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🎥 | Magazine "Headbang" x movie "Lords of Chaos" is a miracle collaboration!Extreme in Japan ...


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A miracle collaboration between the magazine "Headbang" and the movie "Lords of Chaos"!Extreme in Japan ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
By the way, I heard that Vague was funded by his mother for terrorist activities.
 

The frenzied youth movie "Lords of Chaos" was released in theaters on March 3th (Friday).A real van in Norway ... → Continue reading

 Rooftop

Web version of the free magazine "Rooftop" published by Livehouse LOFT. Pop culture information presented by the Rock Hall of Fame, where Southern All Stars, BOOWY, and Tatsuro Yamashita also stood on the stage. Artist exclusive interviews and various reviews.


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terrorism

terrorism(English: terrorism) IsPoliticsTo achieve the objectiveviolenceAnd by violenceIntimidationSays to use.The original meaning isFear politics.. In addition,terrorist(British: terrorist).

In Japanese, terrorismterrorismThe terrorism caseTerrorist incidentThe abbreviation is also used.

the term

What is terrorismPoliticsTo achieve the objectiveviolence,IntimidationSay to use. The origin of "terrorism" isFrench Ofterrorism[1], 1793 to 1794French RevolutionAt the time ofFear politics(French: La Terreur) And FrenchTerror TheLatin OfterreōDerived from means "fear"[2][3].. In the French RevolutionJacobin schoolCarried out fear politics and led the fear politics after the Jacobin faction lost powerMaximilian RobespierreCame to be called "terrorists"[4][5][6].

Terrorism has its origin (Terror: fear)[7][8] As you can see, the fear of violence is used for political purposes, and the greatest purpose is to instill fear in the masses.ExplosiveUse of,Important person OfKidnapping-assassination,Transportationな どInfrastructureBlow to,Indiscriminate killingEtc. are typical means.Nuclear-Biology -Chemical-radiationな どWeapons of mass destructionThe use of and attacks on iconic buildings are effective in causing panic in society.Subway Sarin case,9.11 Terrorist attacksThere is a precedent.

Terrorism is a revolutionary, counter-revolutionary,Left wingandRight wingPolitical party,nationalismGroups, religious groups, and政府A wide variety of political organizations, including those involved, are working to achieve their goals.[9].

statistics

US Department of StateAccording to a report published by The State of Terrorism in the World (Partterns of Global Terrorizm), the number of victims of terrorism in the world is1998から2003It is said that there are about 1000 to 7000 people every year[10].. On the other handWar on terrorismThe number of victims due toIraq warIn this case, 10 civilians were killed, according to a US scientist team.[10].

Definition

Overview

The precise definition of the word "terrorism" is fraught with difficulties and there are over 100 numerous definitions.[11][12].

Oxford English Dictionary(OED) lists very classical usage first[13].

1.1789-1794French RevolutionOccasionally, the rule by the menacing commanded and performed by the French authorities (Fear politics) 2. (Derived usage) Attack policy intended for threatening or intimidating — Oxford English Dictionary

But this OED explanation feels insufficient to understand modern usage[13].. The modern usage of the term "terrorism" isPoliticalIs something[13].. The concept of terrorism is often used by state authorities and their supporters to outlaw political or other adversaries.[5]Is also used by the state to legalize the use of force against its opponents[5][14].. There is historical debate about the usage of this word, for exampleNelson Mandela(African National Congress) AndChoi Guevara,Mahatma Gandhi,Shanana Guthman(East Timor Independence Revolutionary Front) Etc. were once called "terrorists" and "terrorist organizations".[15].

Although each government has its own definition, violent acts by its own country or armed groups supported by its own country are excluded from “terrorism”, and only those of other organizations are called “terrorism”. , The definition is self-centered, cannot be universal, and its validity is questioned.Noam ChomskyAccording to the official definition of terrorism in the United States, ``The United States installed a truck-mounted bomb outside the mosque to assassinate a clergy in Beirut in 1985, killing 1 people and It is argued that it was terrorism that ``was injured'' and ``the United States attacked Nicaragua in the 80s and fell into a devastating state''.[16].

