and manufacturing,UtahLikeReservation placeMany tribes have been designated as final disposal sites for pollutants, such as radioactive waste and biological weapons factories.CaliforniaProsperity is realized by robbing the water sources of the upper tribes.OrMandanMost of the tribe's reservations were sunk by dam construction.The reservation site has been turned into an underground nuclear test site, and a lawsuit has been filed with the United Nations.Most reservations have no industry and are forced to accept these negative heritage.
Hollywood movie "Last of Mohican”(1992), he appeared on how Indians were treated.Russell MeansReports: "During filming, we argued that the Mohawk village was like a" stereotyped African village in the movie. "More than 900 Indian extras were gathered on location in North Carolina, deep in the mountains. We stayed in a boy scout dormitory in North Carolina, where we were packed with eight people each in a double room, just like a forced camp. The Indians came in mainly at night, so during the middle of the summer we were all day long. I had to endure the heat and humidity. The doctor wasn't there on location and we weren't allowed to go out. The white staff started a strike, followed by us Indian extras on strike ... "
Drinking with Indians
With the exception of Mexico and some tribes near the border, Indians have no brewing culture and cannot control their drinking.For this reason, they have no pace of drinking, and if they have a bottle, they will drink it all at once and get drunk.When whites once signed unequal treaties with them, a lotwhiskeyIt is a well-known fact that we brought in.These peopleReservation placeCut off the path of self-reliance,AlcoholismIsEskimo,AboriginalThis is a problem that is also seen in indigenous peoples of other countries.Many tribal autonomous regions have a complete prohibition.
Alcohol has long been a waste of time for unemployment for Indians and a means of political pressure on whites for whites.Of the 4,600 adults on a Midwestern reservation, 21% of men and 44% of women were arrested for drunkenness at least once every three years, according to the American Reservation. The reservation reports that Indians are trying to open bars and liquor stores on the reservation to prevent them from getting drunk in the city outside and dying in a car accident on their way home.
Vice-chairman of the NIYC (National Indian Youth Council)PoncaThe following passage in the testimony of the tribe Bill Pensonu in front of the Senate Indian Education Subcommittee on February 1969, 2, is often cited during discussions on the issue of alcohol. It is a sentence.
"We are devoted to wine.Because only when we are drunk is when we Indians are free.'
There are 563 federal-approved tribal governments (Indian Territories) in the United States.The United States is the autonomous government of these tribes andTribal sovereigntyThe right to self-determination is clearly stated and acknowledged in the treaty.This was during the treaty negotiations promoted in the 19th century.Forced migrationEntangledReservation placeIt is a condition issued by the Federation in exchange for settling in.Each reservation isUS Interior MinistryJurisdictionBIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)These autonomous governments are under the supervision of the reservation offices under the direct control of the BIA located on their respective reservations.
Tribal Government (Tribal Parliament)"The restrictions on the power of the tribes of the autonomous government, such as legislation, taxation, and approval of residence rights and licenses within the tribal territory, are equal to those on the states, such as the right to engage, the conclusion of diplomatic relations, the manufacture of coins and banknotes. "Including, etc." is often expressed as "Indian reservations have the same power as an independent state", but caution is required.
Because tribal parliamentary decisions cannot be made without the approval or influence of the BIA, most tribal parliaments are corrupt as federal puppeteers.Tribal events, whether strong or weak, are always under our watchful eye.Autonomy does not have a certain jurisdiction like the indigenous peoples of Canada, and although it is often cited as one of the sovereignty, it has only the auxiliary authority of the state police.Tribal members who have sinned on the reservation will be tried by state authorities.""Indian CasinoHowever, there are many cases where even if a tribe who wants to own a casino obtains a federal permit, the state permit is not obtained and it cannot be realized.Indians are bound by both the federal and state states.Known for the strength of independenceIroquois FederationSome do not have this tribal council.In other words, by cutting off any financial assistance from the Commonwealth, it maintains autonomy that the Commonwealth cannot interfere with.
There are also many tribes that are approved by the state government but not by the federal government.Indiana OfMiamiEtc. continue to refuse federal approval.Northern California, which has been denied approval requests by the BIA for many yearsAurone(Ohlone) Etc. were uncomfortable with the 1969 Occupation of Alcatraz Island by other tribes, and at this timePresident NixonFrom Alcatraz Island of the TribeReservation placeHe was offered "offering" as an insult and even refused it as an insult.
