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🎥 | "A City of Sadness" etc. All-in-one screening of director Hou Hsiao-Shen "Taiwan Masterpiece Selection 2021" From April 4th


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"A City of Sadness" and other films directed by Hou Hsiao-Shen "Taiwan Masterpiece Selection 2021" from April 4th

 
If you write the contents roughly
"Flowers of Shanghai" starring Tony Leung & Michiko Hada who challenged the historical drama for the first time.
 

"Taiwan Masterpiece Selection 22 Hou Hsiao-Tak ..." which screens all 2021 works related to Hou Xiao Shen that can be screened in Japan at once. → Continue reading

 Movie Square

"Movie Square" is a site that publishes movie introductions, news, and reviews.We will actively take up not only the latest works but also old works.


Wikipedia related words

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Historical drama

Historical drama(Jidaigeki) is from Japantheater,movies,TV dramaAs a genre that is roughly divided into modern drama, etc.Meiji RestorationIt is a general term for works set in Japan in the previous era.[1][2].

Overview

Definition of historical drama

The genre of historical drama is mainly due to the number of works.Heian periodWorks dealing with the period from the Meiji Restoration to the Meiji Restoration are also interpreted as "historical drama".However, it is just an interpretation, and there is no strict definition.Of course, there is an interpretation that it includes ancient times before the Nara period.[Annotation 1]..It refers to historical drama films, "It is a name for drama films dealing with the times before the Meiji Restoration, and has a wide range of genres for contemporary drama."[3]Also, "If the main character is the person who tied the mage, it is defined as a historical drama movie."[4]There are various interpretations such as what to say.

And many of the historical dramas are set in the Edo period.

Chama la

On the other hand, historical dramaChama laAlso called.This is a climaxSwashbucklerIt refers to a historical drama with a scene, and it is also a sub-genre in the historical drama, and the historical drama is not an immediate sword fight.EtymologyNew national dramaSwordplay from[5]Affected bySword fight movieSo, when the two swords collide with each other while standing around (sword fighting), the sound emitted by the swords is expressed as "chan-chan dismembered" by onomatopoeia, so it is an abbreviation used.[6].

Apart from this, historical drama is popularMage(Magemono),ChonmageAlso known as (chonmage)[2],in English"Samurai cinema""Samurai film"Or"Samurai drama'[Annotation 2]Is written[Annotation 3].

Historical drama

For historical drama "Historical drama(Historical drama) ”, But distinguish between close to fiction and close to nonfiction.Historical novelとHistorical novelUnlike, the ones in Japan are called "historical drama", and the ones outside Japan are called "historical drama" or "historical drama".

Historical drama as fiction

Historical drama often features actual historical events and historical figures, but the characters that appear, the customs, customs, sound effects, and dialogue of that era are bold.fictionIt has been transformed into something that is easy for the masses of the age when the historical drama was produced.

In old historical drama, the details and words arekabukiStrongly influenced by the pre-modern periodidentityDiscriminationDiscrimination against womenThere were many depictions that reflected, but due to the changes of the times, the development of the story was changed so as not to give a sense of discomfort to the modern audience.[Annotation 4],ShowHowever, it was inevitable that he would approach modern drama.In any historical drama, dareHistorical examinationThere are more or less parts that ignore, and in most cases the characters' personalities and ways of thinking are interpreted and modified to match modern values.

As a general rule, the history depicted in historical drama is just fiction, and even if the same subject matter is used, works with completely different interpretations are produced.[Annotation 5].

Birth of historical drama

The term "historical drama" was originally usedActivity photoIt is a word that was born from, and is a genre that has walked along with the history of movies.And in the early days when movies were called activity photography, there was no genre strictly called historical drama.

Old drama movie

In 1899 (Meiji 32), some films remain as the oldest existing movie in Japan, in which "Momijigari", which shot the performances of Kabuki's XNUMXth generation Ichikawa Danjuro and XNUMXth generation Onoe Kikugoro, was shot. However, this is not for the purpose of movie entertainment, but is only recorded.[7][Annotation 6]..And the first historical drama film shot for the purpose of movie entertainment was Shozo Makino (later) in 1908 (Meiji 41).Makino Shozo) Produced "Honnoji Battle] Is the starting point.However, this first historical drama was called an old drama at that time.[8].

From the Meiji era to the middle of the Taisho era, all the period objects were old plays.There were many subjects from storytelling and Kabuki, and it is said that there were many accompaniment of music and hayashi by voice benshi and Japanese musical instruments, strongly retaining the remnants of the stage such as character modeling, costumes, makeup, acting, standing around, and onnagata.[9].

Name before historical drama movie

Around the beginning of the 1920s, a movement to innovate Japanese films called "movie drama" took place, emphasizing scenarios in Europe and the United States, utilizing film techniques and devising expressions, using subtitles independent of benshi, and actresses. There was a movement to seek newness in the content of the entire movie, from shooting to editing, which is different from the activity photography up to this time, such as recruitment.Inspired by that, the words "old drama film adaptation", "old drama movie remodeling theory", and "movie dramatic old drama" were used in the commentary on activity photographs.[10].

"Honnoji Battle』Since then, to list the names used in the promotion along with the title of the movie, old drama, innovative old school movie, pure movie drama, new movie drama, old school pure movie drama, new period drama and new period movie, period drama and period movie Becomes[11]..Innovative old-fashioned movies are old-fashioned, but they have natural depictions that make use of location shooting, fine cuts, but adopted female figures.The film drama was closer to the Western-style film style, with an emphasis on screenplay and filming techniques, subtitles, and actresses.The pure movie drama and the new movie drama are the same, and although Shozo Makino's "Jitsuroku Chushinzo" was called a new movie drama, the adoption of the female form remained.It was a pure film movement that adopted the actress, although it brought the old drama closer to the movie drama.And it was called the new period drama and the new period movie that further promoted the movie drama of the old drama, and with a new interpretation and a new perspective, the acting also introduced a new drama system and adopted an actress.[12].

In response to the playfulness of old drama movies, the absurd unreality, and the unnaturalness of the absence of actresses, a new historical drama called "new historical drama" was eventually created.[13].

The first historical film

The first movie called historical drama was "Honnoji Battle"Shimizu no Jirocho" produced at Matsutake Kamata Photo Studio in 14 (Taisho 1922), 11 years after[Annotation 7]It is said that this movie was the beginning of a movie called "historical drama" because it was named "new historical drama" in the advertising phrase of.[Annotation 8].. The directorNomura Yoshitei(Yoshitaro NomuraThe director's father) wrote the script for this movieDaisuke ItoPromotes a mage movie that was previously called "old drama"New historical dramaI named it and released it.Therefore, "the name historical drama is named after the movie produced at Shochiku Kamata Studio."[14], Is said to be.