United Nations

United NationsNovember 2004,United Nations Secretary-GeneralIn his report, he showed terrorism as:

Intimidating residents, government orInternational organizationAny action intended to kill or cause serious physical harm to civilians or non-combatants for the purpose of forcing or restraining action. — [17]

Anti-terrorism treaties

In this treaty, the following are terrorist acts centered on hijacking[18][19].

The United States of America

Federal Bureau of InvestigationReport also shows that there is no unified definition of terrorism[20].

United States CodeVolume 18 Article 2331 18 USC § 2331Refers to acts of violence, acts that endanger human life, or mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping to affect the behavior of the government.[21].

The Federal Regulations Code, Part 28, Section 0.85 (28 CFR 0.85(l)), states that the FBI states that "in order to promote political or social purposes, there is no intimidation or coercion of governments or citizens, or any part thereof. "Unfair force or violence against people or assets"[22][23].

United States Department of StateIt is,United States CodeVolume 22 Article 2656f 22 USC § 2656fBased onInternational terrorismI am preparing an annual report onOperativeAnd politically motivated unarmed goals by organized and non-national groups."[24].. Also, including the organizations that support terrorist activities, it is designated by the Secretary of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) and is subject to monitoring and sanctions.[23][25][26].

Japan

JapanesedecreeThe following are things related to terrorism.

  • National Police Agency Ordinance 39.[Law 2]

Types

Including historical terms as a classification by background or motivation,SocialismPerson orCommunismOf terrorism by peopleRed terror"CounterrevolutionTerrorism by the sideWhite terror"AnarchistTerrorism byBlack terrorism"ReligiousTerrorism against the background ofReligious terrorism"poverty“Terrorism caused by (poverty plight and extreme difference between rich and poor) is caused by”state terrorism) Etc.

In terms of the number of practitioners, “group terrorism” by groups, “individual terrorism” by individuals, especially single offensesLone Wolf Terror, Etc. By domestic people who resonate with extremism outside the countryHomegrown TerrorismThen there are many Lone Wolf[37].

As for the classification by the means of executing terrorism,bombTheMassesOr "bomb terrorism" that throws around a specific person and explodes,ExplosiveAreas indiscriminately or systematically installedBlast"Bombing terrorism" and execution offendersSuicideTo "Suicide bombing"nuclear weaponsOr use nuclear materialNuclear terrorism"PathogenTo useBioterrorism"EnvironmentAffect theEnvironmental terrorism"Computer network,ComputerAttack against "Cyber ​​terrorismExpressions such as "" are also used.

Long time agohijackAnd terrorism of the type that occupies important facilities and takes hostages continued, but as a solutionSpecial ForcesSince the invasion of the.

History

Old timesSpartanIn κρυπτεια(CluptiaSee examples in.50AroundJewishThen.Roman EmpireAiming for independence fromEnthusiastic partyCommitted terrorism.SullabyPro Scriptio,Assassination of Julius CaesarSometimes called terrorism.

Since modern times, by the revolutionary side of the above-mentioned French RevolutionFear politicsOr by the royal sideWhite terror,World War ITriggeredSarajevo case,Russian RevolutionAtRed terror,anarchistbyBlack terrorismAre famous. Especially(English editionAt the end of the 19th century, which was influenced by the "bomb philosophy" ofAnarchistA series ofdynamiteIn violent behavior by the government, political powers, ideological groups, and religious powers that do not have the means to directly oppose the state's powers engage in the murderous acts of slaughter. Mainstreaming the political impact on the nation and making it accept political claims[38].

In the 20th century,StalinismbyGreat terror(Great purge),NazismbyCrystal nightThe incident happened.

またSecond World WarLaterCold WarAnd various incidents due to the rise of the self-determination movement in the 1970sPalestinian problemAgainst the backgroundPFLP passenger plane simultaneous hijacking incidentAndNew LeftSystemGerman Red Army,Japanese Red Army,Red brigadeAs a result, there have been many international terrorist attacks involving areas other than conventional conflict areas. Since the 1980s, indiscriminate terrorist attacks targeting citizens have increased.[7].