Many small tribes in the eastern United States are still seeking official approval.Federal approval as an "Indian tribe" has real benefits, such as pensions being paid to the tribe.However, it is extremely difficult due to the many absurd rules that must be met in the process of obtaining tribal approval.In order to be recognized as a tribal group, a wide range of genealogical proofs of the tribal family must be submitted, but many Indian tribes have been deprived of many rights and inheritance of heritage. I was rejecting it.It also crosses the Mexican borderPapagoThe tribe (Tohono-o-Odum) has been denied tribal approval by both the United States and Mexico, and is now in what is now called an "orphan in the Indian tribal world."
VirginiaSo the Indians are facing a strange problem.There are no federal-approved tribes in Virginia, but it's just a record clerk at the state's Vital Statistics Bureau.1912から1946Walter Ashby Preker (Walter Ashby Plecker) Is a big factor.PrekerEugenicsTo followWhite supremacyAnd the Indians in the stateAfrican AmericanI believed it was getting mixed up with. A law was passed by the state legislature to approve only two races, "white" and "colored," and Preker pressured municipal governments to reclassify Indians in all states as "colored," Virginia. Caused a major destruction of the records of Indians residing in the state.In order for federal approval of tribes and the benefits they generate, individual tribes must1900Needing to show the continued existence of the tribe since then, the federal government has so far refused to bend this bureaucratic requirement, knowing that the preker would destroy records.
Currently, a bill to ease this requirement is from Virginia.Jim Webb(Jim Webb)andJohn WarnerSupported by the Senator,SenateIt has been reported favorably to the main committees of.HoweverHouse of RepresentativesThen in Virginia (Virgil Goode) Congressmen oppose the bill, saying federal approval would lead to the establishment of an Indian casino and promote gambling in the state.
2007 year 12 month,Lakota-SiouxIs “The United States of AmericaThe government has not complied with the treaty to ensure that it is an independent territory for 150 years, and our patience has reached its limit. "Independent stateRepublic of LakotahA letter asking for approval to beボリビア,ベネズエラ,チリ,Republic of South AfricaAnd send it toState DepartmentAlso submitted a declaration.Currently, the tribe is divided into two groups over the direction of nation-building. As mentioned above in the "Culture" section, their culture, which is a plain tribe, does not have a leader who controls the entire tribe, and it is a collegial system based on individualism.
Federal tribal decertification
Until now, the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs), which should have been the contact point for treaty negotiations, ignored the treaty andDawes ActWith a shieldReservation placeTo reduce the number of people and make Indians embrace American cultureIndian boarding schoolThe government has forcibly pushed forward the assimilation policy. Indians who had 1887 million acres in 1Reservation place(Reservation) has been "released" by the BIA one after another and has now been reduced to a total of 5500 million acres.In addition, from the beginning of the 20th century, the federal government recognized a large number of tribes as extinct because of "blood thinning" and terminated the treaty negotiations.Extinction policyI have taken.
Thus, between 1954 and 1966, more than 100 tribes across the United States "Extinct tribeWas "dissolved".When the federal government and BIA "designate extinction" for an Indian tribe, the main situations are as follows.
- 1)Reservation place"Hold" is lifted and all tribal people are confiscated of their rights to tribal land.Tribal people who have been engaged in agriculture and business closely with the land of the tribe become rootless grass overnight and are forced to go to work in urban areas.
- 2) BIA's obligation to pay pensions to tribes will be terminated.Single-mother families, often found in Indians, quickly get lost on the road.
- 3) All welfare services such as health and health care for tribal people and assistance for cultural activities, which are the obligations of BIA, will be terminated.The "tribal school" that teaches tribal traditions will be discontinued and closed with the confiscation of land.
In response to this policy of decertifying tribes, there has been a lot of movement to mobilize the scattered tribal members since the 1960s and urge the Federation to recertify tribes.NixonUnder the administration, this tribe dissolution policy was terminated for the time being, and the tribe,PequotThe tribe has revived.However, after Nixon's demise, Congress again launched an "extinction policy," and the rest of the tribes are still today.US Interior MinistryHas been forced into recertification negotiations with frequent proceedings.