However, Kenji Iwamoto called "new period drama" and "new period movie" by Kinema Matsutake from 1922 (Taisho 11) to 1923 (Taisho 12) in his book "The Birth of" Period Film "". It is said that the Makino movies of the period were mixed as they were called "historical drama" and "historical movie".And it was simplified and "historical drama" became established.[15].

Kabuki period

kabukiIn the field of ", the program dealing with the past era than the Edo period"Period(The subject is the upper society such as samurai, aristocrats, and monks), and the modern drama of the Edo period was called "caretaker".[16]. AndTsuruya north and southThese "life care" are from the Edo period, which depicts the lives of ordinary people, but since it was impossible to focus on the upper society such as samurai in the Edo period, the samurai go back to the past. He drew aristocrats and monks and projected the reality of the present generation.In addition, what was based on the appearance of ordinary people in the past was also called "time care".Originally, the name "Jidaimono" started from Ningyo Joruri and moved to Kabuki, where the "era" was from the 7th century to the 15th century, such as the Nara, Heian, Kamakura, and Muromachi periods before the Edo period.[17]..And, in fact, the social situation and public opinion of the Edo period are strongly reflected, and the figure modeling is also contemporary, so even today, the historical drama is largely the inside out of the modern drama.[18].

Old school drama in theater

Japanese theater after the Meiji Restoration began in 1888 (Meiji 21).Liberal partySorcererSudō SadanoriRagaOsakaFounded inOtojiro KawakamiIn order to differentiate Kabuki from Kabuki by Japanese journalism in the latter half of the 1890s (Meiji 30's), Kabuki was referred to as "Old School" and Kabuki was referred to as "Old School".New school'[19]In 1906 (Meiji 39)Tsuyouchi-Shimamura HogetsuThe Literary Society of Japan, in 1909 (Meiji 42)Kaoru Oyamauchi-Second generation Ichikawa SajiLanoFree theaterKabuki (old school), a play under the influence of modern European dramaNew schoolTo differentiate fromNew playI called myself[20].

New national drama and sword play

AndTsuyouchiWas a student of ShingekiShojiro SawadaIn 1917 (Taisho 6), the theater company "New national drama'[21]"Swordplay" introduced from Kabuki[5]Developed and gained popularity with the aim of becoming a popular play that is neither old nor new nor new.[Annotation 9]..The main performance of the new national drama, "Moon-shaped half flat"When"National Tadaharu』Was popular and made into a movie.

In this way, the current dichotomy between "historical drama" and "modern drama" originates from the "historical drama" and "caretaker" of the Edo period, and along with the development of drama in the Meiji era, "old drama" and "new drama". In the Taisho era, it was called "historical drama" or "modern drama" from activity photographs, and this genre deals with "the era before the Meiji Restoration".However, this term "historical drama" originated in movies and is not used in Kabuki, which was influenced by many in the first place.The terms play and sword fight are also used in the world of new national drama and popular drama, and the history of "historical drama" is mainly in movies and television.

Historical drama of activity photography

The first historical drama was Shozo Makino (Meiji 1908) in 41 (Meiji XNUMX) as mentioned above.Makino Shozo) Taken in KyotoYokota ShokaiAt that time, it was called "old drama"Honnoji Battle].At that time, Einosuke Yokota, who established Yokota Shokai[Annotation 10]Asked the theater people for their cooperation and asked Shozo Makino, who runs a playhouse called Senbonza in Kyoto Nishijin, to cooperate with him, and Makino always performed on the stage of Senbonza in the precincts of Shinyodo. The activity photo made by making the "Mori Ranmaru Battlefield" of the madness "Honnoji Battle" played by Senbonza Theater performed outdoors and shooting it in one scene and one cut is "Honnoji Battle"Met[22]..Since then, Shozo Makino has made about six movies including "Honnoji Battle", but the box office record was not good, and soon he began to think about withdrawing from the movie, but the following year 6 (Meiji 1909) Was sitting in the Senbonza theaterMatsunosuke OnoeThe movie starring the movie became popular, and since then Shozo Makino and Matsunosuke Onoe have become the mainstream of historical drama movies from the end of the Meiji era to the end of the Taisho era.[23].

Mud play

In this way, the historical drama began with the imitation of Kabuki.[24]..The activity photographs of this era did not have the technique of zooming, and the screening form was to show a film of Kabuki's performance play, which was called an old school / old drama, taken outdoors as it was in a hut. The Kabuki actor despised the actor in the activity film as a "mud play" as "the people who play on the soil."[25]..However, it is true that historical drama began with imitation of Kabuki, but Kabuki here is not only "Dai Kabuki", but also plays of traveling troupes and plays performed in small huts until the Meiji era. It was all Kabuki[26]..Of a movie criticTadao Sato"It was mainly second-class Kabuki people who started making historical drama in Kyoto," he said.[27].

Appearance of historical drama star

The first star of a historical movie wasMatsunosuke OnoeIs. In 1909 (Meiji 42)Makino ShozoIn collaboration with "Goban Tadanobu Genji Foundation"[Annotation 11]Made his movie debut in 1926 (Taisho 15), "The Crescent Moon"[Annotation 12]He has appeared in 17 historical films in 1003 years. Nicknamed "Matsu-chan, the centerpiece", he has Kabuki, storytelling, and Tachikawa Bunko.[Annotation 13]He played the hero of Nikkatsu repeatedly and played an active part as a signboard star of Nikkatsu.EspeciallySpecial effects"Ninjutsu movie" by trick shooting, which is the pioneer of the movie, is the XNUMXth movie, which is based on Kabuki and is "a ridiculous thing for children".[28]However, after making a mark in the history of historical drama for 17 years, Matsunosuke Onoe made a great contribution to spreading the film to the general public.[29]..However, at the end of the Taisho era, Matsunosuke's sword fight[Annotation 14]I got tired of it, and the audience began to seek a sword fight that was faster, more realistic, and had a fierce tone.[30]..Also, apart from this, at about the same timeSawamura Shirogoro Has gained popularity in ninjutsu films directed by Jiro Yoshino and has appeared in more than 200 films.