After the Cold War, the liberalization of the sale of weapons began, and the firearms released by the armed forces became available to terrorists, increasing the number of international terrorist attacks. Especially since the early 1990sIslamic extremistsThe rise of is remarkable,2001On May 9Al QaedaBy the hands ofAmerican terrorist attacksHas been awakened. To prevent the expansion of subversive activities by terrorists,War on terrorismIs being carried out, but after thatHEATEtc.Islamic extremistsEmerging organizations have emerged, and large-scale attacks continue to be carried out enough to blame the leaders of one country for "action of war." Even at the end of the decade, the United States and its allies are seen as hostile due to the violation of Islamic cultureIslamic extremistsAnd the battle between the US victims of the sabotage and the quagmire of the US ally continues.

議論

Terrorism is generally regarded as an "accused act." At the same time, terrorism is "an awakening of fear". This is different from assassination in the narrow sense. It is not a direct attack targetMassesMeans of indiscriminately attacking symbolic persons for the purpose of manipulating/controlling are subject to strong moral and ethical criticism.

Therefore, in the form of utilizing the strong antimorality and antiethics of the word "terrorism", "it is terrorism" in response to "appeal and exercise of force of a person in a position different from himself".LabelThere is a methodology and tactics to blame by applying (label) (propaganda). Objects of this accusation often include political appeals and nonviolent direct actions.

However, certain actions do not become terrorism based on "terrorism" from conflicting interests. Calling the actions of interested parties terrorism is a rhetoric for justification.[39]However, it should be noted that it does not determine whether the action should be classified as terrorism. Often, the term “terrorism called by a conflict of interest” is merely a proof of the disagreement between a person called terrorism and a person called terrorism.

TerrorismviolenceIs a complex phenomenon involving. The core concept of terrorism can be regarded as "a violent act that is intended to appeal to society and emphasizes psychological impact rather than physical damage".[† 2].

Classical terrorism has been observed since ancient times, but it was definedFrench RevolutionMade inSeptember massacreIt was a trigger. SeptemberMassacreThen 1 counter-revolutionaries are killed by revolutionariesFear politicsWent[3].. Modern terrorism methods are becoming more complex, not only traditional revolutionary forces,TotalitarianismTerrorist activities have become possible for all social groups such asCold WarLaterForced diplomacyTerrorism has been established as a means of[40].

Behind the United States calling terrorism a "new war" is the issue of the international status of terrorists. Terrorism under new international law戦 争If it is not added to the form, the "combat style aimed at civilians by a flight trouser posing as a civilian" will be accepted. If terrorism can be recognized as a war, it means that a terrorist can be deprived of the qualification of a warring party (who has the right to a military trial as a prisoner of war).[41].

US and terrorism

Terrorism in the United States

In October 1995Oklahoma CityIncident that the Federal District Government Building inOklahoma City Federal Government Building Bombing Case) Happened. The criminalUS ArmyHave a military career inIrish AmericanMet. September-October 2001 in the United StatesB. anthracis terrorist incidentHappened. A white American scientist was arrested as the criminal. In 2001American terrorist attacksHappens, the president of the timeGeorge W. BushIs "War on terrorism,"US Patriot ActWe started to implement thorough measures starting with the enforcement of. this isAfghanistan Conflict (2001-)Led to.

Start of worldwide internet communication monitoring by NSA using "anti-terrorism" as an excuse after the terrorist attacks

Actually before thatUS National Security Agency(NSA) outside the United StatesインターネットThe communication via was monitored as usual, but (Watergate caseIn order to prevent the Citizen's national surveillance from being repeated, the lesson that the President monitored and abused the national communication.United States ConstitutionAccording to the regulations, until the terrorist attacks, it was an agreement that only Internet communications (between US citizens) in the United States could not be monitored without the permission of the court. It has expanded the scope of "measures" to create a mechanism for violating the US Constitution (to put it plainly) by monitoring Internet communications in the United States in full view without court permission.[42].. However, to the outside, he cleverly replaced the expressions and explained the lies as if they were anonymous and collected only a small amount of information. Knew only a few people at the heart of the NSA, a few NSA technicians, and the U.S. president could have a strong surveillance system.[42].. After all, the NSA took advantage of the fact that most of the Internet network is via the United States, and created a mechanism to monitor the whole amount of communication contents, including foreigners seen from the United States and even Americans.[42].. Eventually, however, some people began to notice that the illegal mechanism existed and accused newspaper publishers of it, but it was erased by the pressure of the Bush administration and others.[42].. After all, apart from the accusation (and the accusation of accusation), a young engineer of NSA (who has also worked for the (hidden) internet telecommunications company in Shibuya at the NSA's Japanese branch).Edward SnowdenNoticed the existence of the illegal system independently and informed the reporter of another newspaper company of the information, and the existence of a surveillance system for worldwide Internet communication by the US NSA became globally visible. Became known to people all over the world and became a big problem globally[42].

