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🎥 | Kento Kaku, make friends from a word of courage!Advice for children

Impressed by the co-starring with Thomas!Junpei Goto (Jaru Jaru) and Kento Kaku

Kento Kaku, make friends from a word of courage!Advice for children

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At an invention show held on Sodor Island where inventors from all over the world gathered, the blueprints of a flying car were stolen, and Thomas and others are struggling to recover.

On the 27th, "Come on the movie Thomas the Tank Engine!Future invention show! The public commemorative stage greeting is Shinjuku Baltic ... → Continue reading

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  1. designFor図 面.. Described in this section
  2. name-Blueprint for cartoon
  3. Storyboard-Prepared before filmingイ ラ ス トIt is a table by
  4. DNA/gene-Active ingredientBlueprint of the components that make up
  5. Cognitive architecture Class (computer)

Blueprints are intended to be complete and clear of the design items and types used to define the requirements.Drafting-DrawingWas done図-図 面.

It is not only a picture, but also a graphical language means to convey ideas and information from one mind to another.[1].


The drawings that describe the technical structure of an object have existed for a long time, and the precise and practical drawings areRenaissanceMade in the eraLeonardo da VinciThere is a modern blueprint from the drawings in France, and then has accurate regularity in FranceOrthographicAt the time of drawing in the format ofIndustrial revolutionWas in the early stages.Isambard Kingdom BrunelBiography of LTC Rolt[2] Then my father'sMark Isambad BrunelAccording to1799Contributed to British engineering, but the French were much larger than the ones here. It is easy to assume that we had mastered the technique of presenting 2D objects on a 3D plane, which we now call mechanical drawing. that isGaspard MonjuIt evolved into a military secret until 1765, when it left the portrayal of what remained in the Mezier College of Engineers in 1794, so it was only unknown in Britain. "[2]

Relationship to artistic depiction

drawingHas both engineering and artistic types of drawing, sometimes referred to simply as "drawing". Engineering drawings share some of the characteristics of artistic drawings in that they are artistic. However, while the purpose of art drawing is to convey emotions and artistic sensitivity in some way (subjective impression), the purpose of engineering depiction is to convey information (objective facts).[1] .. One of the consequences of this fact is that everybody has a unique sense of appreciation and anyone can enjoy artistic depictions, whereas engineering depictions (as in any language) understand. Requires an objective commonality of interpretation (as in other languages)[1] .. In fact, technical blueprints have evolved into a more ambiguous language than natural language. In this sense, it resembles a programming language of communication ability. Technical blueprints are extensive so that information can be conveyed accurately and little ambiguity is felt.RuleIs created using.

Relationship with other technical drawing types

The process of creating blueprints and their skills are also needed for areas and parts where technical drawings are not commonly seen as engineering, which is called (technical drawing) or drafting (drafting). Often called (building,Landscaping,FurnitureProduction,clothes製造of).

Produce engineering drawingsDraftsmanThe person hired by was formerly known as the draftsmen (or draftsmen). Although these terms are still in use, the non-gender specific terms draftsperson and drafter are now more common.

Connecting to discipline-specific practices

Different fields have different field-specific conventions but share common drawing rules. For example, casting, machining, manufacturing, and assembly all have special drawing rules that can learn some process-specific rules within metalworking, including welding, rivets, fittings, and electronic components and manufacturing. Since there are further branches, including within, there are some details in each of these that must be remembered by the expert only.

Legal means

The design side is also the (legal means) to convey all the necessary information about the "what is needed" to those who spend the resources that make the idea a reality. Therefore, the blueprint is part of the contract document. In addition to drawing together with the purchase order, it is composed of any auxiliary documents (out-specification called engineering change order [ECO]) and contract documents. Therefore, if the resulting product is incorrect, the worker or manufacturer is protected from liability as long as they faithfully follow the instructions conveyed by the drawings. If these instructions were wrong, it would be an engineer's fault. Manufacturing and construction are usually very expensive processes (with a large amount of capital and salary), so the issue of liability for error is that each party tries to blame the other, consuming its wasteful costs elsewhere. Significant legal implications arise for the allocation. This involves design drawingsDesign competitionIs the biggest reason why it has evolved into an accurate and unambiguous state for decades.