As a flow of this recertification request, tribes with a higher degree of mixed race tend to loosen the regulation and try to reassemble by setting a rule of the degree of mixed race unique to the tribe that "a fraction of the mixed race is regarded as a tribe member". Some tribes recognize that they are regular tribes even if they have a mixed race of more than two digits. (By this rule, 16/1CherokeeBloodBill Clinton(It will be a formal Indian) This demand is spreading year by year, and the federal side is also struggling to respond.However, it is the federal government that has imposed mixed races and assimilation.
In the 20th centuryIndianBastille prisonHowever, Kevin Gover, who was appointed Deputy Director in 2000, said that he would "assimilate policy".Historical apology, And its administration is softening.On the other hand, in July 2000,State of Washington OfRepublican PartyAdopted a resolution to abolish the tribal government.2004Currently still from Indian propertycoal,uraniumHas been alleged to have been stolen.A 1972 study by the US Administration and Budget Agency reported that of the federal government's 1000-item support program for Indians, only 78 were useful to tribes.
2013,Nihon UniversityIsao Takei is absolutelyPoverty rate・ Both relative poverty ratesWhiteThe results of the analysis, which are well above the standard, suggest that the status of Native Americans is closely linked to poverty...Also due to thisSuicide rateIs also said to be expensive.
casinoBusiness is one of the major economic incomes for modern Indian tribes, and the tribe-run "Indian Casino" is "modern.BuffaloIt is also said to be an important industry for Indians.Reservation placeCasinos are often the only source of income for tribes, which are small and barren.
August 1979, 12,SeminoleIs in Hollywood, FloridaReservation placeAnd with a high bet ratebingoThe place was opened.Florida immediately tried to stop it, and the tribe and state became a court battle over the pros and cons of running a casino.This historic dispute is "Florida Seminole vs ButterworthIt is called a trial. In 1981, the Federal Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Seminole's right to run a bingo field. In 1987, California's "Mission Indians" opened a high-value betting rate bingo field.It was a court battle with the state demanding the injunction.The US Supreme Court said, "Citizen's Law Article 280 ("Brian vs. Itasca County" Trial) ”, It ruled that holding gambling by Indian tribes is outside the jurisdiction of the federal and state states and California cannot punish it.
In 1988, Congress announced that it would manage and regulate Indian gambling venues.Indian Gambling Regulations (IGRA)Was passed.is this,Tribes recognized by the federal government(That is, "extinctly certified" tribes cannot operate casinos.) It is assumed that they will be conducted within the regulations of the United States and indoors after negotiations with the state.In other words, if the state bans this, Indians will not be able to set up a casino.
In enacting this ordinance, the Commonwealth established the National Indian Youth Council (NIGC) to review and approve the operation of Indian casinos.The Indian side also established the National Indian Youth Council (NGIA) to protect the self-sufficiency and benefits of Indian casinos.
1992,Connecticut OfMachan Tucket PequotsBut"Foxwoods Casino ResortOpened, and DakotaSiouxOpened "Mystic Lake Casino" and made a big profit and succeeded.Other tribes have also embarked on a gambling business, with 377 Indian-operated casinos in the United States, with Indian casinos open in most states.Apache,Choctaw,Oneida, Chipewa (Ojibwe) And other federal government-approved 562 tribes run gambling businesses.The total annual income of these Indian casinos has reached about 1 trillion yen.Most of their casinos are far from the metropolitan area, but despite their long distances, the number of visitors is increasing year by year.Reservation placeThe effect of moisturizing the whole is also enormous.
In the 1990s, state legislatures in Massachusetts, Oregon, and other states passed a series of resolutions banning the operation of Indian casinos because "gambling is not allowed educationally and morally."However, much of the income of Indian casinos is used for Indian welfare such as "repurchase of confiscated land", "paving and maintenance of roads", and "tribal medical care, education, and residence". The dispute over state and Indian tribal casinos is growing year by year.
There are many criticisms inside and outside the country that it is unreasonable for white people who have defrauded Indians' rights to food, clothing and shelter to ban casinos on the grounds of "morality", and the tax revenue that Indian casinos bring to local governments is enormous. It is also a major business that creates non-Indian employment.[Note 8].