Homegrown Terrorism

2009から2010The terrorist attacks targeting the United States, including the attemptedProsecutionIt has been revealed that about 4% of those who did this were Americans.Family collapse,poverty,DiscriminationYoung people who have a sense of alienation due to various problems that American society hasインターネットThrough the exchange sites aboveMilitantsthoughtCausing terrorism,Homegrown Terrorism(Locally raised terrorists) are a threat[43][44].

In October 2013Boston Marathon Bomb TerrorismHappened. The criminal was a brother in the United States and was not a member of the terrorist organization.

Occurred on January 2021, 12021 United States Capitol AttackIs a type of homegrown terrorism that has been shown to be involved by organizations based in the United States.ParliamentWas stopped and the parliamentary function was stopped,National powerIt led to a situation in which a part of the dysfunction occurred.

Terrorism by the United States against other countries

Execution of terrorism by the US military and designation of terrorists

January 2020, Iran Revolutionary Guard CorpsGasem SoleimaniU.S. forces kill commander by air strike[45](= killing a dignitary). Regarding this, US President Trump posted on Twitter that if Iran counterattacked the people and property of the United States, "XNUMX targets Iran will be targeted," and not only military facilities but also cultural facilities will be targeted. Suggested to do so. The Iranian Parliament has passed a bill unifying the members of the U.S. military and the organizations and companies that belong to it as a terrorist, and the U.S. forces have been legally officially designated as a terrorist in Iran.[46].. The Iranian government said that terrorism by the US military state terrorism)[47],US Department of DefenseAnd its commanderPresident of the United States(=Donald Trump) Was designated as a terrorist[47].

対 応

Response to terrorism

Bill ClintonEnds terrorism with a common transnational(I.e.In consciousness, the United States will continue to fight terrorism forever, unless it provides aid to economically distressed countries, 2002University of California, BerkeleyPointed out in the lecture at[48].. People in developed countriesGlobal economy"Or"Technology・Boom and others are fooled around with the illusion of being in a global situation, but in reality most of the people in the world have not received such benefits.[48],Developing countryThen, due to economic collapse and deficiencies in the medical system,絶望Living in the mood, living costs of less than $1 a day for half of the world's population, and 2 million people within three yearsAIDS virusThe actual situation is that you are suffering from the fear of being infected with[48], This is a hotbed for terrorist organization[48].. Clinton points out that developing countries need a rebuilding plan to combat terrorism.[48], And more specifically, the following are listed.

  • Against the poorest countriesDebt reliefContinuation of[48]
  • Financing for small businesses in difficult economic regionsLoanStrengthening the working mechanism[48]
  • Development of medical infrastructure in developing countries[48]

And, in the long run (although the governments of developed countries often get caught up in the imminent choice of action) in the long run, rather than spending money in the form of war (with terrorism) (in predicament) Clinton also pointed out that spending less money to support and assist the government that is trying to establish a regime is less expensive.[48].. For example, a war in Afghanistan costs a billion dollars a month. Money should not be used in such a stupid way, but if it is used to rebuild and support developing countries, it will produce far better results.[48].