Standardization and ambiguity avoidance

Blueprints can be complex components orア セ ン ブ リSpecify the requirements of. The standard defines the rules of specification and interpretation. Standardization also helps internationalization, as people from different countries who speak different languages ​​can read the same blueprint and interpret it in the same way.

One major set of engineering drawing standards is ASME Y1 and Y14.5M (recently revised in 14.5). ISO 2009 (Geometrical Product Specification (GPS)-Basics-Concepts, Principles and Regulations) is currently important for drawing standards, but ASME is widely applied in the United States.

In 2011, a new revision of ISO 8015 (Geometrical product specification (GPS)-Basics-Concepts, Principles and Rules) was issued. When part of the ISO Geometric Product Specification (GPS) system was selected in the Mechanical Engineering Product Documentation, the entire ISO GPS system was selected and the symbol on the drawing "Tolerancing ISO 8015" states that it is optional. This means that drawings using the ISO symbol can only be interpreted in ISO GPS rules. The only way then to not select an ISO GPS system is to select national or other standards. In the UK, BS2010 (Technical Product Specification) in 8888 prompted important issues.


Second World WarFor centuries until later, paper and other substrates (eg,Mylar)Abovepencilとペ ンAll blueprints using have been done by hand.Computer aided designSince the advent of (CAD), blueprints have developed more and more every decade in electronic media. Today, most design drawings are made in CAD, but pencil and paper drawings are not completely gone.

Manual drafting tools include pencils, pens and inks, plus rulers, T-squares, cloud-curve rulers, triangle rulers, protractors, dividers, compasses, triangle scales, erasers, and tacks or pushpins (number in power supply). There are also slide rules that were used to put on, but now even manual drafting has the advantage of a pocket calculator or the equivalent on the screen). Of course, others include drawing boards (draft boards) and tables. The idiom of returning to the pictorial bulletin board, which is the pictorial word, was inspired by the literal act of discovering a design mistake in a product and returning to the drawing to modify the design. A drafting machine is a device that assists in manual drafting by combining drafting boards, straight edges, pantographs, and other tools into one integrated drawing environment. CAD offers virtual equivalents.

In order to create a drawing, a drawing is usually created and reproduced, so that a plurality of copies are generated and distributed to a factory, a site, a vendor, a company storage, or the like. Although classical reproduction methods have long been obsolete in modern times, these terms are still today often referred to literally as “blueprints” or “blueprints” A blueprint of the appearance (usually blue on white or white on blue). Most copies of today's engineering drawings use more modern methods (inkjet or laser printing) to display black or multicolored lines on white paper. The more general term "printing" is now commonly used in the United States to mean a paper copy of an engineering drawing. In the case of CAD drawings, the original is a CAD file, and the output of that file is "printed matter".

Relationship with model-based definition (MBD / DPD)

For centuries, design drawings were the only way to convey information from design to manufacturing. In recent years, another method has emerged called the Model Based Definition (MBD) or Digital Product Definition (DPD). With MBD, the information captured by a CAD software application is automatically sent to a CAM application (Computer Aided Manufacturing) that creates code in other languages ​​such as G-Code, and then a tool (Computer Numerical Control), 3D printer, or (In addition) is performed by a CNC machine that is a hybrid machine tool that shares both. Nowadays, information is often moved from the spirit of designers to manufactured component machines and not coded in design drawings. In MBD, the data set is the legal instrument, not the drawing. The term "Technical Data Package" (TDP) is used to mean a complete package of information that conveys information from design to production (3D model data sets, engineering drawings, engineering change orders, etc. (ECO, (Specification revisions, add-ons, etc.) However, even in the MBD era, humans are still involved in the drawings, despite the fact that in the future production could be done without paintings or humans. These include CAD/CAM programmers, CNC setup workers, CNC operators, quality assurance staff (inspectors) and logistics personnel (material handling, ordering, front office functions), etc. These workers are often MBD datasets. FromrenderingAnd by plotting (printing), the design drawing is utilized during the creation work. When appropriate procedures are followed, a clear chain is always documented when a person views a drawing, and notes (because it is an MBD dataset) that the drawing is not the predominant means. .. In these cases, the drawing is still a useful document, but is legally classified as "reference only". In other words, in the event of a dispute or inconsistency, the MBD dataset will be questioned rather than the managed drawing.