On the other hand, some tribes that run casinos do not earn enough income, and the fees paid to white companies that mediate the establishment and operation of casinos are high, and there are voices questioning the economic effect of gambling. There is also.Traditionally a highly self-sufficient settled farmerHopiAvoids casino business and has famous tourist destinationsNavajoHas vetoed the construction of the casino in two referendums.The situation is different from the weaker tribes that have to rely on casinos.
Works on Native American
- Tom Sawyer's Adventure The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
- Last Mohawk The Last of the Mohicans (1920)
- Broken arrow Broken Arrow (1950)
- I Killed Geronimo (1950)
- Burning plain child Flaming Star (1960)
- Winnetou Apache Gold (1964)
- Cheyenne Cheyenne Autumn (1964)
- Soldier Blue Soldier Blue (1970)
- Little giant Little big man (1970)
- Small house on the prairie Little house on the Prairie (1974 to 1982)
- Powwow Highway (1988)
- Young guns Young Guns (1988)
- Renegades Renegades (1989)
- Dance With Wolves Dances with Wolves (1990)
- Thunder Heart Thunderheart (1992)
- Last of Mohican The Last of the Mohicans (1992)
- Jeronimo Geronimo (1994)
- Fingerprint of heart The Sunchaser (1996)
- Brave The Brave (1997)
- Smoke Signals Smoke signals (1999)
- Edge of America Edge of America (2003)
- ghost dance ghost dance Japan (2005)
- Wind river Wind River (2017)
Weapons with Native American tribe names
- UH-1: Pet name isIroquoisから
- CH-47 : Pet name is from
- AH-56: Pet name isCheyenneから
- OH-58: Pet name isKiowaから
- UH-60: Pet name isSoakChief "Black Falcon" (en: Black Hawk (Sauk leader)From)
- AH-64: Pet name isApacheから
- RAH-66: Pet name isComancheから
- Pueblo (Environmental research ship): The ship name isPuebloから
Original language notation
- ^ Q line is common in European CaucasiansR systemClosest toHan people,Korean people,YamatoEtc.East AsiaOccupy the most inO systemIt is a closely related system.
- ^ TheAlgonquinTheMongoloid(Mongolian) andCaucasianIt is a mixed race of (Europeans), and it is said that the blood of Mongoloid is thicker in the west and the blood of Caucasian is thicker in the east.The reason is that there were settlers in North America from Europe in BC.AlgonquianHas a tradition that its ancestors have crossed the sea, and has the same concept of constellations as the European Mediterranean.Among the Algonquian people, especially the eastern Algonquian peopleSouthern Europe,地中海Very similar to the race ofAlgonquin languagesIn particular, the vocabulary of eastern languages is said to have many European origins.
- ^ With buffalo meatBerryA traditional winter portable food of the Great Plains tribe, which is made by kneading fruit and other fruits.It was also adopted by Antarctic expeditions around the world.
- ^ Even now that the traditional food culture has been destroyed, pine nuts are still popular because of their good taste.
- ^ Germanic,FranksUsed a common hairstyle to represent tribal attribution and status.
- ^ Approximately 80% of Americans with Indian ancestry are mixed race. By 2100, 10 out of 9 people are expected to be mixed race.
- ^ West: Bosque Redondo
- ^ Many of the participants in the protests against the casino ban decisions by these states are unemployed white casino employees.
- ^ Takei 2013, p. 68
- ^ Barry Fel (Author), Toshitaka Kita, Motoko (Translation) "America BC" (1981) Soshisha
- ^ "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”. US Census (January 2012). 2010/6/2Browse.
- ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Asian Indian alone – New York City”. US Census Bureau. 2016/8/6Browse.
- ^ a b Eriko Rowe, "Warning of Fat Indians," New Book of Living People, pp. 18-19
- ^ A Brief History of the Native American Church by Jay Fikes. URL accessed on February 22, 2006.
- ^ Sacheen Littlefeather
- ^ Takei 2013, p. 72
- Isao Takei, 2013-10, "(PDF) , "International Relations Research," Vol. 34, No. 1,Nihon UniversityFaculty of International Relations Institute for International Relations pp. 67-76