Yokkaichi UniversityPays attention to the type used as one of the countermeasures (from the many types of terrorism) in the case where an inferior entity in terms of both position and power continues to be rejected by the superior entity. , That type of terrorism is similar to the situation in which a kidnapper tries to proceed with negotiations by using "hostage" as a negotiation resource (analogyThought, analyzed, and discussed countermeasures[49].. The democratic state-terrorism dialogue is rejected in status but essential and inconsistent for the release of "hostage". As a result, democracy is often constrained when the state takes proactive measures against terrorism.[49].. EspeciallyHawkKeeps the attitude of "not negotiating with terrorists", but this isToadIt can only solve the problems in front of them such as kidnapping, cage, bombing, etc., but it does not lead to the calming of activities. When the members were killed or the organization was destroyed and arrested, Citizens remain in sympathy with the asserted ideas, which leads to the formation of new groups).

Takao Shimizu of the National Diet Library cites the following (legally in each country) as a measure against terrorism.

Opinions on measures are divided by expert and position. Some examples are:

  • Eliminate the cause of despair. Reach out to poverty-stricken areas. Establish a medical system for people in areas without medical care.
  • Instead of improving the political process (agreement process) and fighting war,DialogueEncourage. Make wealthy people in developed countries understand other people's troubles and circumstances.

The view that people in power in developed countries often show is that

  • "Don't benefit terrorists" (continue to prove its ineffectiveness as a game instrument)
  • "Specify, monitor, manage, and eliminate terrorists" (Specify terrorists (individuals, groups, organizations), monitor, manage, or eliminate actions)
  • "Control the spread of damage to a minimum" (manage and monitor physical power (armor), set a crisis management area, and eliminate the approach of terrorists)

All of政府(administration,Administration) Is myPeople-CitizenHowever, if the minimum level of living standards required can be guaranteed, terrorism against the economic backdrop is unlikely to occur.

According to Yasumi Doi, the US approach to terrorism is a punishment law.rhetoricIt is close to. That is, the purpose of the "war on terrorism" is to disrupt the terrorist organization network and take criminals to court.[51].

Japan

According to the Japanese “Police White Paper”Extreme left violence"as well asRight wing groupThe "terrorism, guerrilla" incident has been suppressed by the police and various illegal cases have been cracked down.[52].. In addition, the Ministry of Finance is implementing asset freeze measures based on the UN Security Council Resolution on Freezing of International Terrorism Funds.

Concerns and criticisms against terrorism

The state's concerns and criticisms against counter-terrorism have turned counter-terrorism into official enforcement terrorism and used to justify excessive violence and illegal activities (there are some incidental sacrifices to eradicate terrorism). There is also criticism that it is unavoidable. Specifically, there are accidental fires and explosions to the general public due to public-execution-type terrorism.

またPalestinian problemInIsraeli armyAttack on northern IraqKurdish Autonomous Region OfKurdishToトルコAttack,Basque Countryas well as the ETAToスペインAttitude,Chechen RepublicTo the independentロシアAttitude,Northern Ireland problemJustify excessive violence using counter-terrorism, or counter-terrorismCauseMay be considered as an example of system-side terrorism and public-execution-type terrorism[† 3].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Legal text

  1. ^ "Act on Punishment for Providing Funds, etc. for Criminal Activities for Intimidation of Public[27]"First article
    In this Act, "criminal acts for the purpose of intimidating the public" meansCriminal acts performed for the purpose of threatening the public, the national government, local governments, foreign governments, etc. (meaning foreign governments, local governments, or international organizations established by treaties or other international commitments)And that falls under any of the following items.

    The act of killing one person, injuring the body by the use of weapons or other methods that seriously harm the body of the person, or plundering, abducting, or hostaging a person.

    two

    (A) An act of crashing, overturning, or submerging an aircraft in flight, or causing danger to its navigation.
    (B) The act of sinking or capsizing a ship that is navigating, or causing danger to its navigation.
    (C) Using acts of violence or intimidation or other methods to put people in an uncontrollable state, forcing an aircraft or ship in flight or taking control of its operation as desired.
    D. Explosion of explosives, arson, or other methods that destroy aircraft or ships and cause other serious damage to them.

    (Iii) Acts of exploding explosives, arranging them, or destroying them by any other method that causes serious damage to the following, or otherwise causing serious damage to them.