Historical drama of the Taisho era

Until then in 1912 (Taisho XNUMXst year)Yokota Shokai,Fukuhodo,M. Pathe Shokai,Yoshizawa Shokai"Nikkatsu Photo Co., Ltd."Nikkatsu) Was born.It was the first full-scale movie company in Japan.Nikkatsu set up studios in Tokyo Mukojima and Kyoto Nijo Castle, and Mukojima decided to produce a new school and an old drama in Kyoto Nijo.[31]..And Shozo Makino and Matsunosuke Onoe belonged to Nikkatsu.Apart from this, in 1914 (Taisho 3), "Natural Color Activity Photo Co., Ltd." (Tenkatsu) Was established and Jiro Yoshino and Sawamura Shirogoro belonged to it.

And it was under the influence of Kabuki, which was an old school until around 1920 (Taisho 9), and the role of women isFemale formWas playing and later became a historical drama directorKinugasa SadanosukeWas a female figure of Nikkatsu Mukojima Studio at this time[Annotation 15].

On the other handKiyoshi YamazakiIn 1919 (Taisho 8)New playThe modern drama "The Glow of Life" and "The Glow of Life"Maiden of MiyamaThe following year, 1920 (Taisho 9), Shochiku, who had only worked on Kabuki entertainment until then, announcedShochiku KinemaKaoru Osanai, a new drama, started the same yearShochiku KinemaWhen he was invited to take an activity photo, Shochiku did not use a female onnagata from the beginning and appointed an actress to the movie.From among themYoshiko Kawada,Sakuko Yanagi,Toshiko IizukaBecame the stars of the Shochiku period drama[Annotation 16].

Around this time, Shochiku embarked on a movie business because it had more customers at the Osaka Dotonbori Asahiza, which Shochiku lent to Nikkatsu at the time, than the theater it owned, and it was advocated that Takejiro Shirai should embark on a movie. Takejiro Otani sent his youngest brother Shintaro to the United States to investigate the American movie business before entering the market, but at that time Takejiro Otani said, "Japanese movie actors are a group of deceased people who are not used on the first-class stage. "We cannot compete with the world movie world as it is," he said, with a view to "making something that is not embarrassing to the world and exporting movies."For that purpose, I decided not to use Onnagata from the beginning.[32][Annotation 17]..As for the old drama, Nikkatsu's Matsunosuke Onoe was trying to establish a realistic sword fight by dedicating the new national drama to the Kabuki sword fight.[33].

Until around 1922 (Taisho 11)NikkatsuWas appointed as a female actor in the modern drama due to the influence of the Shinpa, but at the end of the year, more than 10 new actors with female actorsInternational live action(National activity)[Annotation 18]Since he was transferred to, he stopped using the female onnagata and appointed an actress, and started producing a new dramatic contemporary drama.At that time, the name in Nikkatsu was "Nikkatsu Old Drama Club" for historical drama and "Nikkatsu New Drama Club" for contemporary drama.At that time, even in Tokyo, SugamoInternational live actionHistorical drama films were actively produced in (Kokukatsu), etc., but the development of new plays and their introduction into movies were led by Tokyo, and eventually Kokukatsu went bankrupt and human resources flowed out to Kyoto. It became the origin of the segregation between "Kyoto of historical drama" and "Tokyo of contemporary drama".In addition, Makino Shozo used a female onnagata in the movie of Matsunosuke Onoe and did not use an actress, but Nikkatsu starred Matsunosuke Onoe in 1924 (Taisho 13).Passing guard and samuraiI'm using an actress for the first time[Annotation 19].

In 1923 (Taisho 12), Nikkatsu Mukojima Studio also started hiring actresses, and set up a section called "Part XNUMX" to make a movie with actresses.The modern drama of the year "Before the AsahiIs the first work, and later a big star of the Nikkatsu historical dramaYoneko SakaiIs produced.In September of the same year, TokyoGreat Kanto EarthquakeAttacked, and the Nikkatsu Mukojima studio was closed.Actresses and staff moved to Nikkatsu Kyoto, and since then Kyoto has become the home of historical films.[Annotation 20].

Makino historical drama

Shozo Makino became independent from Nikkatsu in 1921 (Taisho 10).Makino Educational Film FactoryWas established.This was also the fact that Shozo Makino separated from Matsunosuke Onoe and the old drama.[Annotation 21]..At that time, Matsunosuke Onoe became a popular actor in ninjutsu movies, but on the other hand, he was criticized for having an adverse effect on young people, and while it is said that he aimed to criticize it as an educational movie, it is simple. It is said that he was looking for a way out of the Matsunosuke movie, which was a "childish swashbuckler movie" due to poetic justice.[34]..And in 1922 (Taisho 11), "Memoir Tadaomizo』Produced and made a movie with a novel movement at that time using a realistic sword fight that was created by the new national drama.Watch this movieRokuhei Susukita[Annotation 22]Joined under Makino, and eventually in 1925 (Taisho 14)Rokuhei SusukitaIs the script,Buntaro FutagawaDirected byBando TsuzumasaburoWas produced with the lead role of "Oro Blood"Met.The scene where the main character in the last is surrounded by a large number of captures and becomes a big swashbuckler scene is powerful, and the fierce turn of Hanzuma shows a realistic sword fight that is completely different from the elegance of Kabuki style until then. It breathed new life into historical films.Since then he has become a major star in swashbuckler movies.The sword fight that was developed in the new national drama was incorporated into the sword fight of the movie, and what was formerly called the old drama became a new genre called the historical drama.[35].

Introducing the Chamber Raster

Around this time, Shozo Makino was in 1924 (Taisho 13).Toa KinemaIn 1925 (Taisho 14), the following yearUnion Film Artists AssociationWas established, and in June of the same yearMakino ProductionWas established.Makino hereBando Tsuzumasaburo,Utaemon Ichikawa,Chiezo Kataoka,Hirotoro Arashi,Ryunosuke TsukigataCreated these stars.They were "Chamber Stars" who brought a showcase of "Swashbuckler" to historical drama, and since then "Chamber Movie" has become the mainstream of historical drama.After Makino leftNikkatsuHe was also a member of Kaoru Osanai, a new drama.Daisuke ItoI came to Nikkatsu from the director and the second new national dramaTojiro OkouchiA combination starring has appeared, and with this combination, "Bakumatsu Kenshi Nagato" and "Chuji Journey Diary''Shirou''New edition Ooka Masanori』And produced masterpieces one after another, and"Tange Sazen』The series started and became a hit[36]. thisDaisuke ItoThe director laterUtaemon IchikawaStarring "One-kill multi-life sword],Ryunosuke TsukigataStarring "Zanjin Zanba Sword] Is being produced.It was a "rebellious hero" movie that was different from the "Matsunosuke movie"[37].