Dimension and tolerance system

Most design drawings (except for so-called reference or initial sketches) convey not only the outline (shape and position), but also the dimensions and tolerances of their properties. The system has evolved somewhat in dimensions and tolerances, the simplest dimensioning system only specifies the distances between points (length and width of objects, center position of holes, etc.). Since the advent of compatible manufacturing processes, such distance dimensions have been associated with positive or negative or minimum and maximum limit type tolerances. Coordinate scales involve defining all points, lines, faces, and contours in Cartesian coordinates with a common origin. After World War II, coordinate dimensions are the only best option until the development of geometric dimensions and tolerances (GD&T) is found, starting from the limits of coordinate dimensions (eg rectangular-only tolerance zones, tolerance stacks). there were. Optimal logical tolerances in both geometry and dimensions (ie both [shape/location] and size).

Common items

The drawings convey the following important information:

  • Geometric line-the shape of an object. Represented as a view. How to display objects when viewed from various angles such as front, top, and side
  • Dimension-The size of the object is captured in the accepted units.
  • Tolerance-Tolerance for each dimension.
  • Material/Material-Indicates the content of the item.
  • Finishing-specify the surface quality of functional or aesthetic items. For example, mass-marketed products require a much higher surface quality than components that would normally be inside an industrial machine.

Line style and type

Various line styles graphically represent physical objects. The line types are:

  • Visible Line-A continuous line used to draw edges that are directly visible from a particular angle.
  • Hidden Line-A short dotted line used to represent an invisible edge directly.
  • The centerline-alternates with the dash-dotted line used to represent the axis of the circular feature.
  • Cut surface-can be used to define a surface with thin, medium dashed, or thick alternating long and short dashed lines.Cross section.
  • Section-A thin line in a pattern (a pattern determined by "cut" or "sectioned" material) to show the surface of a cross-section that is the result of a cut. Section lines are commonly referred to as "cross hatching".
  • A creative line-(not shown) is an elongated line used to represent features or components that are not part of a specified part or assembly. For example, the end of the billet used for testing, or the machined product that is the focus of the tooling drawing.

Lines can also be classified by the letter classification that gives each line a name, as described below.

  • Type A shows the appearance outline of the object. These are the thickest lines on the picture and are drawn with pencils that are softer than HB.
  • Type B lines are dimension lines and are used for dimensioning, projection, extension, or teaching. Harder pencils can be used, such as 2H pencils.
  • The type C line is when the entire object is not visible and the type C line is used for the break. These are drawn freehand, only for short breaks. 2H pencil
  • The type D line is similar to type C, but it is zigzag and only for long breaks. 2H pencil
  • Lines of type E show hidden contours of internal features of the object. These are represented by dotted lines. 2H pencil
  • Type F lines are Type F type lines, but they are used for electrical engineering drawings. 2H pencil
  • Type G lines are used for centerlines. These are dotted lines, but 10-20 mm long, then 1 mm gap, then 2 mm small. 2H pencil
  • The type H line is the same as type G, but the second long line is all thick. These represent the cut surfaces of the object. 2H pencil
  • The type k indicates the alternate position of the object and the line it takes. These are drawn with a long line of 10-20 mm, then a small gap, then a small line of 2 mm, then a gap, then another small line. 2H pencil.

Abbreviations and symbols

As in many technical fields, a wide range of abbreviations and symbols were developed in engineering drawings between the 20th and 21st centuries. For example, cold rolled steel is abbreviated CRS and diameter is abbreviated DIA, D, or ab.

With the advent of computer generated drawings for manufacturing and machining, many symbols are not commonly used. This is because trying to interpret an old handwritten document that contains ambiguous elements that are not easily referenced by standard teaching texts or control documents such as the AMSE and ANSI standards causes problems. For example, AMSE Y14.5M 1994 excludes some important information-carrying elements, such as those contained in the valuable old US Navy drawings and aircraft drawings of World War II. Some can be difficult to find out the intent and meaning of a sign.

Case study

Example of mechanical drawing

Here is an example of an engineering drawing (an isometric view of the same object is shown above): Different line types are color-coded for clarity.

  • Black = object line and hatch
  • Red = hidden line
  • Blue = centerline of the piece or opening
  • Magenta = imaginary line or cutting plane line

The cross-section is shown by the direction of the arrow, as in the example on the right.


  1. ^ a b c French & Vierck 1953, p. 1. Viola Denise Trice Microsoft Consultant engine
  2. ^ a b Rolt 1957, pp. 29–30

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