    (A) Vehicles used for transporting electric trains, automobiles, or other persons or things, which are used for public use or public use, or facilities used for their operation
    (B) Roads, parks, stations, and other public facilities
    (C) A facility for supplying electricity or gas, a water supply facility or a sewer facility, or a facility for performing telecommunications, which is provided for public use or public use
    Facility for producing, processing, transporting, or storing petroleum, flammable natural gas, coal, substances that are nuclear fuels, or substances that are the raw materials thereof, and processing them for refining or other fuels.
    E Buildings (excluding those falling under items a to d)
  2. ^ "National Police Agency Ordinance[28]Article 39
    The International Terrorism Countermeasures Section is in charge of the following affairs.

    1 Terrorism by a foreigner or a Japanese whose headquarters isViolent sabotage based on political or other principled claims that is intended to achieve its purpose by causing widespread fear or anxiety.) Related to the collection and arrangement of security information regarding security activities related to these activities.

  3. ^ "Self Defense Law[29]”Article 81-2 Paragraph 1
    The Prime Minister, at the following facilities or facilities and areas in Japan,Acts of compelling the nation or others, or killing a large number of people or destroying important facilities or other objects for the purpose of causing anxiety or fear to society based on political or other principlesIf there is a possibility that the above will be performed and there is a special need to prevent the damage, a dispatch of troops, etc. may be ordered to protect the facility or the facility and area.

    One SDF facility

    (Ii) Mutual cooperation between Japan and the United States, facilities and areas under Article XNUMX of the Security Treaty, and facilities and areas under Article XNUMX paragraph XNUMX of the Agreement on the Status of the United States Armed Forces in Japan ( Limited to those that are decided to be guarded by the Self-Defense Forces, etc. by the Joint Committee of Article.)

  4. ^ "Act on the Protection of Specified Secrets[30]”Article 12 Paragraph 2
    (I) Specific harmful activities (for the purpose of acquiring information that is not publicly available and the leakage of which may impair Japan's security, nuclear weapons, military chemicals or bacteria, or the dissemination of these) Activities or other activities for exporting or importing the above equipment or rockets or unmanned aerial vehicles capable of transporting these, or those that are considered to have a particularly high risk of being used for development, manufacturing, use, or storage thereof. Which is carried out for the purpose of gaining foreign interests and which may or may pose a significant risk to the safety of Japan and its citizens.Terrorism (acting to kill a person or destroy important facilities or other objects for the purpose of forcing the nation or others to do so based on political or other principles, or to cause anxiety or fear in society. ..The same applies to item XNUMX of the same table. Matters concerning the relationship with () the family of the person to be evaluated (spouse (including those who have not reported marriage, but are in fact in a situation similar to their marriage relationship; the same applies hereinafter in this issue), parents, children , Siblings, and parents and children of spouses other than these. The same shall apply hereinafter in this item) and the names of people living together (excluding family members), date of birth, nationality (nationality previously held And including the address.)

注 釈

  1. ^ cf.Escort dispatch'
  2. ^ Regarding this core concept, “Countermeasures against terrorism: Introduction to coping with ubiquitous crisis” by the Committee on Countering Terrorism(Edited by Naofumi Miyasaka, Aki Shobo, July 2006,ISBN 978-4-7505-0608-1As described on page 19.
  3. ^ According to a survey by the Israeli human rights group "Betherem",2006The ratio of victims of Palestine and Israel is 660 to 23. According to Patrick O'Connor, it has been 2000 to 39 since 10.[Source required].. From such survey results, criticism is made that "Israel's use of force is excessive and inhumane"[Who?].