It was founded in 1925 (Taisho 14).Bando Tsumaburo ProductionLeading by (Sakazuma Pro), they "Chamber Raster" established Star Productions one after another independently and mass-produced Chamara's star movies.Bando Tsumasaburo was a bamboo grove in the suburbs of Kyoto.Toei KyotoThe person who built the studio for the first time in the land ofToei Kyoto StudioIt became Toei Kyoto Studio Park.

And in September 1926 (Taisho 15) when the Taisho era was about to end, the first historical drama star of Japanese moviesMatsunosuke OnoeDied.Rokuhei SusukitaとBando Tsuzumasaburo,Daisuke ItoとTojiro OkouchiWith the rise of the combination, Matsunosuke himself felt that his previous films had not adapted to the times.[38]..In 1917 (Taisho 6), which was the heyday, it was mass-produced at a rate of 9 pieces a month and 3 piece every 1 days, and criticized as "crude overproduced products for low-ranking audiences" and "only bad works with no depth or width". Matsunosuke continued to make films even though he was done, but Junichiro Tanaka wrote in his book "History of Japanese Film Development" that "while other films were dramatic and had few movements, they entrusted everything to the development of content by Kashiro. Based on Matsunosuke's own nimble movements and the production policy of Shozo Makino, which he grasped as one of the essences of the movie, he said, "I didn't feel bored and had movements and changes that satisfied my eyesight." It was more suitable for the cinematic nature than the movie. "[39].

Prewar historical drama

In 1927 (Showa 2), Shochiku became Chojiro Hayashi (Kazuo Hasegawa) As a historical drama star,Female formThe beauty of her native Hayashi captivates women all over Japan[Annotation 23]..The appearance of Chojiro Hayashi became an epoch for women in historical films, while the stars other than him were overwhelmingly male fans.

Around this timeMakino ShozoIs a masterpieceTadashi soul Yoshiretsu Memoir Tadashi Omizo』Started production.However, due to repeated troubles during shooting, Chiezou Kataoka and Kanjuro Arashi separated, and they made it with all their soul.Tadashi soul Yoshiretsu Memoir Tadashi OmizoIn 1929 (Showa 4), he died in disappointment after suffering the misfortune of causing a fire and burning it while editing the film.But my son'sMakino Masahiro(Later Masahiro Makino) said in the previous yearRonin areaAfter that, he continued to make historical dramas during the prewar and postwar eras, and by 1972 (Showa 47) he had produced 261 films, most of which were historical dramas.

Chiezo Pro

On the other hand, Chiezou Kataoka became independent from Makino Production.Chiezo ProWas established, but at that timeDaisuke ItoI consulted with the director and received advice to the effect that "I will provide two young people who are at my place, so I should make a different historical drama."What are the two young peopleItami Mansaku(Itami XIIIFather) andHiroshi InagakiMet.Eventually, Mansaku Itami became a professional Chiezou Kataoka.Kokushi Musou"[Annotation 24]"Sengoku Kitan Whimsical Crowner''Capricious Young Man』And made a new intellectual and bright historical drama, and was called" Meiro period drama ".Humorous and nonsense, it was endorsed by an audience who was disgusted by the gruesome swashbucklers and dark tendencies of the past.[40]. AlsoHiroshi InagakiIs Chiezou KataokaEyelid mother"I made excellent works such as" with a single sword bale ".

Narutaki group

In 1934 (Showa 9), a movie director in Narutaki, KyotoEisuke Takizawa,Hiroshi Inagaki,Suzuki Momosaku, Of the scriptShintaro Mimura,Fuji Yahiro,Shigeji FujiiVolunteers gathered, and moreSadao Yamanaka,Ryo HagiwaraA total of eight people gathered together and the joint pen name "Kajiwara Kinpachi'[Annotation 25]He created a scenario under the name of, and adopted modern language in the historical drama film that was produced, creating a new style and becoming a major force.This groupNarutaki groupIn response to the flow of Chiezou Kataoka's professional Chiezou, he produced a bright historical drama with humor.The masterpiece of the movie produced by this Narutaki groupSadao Yamanakadirected by,Tojiro OkouchiStarring "Tange Sazen Side Story A Million Ryo Pot].These historical dramas are "modern dramas with mage" because of their brightness, easy-to-understand lines, and good tempo.[41]I was told.And this time was the pinnacle of historical drama before the war.[Annotation 26].

またSadao YamanakaAfter that, he died of war illness, so after only five years of activity, there were 5 works in total.Tange Sazen Side Story A Million Ryo Pot"Others"Kawauchi Munetoshi''Humanity and paper balloonsThere are only three films in existence.However, Yamanaka's work is still highly evaluated.

From the mid-1930sTalkieWas introduced, and the historical drama also brought the lines and music of the actors, not the benshi and live performances of each movie theater, and was called the movie star who sang at that time.Hirokichi TakadaAppeared, and the movie produced there was directed by Tatsuo Osone, "Oedo Seisei Kouta".[Annotation 27]So this was the first historical drama musical, and thenMakino MasahiroDirector'sSinging Lovebird Battle"[Annotation 28]Was produced[Annotation 29].

Each movie production company

This early Showa movie production companyNikkatsu,Empire Kinema(AfterEmerging Kinema),Shochiku,Toa Kinema, PCL (laterToho), Utaemon Pro, Chiezo Pro, Hanzuma Pro, Makino Pro,Big movie[Annotation 30]The number of productions of each company was about 10 to 100 per year, and historical drama was also popular as a big genre.[42][Annotation 31].

Also after the talkieSilent movieIn 1935 (Showa 10), there are actors, staff, and spectators who are particular about swashbuckler.Nishinomiya OfToa KinemaEstablished on the siteFar east moviesThe following year, 1936 (Showa 11)Nara OfUtaemon Ichikawa ProductionsEstablished on the siteAll wins KinemaContinued to mass-produce silent swashbuckler movies until each disbanded[43].

In the 1930s, there were years when the number of historical drama produced exceeded that of modern drama, and historical drama supported the golden age before the war in terms of both mass and mass.[44].