Source

  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary”. Etymonline.com (October 1979, 10). 2009th of February 8Browse.
  2. ^ Kim Campbell (September 2001, 9). “When is'terrorist' a subjective term?”. Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0927/p16s2-wogi.html 2010th of February 1Browse"New York Times columnist William Safire wrote that the word" terrorist "has its roots in the Latin terrere, which means" to frighten "." 
  3. ^ a b "What is terrorism], p. 50.
  4. ^ Palmer, RR (2014). "The French Directory Between Extremes". The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. The Age of the Democratic Revolution. Princeton University Press. pp. 544–567 . ISBN 9780691161280.
  5. ^ a b c Geoffrey Nunberg (October 2001, 10). “Head Games / It All Started with Robespierre / "Terrorism": The history of a very frightening word”. San Francisco Chronicle. http://articles.sfgate.com/2001-10-28/opinion/17622543_1_terrorism-robespierre-la-terreur 2010th of February 1Browse"For the next 150 years the word" terrorism "led a double life – a justifiable political strategy to some an abomination to others" 
  6. ^ Kellner, Douglas (April 2004). “9/11, spectacles of terror, and media manipulation: A critique of Jihadist and Bush media politics”. Critical Discourse Studies 1 (1): 41–64. two:10.1080/17405900410001674515. ISSN 1740-5904. 
  7. ^ a b Takao Shimizu "Definition of Terrorism-An Attempt to Criminalize International(PDF) National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau, 2005.
  8. ^ "terrorism”. Etymological dictionary. 2018th of February 4Browse.
  9. ^ "terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3. 2006th of February 8Browse.
  10. ^ a b "Parrot and 9.11" [Page number required]
  11. ^ Record, Jeffrey (December 2003). “Bounding the Global War on Terrorism". Strategic Studies Institute (SSI). 2009th of February 11Browse. “The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the US Government. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited . ”
  12. ^ Schmid, Alex, and Jongman, Albert. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data bases, Theories and Literature, Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland; New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988.
  13. ^ a b c "Inside Terrorism". The New York Times. 2014th of February 5Browse.. Hoffman, Bruce (1998). Inside Terrorism.Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11468-0 
  14. ^ Elysa Gardner (December 2008, 12). “Harold Pinter: Theater's singular voice falls silent”. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/theater/news/2008-12-25-pinter_N.htm 2010th of February 1Browse"In 2004, he earned the prestigious Wilfred Owen prize for a series of poems approaching the war in Iraq. In his acceptance speech, Pinter described the war as" a bandit act, an act of blatant state terrorism, demonstrating absolute contempt for the concept of international law "." 
  15. ^ "Terrorist world], p. 11.
  16. ^ Yuzo Hatano "Concept of "Crisis" in International Politics: A Study on International Terrorism"Hakuoh University Ronshu" Vol. 16, No. 2, Hakuoh University, March 2002, pp. 3-1, ISSN 0913-7661.
  17. ^ "UN Reform”. United Nations (March 2005, 3). As of April 21, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 7Browse. “The second part of the report, entitled“ Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism–an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community–as any action “intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non- combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act ""
  18. ^ Self-Defense Force Counter Terrorism
  19. ^ Conclusion of treaties related to terrorism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  20. ^ FBI (1998). “TERRORISM 1998-FBI". 2016th of February 8Browse.
  21. ^ Mieko Hirano, Keiji Tsuchiya, Kaori Nakagawa (2003). “US Patriot Act (Anti-terrorism Act) (below)". Foreign legislation 215 (2003.2).National Diet Library. 2016th of February 8Browse.
  22. ^ 28 CFR 0.85 'Terrorism includes the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.' and Hearings on Domestic Security Measures Relating to Terrorism Before the Subcommitee on Civil and Consitutional Right of Committee on Judiciary, House of Representatives, 98th Congress, February 8 and 9.Jury. 1984.pp.16.
  23. ^ a b Mieko Ihi (2006). “Counterterrorism in the United States after the September 9 terrorist attacks". Foreign legislation 228 (2006.5). National Diet Library. Retrieved 2016-0806.
  24. ^ 22 US Code § 2656f(d) excerpt'the term “terrorist group” means any group practicing, or which has significant subgroups which practice, international terrorism'
  25. ^ US Department of State. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations". 2016th of February 8Browse.
  26. ^ United States CodeVolume 8 Article 1182 8 USC § 1182
  27. ^ Act on Punishment for Providing Funds, etc. for Criminal Activities for Intimidation of Public - e-Gov Law Search
  28. ^ National Police Agency Ordinance Chapter XNUMX - e-Gov Law Search
  29. ^ Self Defense Force Act - e-Gov Law Search
  30. ^ Law on protection of specific secrets - e-Gov Law Search
  31. ^ "North Korea's “nuclear” and “abduction” can be resolved], p. 73.
  32. ^ Minutes of the 156th plenary session of the Diet
  33. ^ 168th National Assembly House Abductions Committee Resolution-Resolution against US "de-designation of terrorism-supporting state against North Korea"
  34. ^ “Abduction of terrorism, legally difficult foreign ministers, family meetings and visits”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2003, 3). http://www.asahi.com/special/abductees/TKY200303120250.html 2010th of February 12Browse. 
  35. ^ "People who despise Japan], p. 39.
  36. ^ "From the window of Tokyo to the world], p. 59.
  37. ^ Public Security Intelligence Agency “Homegrown Terrorist” Threat
  38. ^ Rick Colesert (September 2004). “End of the century swayed by anarchist terrorism”. Le Monde Diplomatique. http://www.diplo.jp/articles04/0409-2.html 2008th of February 5Browse. 
  39. ^ "Terrorist world], p. 32.
  40. ^ "Terrorism (Gaylow & Senna)], p. 10.
  41. ^ (May 2011, 5). “Hiroyuki Noguchi's Security Reader“ Terrorists Are Not POWs ””. Sankei Shimbun 
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  43. ^ “Special feature: 9 years since September 11 terrorism, the end of the battle cannot be seen”. Mainichi Newspapers Daily jp(July 2011, 9). http://mainichi.jp/select/world/america/archive/news/2011/09/06/20110906ddm010030010000c.html 2011th of February 9Browse. [Broken link]
  44. ^ "Ten years have passed since the terrorist attacks on the United States, a new threat has emerged called "homegrown terrorism"". FNN News Network. Retrieved May 2011, 9.[Broken link]
  45. ^ BBC "Iran Revolutionary Guard Commander dies in US airstrike after arrival in Baghdad"
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References