Historical films and national films

Starting with Matsunosuke's ninja movie,Oro BloodA nihilistic rebellious hero like "" appears, and after that, "One-kill multi-life sword''Zanjin Zanba SwordWhen a dissident trend movie such as "Kinpachi Kajiwara" appears and the world gets darker, it is called "Meiro period drama" by Chiezou Kataoka and Narutaki group.Kokushi Musou''Capricious Young Man''Tange Sazen Side Story A Million Ryo PotA bright historical drama like "Kinpachi Kajiwara" was born, and it was ridiculed as "a modern drama with a mage", and there was a voice saying that historical things should be drawn seriously this time in a way that opposes this Narutaki-gumi movie. In the 10s, "Abe Clan," "Kaikyotai," and "Genroku Chushingura"The last day of Edo" and other works called historical films were produced.Eventually, as national films, "Pirate Flag Blows", "Signal Fires of Shanghai", and "Kamikaze Blows" were made, and it became an era when filmmakers could not freely make movies.[45]..Then, as a national policy, the integration of movie companies was promoted, and Nikkatsu's production department and Shinko Kinema / Daiei Film were merged to establish Dainippon Film (Daiei), and the first works were Bando Tsumasaburo, Kataoka Chiezo, and Ichikawa. In the first co-starring of Utaemon and Kanjuro Arashi, "Restoration song] Was produced.

censorship

In Japanese movies until the defeat, scenes such as bloodshed, gambling, and kissing were banned by the authorities.The historical drama is no exception, and no matter how many people were killed in the sword fight, and even in the scene of seppuku, it was cut by censorship because it was bloody.[Annotation 32].Bando TsuzumasaburoWhen slashing his opponent, he used a sword fight called "two-step sword fight" in which he hit the blade and then pulled it again, but this was also cut because "it feels like he slashed to the bone."In general, all "realistic sword fights" were cut by censorship.

Also, the first time I used the sound effect when slashing a person with a swashbuckler was in 1935 (Showa 10).Oiso"so,Hiroshi InagakiThe director's idea was to use a sound effect that was a reverse rotation of the clapperboard sound.However, this sound effect is also treated as "censorship pending" [46].

After the end of the war

GHQ censorship and historical drama production restrictions

1945(20)End of the Pacific WarLater, JapanAllied Supreme Commander General Command Under the occupation rule of (GHQ), GHQ is in charge of educational and cultural policy.Private Information Education Bureau(CIE) is installed, and morePrivate censorship squadWith (CCD), Japanese films will be double censored[47]..Under that policy, the CIE issued 13 regulatory items for Japanese films (this is commonly referred to as the sword fight ban).Japanese swordThe sword play (Chamara period drama) that swings aroundMilitarismBeing targetedEnemy killingFilms with elements such as praise of revenge that arouse hostility toward the United States were temporarily restricted from production.Since the sword fight scene was banned, historical drama stars such as Bando Tsumasaburo and Chiezou Kataoka starred in contemporary drama.[Annotation 33]And before the warKurama TenguWas hitHirotoro ArashiIn the case of, he says that he could only do the stage and the movie in the historical drama "Right Gate Catchbook", which is a detective novel without a swashbuckler.[48]..However, even in such an era, historical drama was being produced.The first historical drama made after the war was released in October of the year of the end of the war in "Kitsune no Kure Baby" directed by Santaro Marune.There are four trends in historical drama that could be shot at a specific time due to these many restrictions. The first is what is commonly referred to as a "war reflection movie" in historical drama.Hirotoro ArashiWesterners helped the Ronin who participated in the Joi movement at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, starring Hiroshi Inagaki's "The Last Joi Party".XenophobiaIt was a story that noticed the stupidity of. The second is "destruction of a ready-made hero image", or as something that changes the image of the previous hero, director Sadatsugu MatsudaNational TadaharuAnd Kozaburo Yoshimura's "Mori no Ishimatsu", especially "National TadaharuWas portrayed as a democratic person with a strong sense of justice. The third is "things without swashbucklers and strolling scenes", and romance such as "Onatsu Seijuro" starring Utaemon Ichikawa is an example. of"Right gate catch book, Directed by Daisuke Ito, and starring Tsumasaburo Bando.Ronin sneak through] And so on.However, for the audience accustomed to watching historical drama from before the war, it was regarded as "missing the essential points".[49].

After the peace treaty

Then, in the era when the peace treaty was concluded in September 1951, historical drama could be made freely, and the historical drama film overflowed as if the energy accumulated until then exploded, and the history of historical drama film. It was the beginning of the brightest era in Japan.

It was directed by Akira Kurosawa, who was made during the occupation period.Rashomon』Started from the award.And this "RashomonWon the Grand Prix at the Venice Film Festival. When the occupation system ended in 1952 (Showa 27), mass production of historical drama movies began.Kenji Mizoguchi's "Nishitsuru first woman''Rain moon story''Daisho Sansho''Chikamatsu story, Akira Kurosawa's "Seven Samurai, Kinugasa Teinosuke's "Hell gateWas produced and was the beginning of the golden age of historical drama films.Kanjuro Arashi once again said, "Kurama Tengu』I went on to appear.

The rise and fall of historical drama of each company

The production company of postwar historical filmsShochiku,Toho,Daiei,Toei,Shintoho,Nikkatsu,Takarazuka movie[Annotation 34](Toho's subsidiary company) and so on.

Immediately after the end of the war, Toho split due to internal conflicts and labor disputes, and Shintoho was formed in March 1947. Because of that, I decided to distribute it voluntarily.

On the other hand, it was established in 1938 before the war and started as an entertainment company.Toyoko movieHowever, after the war in 1947, he entered the movie production industry and started production activities by renting the Daiei No. XNUMX Studio (later Toei Kyoto Studio) in Kyoto Taihata, which was owned by Daiei at that time.Toyoko movieSince it does not have its own distribution network, it was initially related to distribution to Daiei, but it was not possible to manage under the umbrella of Daiei, so in order to break away from the subcontractor that relies on Daiei for distribution, with the support of the Tokyu Group Own distribution companyTokyo movie distributionWas made in October 1949.However, the deficit increased, so the Tokyu Group had the same deficit.Taisen movie[Annotation 35]とToyoko movieとTokyo movie distribution[Annotation 36]Was merged in April 1951 (Showa 26)ToeiThe name was changed and the distribution was entrusted to Toho.At that time, Toho did not have the ability to produce on its own due to the aftermath of the turmoil, so it distributed the works of Takarazuka and Tokyo movies, and also distributed Toei works there. Met[50]..However, the partnership between Toei and Toho ended in just one year.It is said that Toei repelled when Toho tried to bring Toei under its umbrella.[51]..Then, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the policy of GHQ changed drastically and it became possible to produce historical drama. Eventually, Toei established a double show in order to secure and expand its own distribution network, and there was a Toei entertainment version. As Nakamura Kinnosuke and Higashi Chiyonosuke made their debut and became very popular, they jumped to the top of the industry at once.

It was also an era when the center of the movie became a historical drama due to the program picture centered on the historical drama.

Toei

Toyoko movie TheDaieiBy the time the tie-up with was dissolved, I belonged to Daiei at that timeMasakazu NagataWas in conflict with the presidentChiezo KataokaとUtaemon IchikawaAfter pulling out, Chiezou and UtaemonToeiAfter becoming a director, he became a director.There were no stars at allToyoko movieFor me, that was the signboard star that could call the audience, and after thatToeiIt became an opportunity to create a star-centered system in.

Until then, after the war, Chiezou appeared in contemporary drama series such as "Bannai Tarao" and "Kindaichi Kosuke", and Utaemon appeared in so-called glossy things such as "Onatsu Seijuro" and "Glossy Killing" although it was a historical drama. Was. In 1950, Chiezou was the first to revive the traditional historical drama and released the first "Irezumi Judge" "Sakurahana Ranbu no Maki" and "Ochihana Confrontation no Maki" directed by Kunio Watanabe, and in 1951, directed by Masahiro Makino. ""Female bandits and judgesWas issued[52]..Utaemon is directed by Sadatsugu Matsuda and Ryo Hagiwara.Hatamoto bored man"Hatamoto Taikutsu Otoko Prey, Seven Bride" and "Hatamoto Taikutsu Otoko Prey, Poison Killer" were released, each of which became Toei's dollar box series. In 1954, he moved to the two-pronged box office, and became a production system for two new works every week.Chiyono Higashi, From KabukiNakamura KinnosukeDebuted and "Fuebuki Doji" became a big hit, the same the following yearkabukiからOkawahashi warehouse debutdid.

And in 1956 (Showa 31), director Sadatsugu Matsuda "Ako RoushiWas a big hit, and Toei, which jumped to the top of the industry from this year, was directed by Masahiro Makino.Jiro Cho Sangokushi"[Annotation 37]"Baba",Daisuke ItoDirected by Kinnosuke Nakamura "Rebel childAnd "Genji Kuro Dashoki Hidden Sword Flying Butterfly",Uchida TomuDirected by Chiezou Kataoka, "Blood spear fuji"and"Oiso"Trilogy, and starring Kinnosuke Nakamura"Musashi Miyamoto』\ Pentalogy,Matsuda SadajiThe director is an all-star, "Chushingura Sakura Flower/Chrysanthemum Flower], Etc. were produced, and a large number of historical drama movies were mass-produced with a program centered on historical drama stars.

ToeiChiezo Kataoka,Utaemon IchikawaA veteran with both of them as executivesRyunosuke Tsukigata,Taro Otomo, And youngNakamura Kinnosuke(Later Manya Kinnosuke),Chiyono Higashi, Hashizo Okawa and others grew up and built a gorgeous and dynamic Toei period drama.Chiezo KataokaとUtaemon IchikawaIs great[Annotation 38]Chiezou said, "Judge Irezumi"(Toyama no Kin-san), Utaemon said,"Hatamoto bored manEach has a series such as "Ryunosuke Tsukigata"Mito Komon, Otomo Ryutaro is "The Black Hood"Tange Sazen''Right gate catcher, Kinnosuke Nakamura said, "Isshin Tasuke"Den-sama Yaji Kita" "Musashi Miyamoto, Chiyonosuke Azuma saidKurama Tengu''Yukinojo change, Hashizo Okawa saidYoung samurai catching notebook''Shingo Juban GameIn addition to having each series of "ChushinguraAnd 'Shimizu Port''A Chivalrous Spirit''Nintendo Nakasendo, "In ObonHatamoto bored man(1958) "Mito Komon』(1960) and other all-star cast historical drama like Kabuki's face-to-face world, the latter half of the 1950s (early 30s) was the golden age of Toei period drama.And to the director who continued to make works in Toei in this mass production eraDaisuke Ito,Masahiro Makino,Matsuda Sadaji[Annotation 39],Uchida TomuOther thanTomotaka Tasaka[Annotation 40],Yasushi Sasaki[Annotation 41],Tadashi Sawashima[Annotation 42],Yasushi Kato[Annotation 43],Toshikazu Kono[Annotation 44],Eiichi Kudo[Annotation 45], Etc.[53].

Daiei

In 1942 (Showa 17) during the war, at that timeNikkatsuWith the production department ofEmerging KinemaとBig movieWas established by a mergerDaieiIs directed by Kenji Mizoguchi even after the warRain moon story''Daisho Sansho, And then directed by Kenji Mizoguchi,Chikamatsu story"[Annotation 46], Director Teinosuke Kinugasa "Hell gate"" By Kazuo Hasegawa, a big star from before the war who starred inZenigata Heiji CollectionMass-produced historical drama centered on the series, and eventually young Raizo Ichikawa and Shintaro Katsu grew up, and Raizo said, "New Heike storyToOiso"Trilogy, and"Nemokushiro』Series as his masterpiece, Katsushin is"Zatoichi』Series has long been a leader in the Japanese film industry.The two perform dirty heroes such as "Nemuri Shiro" and "Zatoichi", which are completely unrelated to the gorgeousness and elegance of the Toei period drama, and build their own Daiei period drama.Akira Kurosawa was the first director[Annotation 47], Daisuke Ito[Annotation 48],Kunio Watanabe[Annotation 49]There was, butKenji Mizoguchi,Kinugasa Sadanosuke,Issei Mori[Annotation 50],Kenji Misumi[Annotation 51],Kimiyoshi Yasuda,Tokuzo Tanaka,Kazuo IkehiroThere was[54].

Shintoho

Shintoho, which was established after the postwar Toho dispute, became a major company by voluntary distribution from March 1950, and was initially directed by Kiyoshi Saeki and starring Kanjuro Arashi "Yasubei Nakayama".[Annotation 52], Director Kenji Mizoguchi "Nishitsuru first woman, Director Daisuke Ito "Shirou's neck"[Annotation 53], Directed by Tatsuo Yamada and starring Kanjuro Arashi "Dangerous Date XNUMX Mangoku"[Annotation 54], Directed by Kunio Watanabe and starring Hibari Misora, there are excellent works such as "Hibari Sanko Kyoukan Yukinosuke Change", but in the latter half of the year[55]Began making ghost stories when he became president, directed by Kunio Watanabe[Annotation 55]"Onryo Sakura Uproar", directed by Nobuo Nakagawa "Kaidan Kasane Swamp''Tokaido Yotsuya Ghost Story], Etc., and stopped movie production in 1961 due to poor management.[56].