Japanese literature

Book

paper

Non-Japanese literature

  • "What is'Terrorism'? Problems of Legal Definition" (2004) 27 University of New South Wales Law Journal 270.
  • Y. Alexander, and MF Seymour, eds. 1978. Terrorism: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
  • JB Bell, 1978. A time of terror. How democratic societies respond to revolutionary violence. New York: Basic Books.
  • D. Carlton, and C. Schaerf, eds. 1981. Contemporary terror: Studies in substate violence. London: Macmillan.
  • RS Cline and Y. Alexander. 1986. Terrorism as state-sponsored covert warfare. Fairfax, Va.: HERO Books.
  • JD Douglass and NC Livingstone. 1987. America the vulnerable: The threat of chemical and biological warfare. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
  • RB Farrell, 1986. Responding to terrorims: conventions and commentary. Charlottesvill, Va.: Mitchite.
  • RH Kupperman, 1983. Tecnological advances and consequent dangers: Grouwing threats to civilization. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • AB Krueger, 2007. What makes a terrorist. Princeton Univ. Press.
  • P. Leventhal and Y. Alexander, eds. 1987. Preventing nuclear terrorism. Lexington, Mass .: Lexington Books.
  • GM Levitt, 1988. Democracies against terror. New York: Praeger.
  • RB Lillich, ed. 1982. Transnational terrorism: conventions and community. Charlottesville, Va.: Mitchie.
  • NC Livingstone and TE Arnold, eds. 1986. Fighting back: Winning the war against terrorism. Lexington: Heath.
  • NC Livingtone and AE Terrell, eds. 1988. Beyond the Iran-Contra crisis. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
  • E. Marks and D. Van Opstal. 1986. Combating terrorism: A matter of leverage.Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • DC Martine and J. Walcott. 1988. Best laid plans: The inside story of America's war against terrorism. New York: Haper and Row.
  • O. Revell, 1988. Terrorism: A law enforcement perspective. Washington, DC: US ​​Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  • JP Terry, 1980. State terrorism: A juridical analysis. Journal of Palestine Studies 10:94-117.
  • JP Terry, 1982. The Iranian hostate crisis: International law and US policy. JAG Journal 32-31-79.
  • JP Terry, 1986. countering state sponsored terrosim: A law policy analysis. Naval Law Review 36:159-86.
  • JP Terry, 1986. An appraisal of lawful military response to state-sponsored terrorism. Naval War College Review 39:59-68.
  • RH Wilcox and PJ Garrity, eds. 1983. America's hidden vulnerabilities: Crisis management in a society of networks.Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

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