However, Tetsuro Tamba and Shigeru Amachi made their debut from Shintoho, and after the bankruptcy of Shintoho, they moved to television without being bound by the Five-Company Agreement.

Nikkatsu

The production department of Nikkatsu was absorbed by Daiei in 1942, and after the war it was a movie entertainment company, but it resumed the production department in 1954, and at the same time, it was a historical drama, directed by Eisuke Takizawa, who was a Narutaki group, and a new national drama. Produced "Kunisada Chuji" and "Hell's Swordsman Hirate Sake" starring Tatsumi Ryutaro, and also directed by Eisuke Takizawa and starring Shogo Shimada "Rokunin no Ansatsu" and Rentaro Mikuni "Edo Issui no Mushi".[Annotation 56]However, due to the popularity of Yujiro Ishihara, he created a program picture centered on the swashbuckler line of contemporary drama, and eventually stopped producing historical drama.However, in 1957 (Showa 32), director Yuzo Kawashima, who made all the stars of the company at that time appear,Bakumatsu Taiyoden"[Annotation 57]I am making a unique historical drama[57].

Shochiku

Shochiku on the Bungei line has few historical dramas, and most of them are contemporary dramas on Ofuna, and it was not possible to produce historical dramas as expected at the studio in Kyoto. In 1951, the all-star cast "Oedo Five Men(Director Daisuke Ito), and in 1953, he played the role of Daisuke Ii in the eighth generation Matsumoto Koshiro (later Matsumoto Hakuo).Flower life(Director Tatsuo Osone), "Chushingura Hana no Maki / Yuki no Maki" (Director Tatsuo Osone), in which the same 1954th generation Koshiro Matsumoto played Oishi Kakusuke in 3, and three years later, in 1957, Osone again. Director Tatsuo said, "Otada Shinzo"[Annotation 58]Was produced, but as a series, it was called a singing movie starHirokichi TakadaStarring "Den seven catch bookIn the series, Shochiku's Kabuki actors are at the core, and new plays and freelance actors set aside, and Jushiro Konoe and Kokichi Takada are involved in this, and there are newcomers.Miki MoriWas planned to grow into the next generation historical drama star.However, Miki Mori died in an accident from 1960 to 61, Kokichi Takada and Jushiro Konoe were transferred to Toei, and Koshiro Matsumoto, the eighth generation of the Kabuki world, and many others were transferred to Toho. The Shochiku period drama has declined. In 1962, even if I tried to make Chushingura, I could not form a cast and the old work "Otada ShinzoWas re-edited from "Kanadehon Chushingura" and then "Kanadehon Chushingura" was produced by using Shogo Shimada, a new national drama.[58].

In addition to this, director Satsuo Yamamoto distributed by Shochiku in the production of Kabuki-za "Red team haori"[Annotation 59], Director Keisuke Kinoshita "Fuefuki River"[Annotation 60],Narayama Setsu, Directed by Tadashi Imai and starring Rentaro Mikuni, "Yoru no Tsuzumi", directed by Masaki Kobayashi and starring Tatsuya Nakadai.Accused, But eventually decided not to shoot a historical drama in Kyoto, and in 1964, directed by Masahiro Shinoda and starring Tetsuro Tamba.assassinationFinally, in 1965, the Kyoto Taihata Photo Studio was closed.[59].

Toho

After the tie-up with Shintoho and Toei disappeared after the war, Toho, who had been distributing Takarazuka movies and Tokyo movie productions, focused on preparing his own production system, and in 1954, he made a special effects " In the same year that "Godzilla" was a hit, director Akira Kurosawa "Seven Samurai, Director Hiroshi Inagaki "Musashi Miyamoto] Was also a hit, and the results were improved.[60].

After that, for Toho on the special effects and comedy line, there was director Akira Kurosawa in the historical drama, "Cobweb castle''Hidden Fortress, And then "Bouncer"[Annotation 61]"Sanjuro Tsubaki] Was produced.In these two movies, Akira Kurosawa is real and powerful, unlike the sword fighting that puts the beauty in the foreground, with a style that sticks to stylistic beauty like the Toei period drama and decides coolly mainly by star actors. And, it became a hot topic by expressing the sword fight that is willing to describe cruel.However, Akira Kurosawa wrote in 2, "Red beardFinally left Toho.Hiroshi Inagaki, who was a member of the Narutaki group, joined Toho in 1950, and the trilogy of "Kojiro Sasaki" and starring Toshiro Mifune "Musashi Miyamoto"[Annotation 62]I made a trilogy and later saidYagyu Martial Arts Book''Osaka Castle StoryAnd in 1962, as a movie commemorating the 30th anniversary of Toho's founding, "Chushingura Flower Roll Snow Roll] Is being taken.In the early postwar period, director Masahiro Makino, who later moved to Toei, said,Jiro Cho Sangokushi』All nine parts[Annotation 63]Is making[61].

Decline of Toei period drama

In the 1962 New Year movie, Toho "Sanjuro TsubakiIs Toei "Tokaido Whirlwind"[Annotation 64]Overwhelmingly, the world of Toei's splendid stylistic beauty has changed to a world of vivid and powerful historical drama.[Annotation 65]The realistic sword fight gradually bored the audience with the gorgeousness of the Toei period drama and the elegance of the action, and just before this, the appearance of "Second Toei" made a number of historical drama crudely randomized. It led to the decline of Toei period drama[Annotation 66].

Since then, Toei has been plagued by the slump in historical drama, and after that, as a group conflict historical drama, "XNUMX Ninja" and "Thirteen thugs''Great KillingHowever, the tide of historical drama could not be stopped, and eventually the yakuza movie dominated the line, the original historical drama of Toei disappeared, and the period drama of the sexy line entered the era of stagnation. I went.

The disappearance of historical films

1955年(昭和30年)には当時の大手映画会社6社で年間174本の時代劇が製作され、1960年(昭和35年)で合計168本の製作本数を数えたが、わずか2年後の1962年(昭和37年)には77本に半減し、中村錦之助が東映を退社した1966年(昭和41年)の翌年には15本となり、1973年以降は年間5本程度を製作する状況となった[62]..The axis of historical drama shifts from the movie world to television, and from this period the number of historical drama on television increases rapidly.

In the world of cinema, Toei, which was said to be the kingdom of historical drama, switched to the Nintendo line from around 1964 and discontinued the historical drama in 1966 (Showa 41), and the center of the historical drama moved to Daiei.However, with a double sign with Shintaro Katsu, "NemokushiroRaizo Ichikawa, who made a hit in the series, died at a young age in 1969 (Showa 44), and Daiei, which rapidly lost its vividness, went bankrupt in 1971 (Showa 46).[63]..After that, in the 1970s, "Katsu Pro produced" "starring Tomisaburo Wakayama.Lone Wolf and CubThe series was a hit, and Shochiku starred Hideki Takahashi in "Musashi MiyamotoIn addition, with an all-star cast, "The Last Samurai''Cloud Nijizaemon''Dark hunterIn 1978 (Showa 53), Toei revived the historical drama for the first time in 12 years.Conspiracy of the Yagyu clanWas a big hit, and since then "The Fall of Ako Castle''Sanada Yukimura's plot''Tokugawa clan collapse''Shadow Warriors Hattori Hanzo, And in the 1980s,Makai Reincarnation''Satomi HakkendenIs produced by director Kinji Fukasaku in partnership with Haruki Kadokawa.[64]..However, since then, there has been no historical drama that has become a hot topic, and it is becoming a thing of the past as a movie genre.Historical films have been in a long-term slump for nearly 50 years[65]And the main stage of historical drama has already changed to television, and since then, television has supported historical drama as an industry.[66].

TV period drama

In February 1953 (Showa 28), NHK TV opened and the history of TV historical drama began at the same time as the start of TV broadcasting.However, at that time, it was a live broadcast in a 2-minute studio drama by a TV camera, and "Hanshichi Jidaigeki" starring Takeo Oikawa, which was broadcast in July of the same year, was the first historical drama on TV, and in June 30, NTV The broadcast "Enoken's Mito Komon Manyuuki" is said to be the first historical drama of commercial broadcasting.[Annotation 67]..In the early evening, "Akado Suzunosuke" was a historical drama for children.[Annotation 68]Programs such as "Sarutobi Sasuke" and "Sun Wukong" were broadcast.

The first historical drama star in the early days of televisionTakeya NakamuraRecognized in the first "Edo no Kageboshi" (1955) and signed an exclusive contract with Radio Tokyo Television (now TBS) at that time, "Hanatachi Catchbook" (1956), "Right Gate Catchbook" ( 1957), "Matashiro Gyojoki" (1958), and "Hatamoto Taikutsu Otoko" (1959) to "New Selection Group Disposition"[Annotation 69]Appeared in.In addition to this, as a historical drama that adults can enjoy, "Kurama Tengu"[Annotation 70]"Kaiju Black Head"[Annotation 71]"Tange Sazen"[Annotation 72]"Zenigata Heiji Prey"[Annotation 73]"Nemuri Shiro"[Annotation 74]"Naruto Secretary"[Annotation 75]"Shingo Juban Game"[Annotation 76]Etc. were broadcast.

At the same time as the opening of a commercial TV station, a historical drama originally produced by a movie company that has a capital participation in the TV station is being broadcast.Representative works are "Kaze Kobo" and "Hakuba Doji"[Annotation 77]"Minamoto no Yoshitsune"[Annotation 78]"Young samurai catch book"[Annotation 79]Is.And the number of domestic TV movies increased1962Nobuhirosha, who made a hit with "Moonlight Mask" four years ago from autumn, was directed by Sadao Funatoko and starred in Koichi Ose.The Samurai』Started airing and became a hit.This program depicts the world of ninja for the first time, and the sword fight of the ninja is the basis of the description of the ninja in subsequent historical drama works[Annotation 80].

And1963From April,NHKWill be a longevity historical drama series that continues to this dayTaiga dramaHas started broadcasting.The first work "Flower lifeIs from the Kabuki world as the role of Ii DairoOnoe Shoroku, From the movie world as Nagano ShuzenKeiji Sada(Kiichi Nakai(Father) was appointed, and the second work, "Ako RoushiFrom the movie worldKazuo Hasegawa, From folk artOsamu Takizawa,Jukichi Uno, From the Kabuki worldUmeyuki OnoueAt that time, it became one of the epochs of the TV historical drama. The third work is "TaikokiFrom the new national dramaOgata fistStarring, from BungakuzaKoji Takahashi, From HaiyuzaKei SatoThe fourth work is "Minamoto no Yoshitsune" from the Kabuki world, and Kikunosuke Onoe (currently)Onou Kikugoro) Starring.A huge historical drama is produced one by one every year[Annotation 81].

After that, as historical drama declined in the movie world, each station in the television world produced historical drama and said, "Three samurai"[Annotation 82]"Shinsengumi blood record"[Annotation 83]"Amateur Tsukikage Hyogo"[Annotation 84]"Zenigata Heiji"[Annotation 85]"Mito Komon"[Annotation 86]"Ooka Echizen"[Annotation 87]"Toyama's Kim"[Annotation 88]"Kogarashi Monjiro"[Annotation 89]"Deathblower''Deadly Punisher''Deadly worker''Lone Wolf and Cub''Shadow Warriors''Onihira criminal record book] And other series were born.

It was Toei that pioneered the shift of historical drama production from film to television.Toei, which originally produced TV movies for children from the opening of the TV station and was more active in TV than other companies, gave up early due to the decline of the historical drama in the movie, and in 1964 (Showa 39).Toei Kyoto TV ProductionWhen he established, he moved the staff of the historical drama and produced a number of hits from there.And the former silver screen star starred in the TV historical drama, Hashizo Okawa "Zenigata Heiji, Chiezou Kataoka "Military guards guide box, Utaemon Ichikawa "Hatamoto bored man, Manya Kinnosuke "Lone Wolf and CubWas a popular genre of the golden time in the mid-1970s.[67]..In addition, Toshiro Mifune "Wilderness Ronin, Shintaro Katsu "Zatoichi story, A silver screen star established an independent production company and was involved in the production.Oedo investigation network], Nikkatsu, who lacked the know-how of TV historical drama production, was involved in the production.

And grew up in Toei historical dramaHiroki MatsukataIn 1965, the NHK historical drama "Ningyo Sachi's collection bookAppeared on TVKinoji KitaojiIn 1968, the taiga drama "Ryoma goesWas selected as the leading role inKotaro SatomiIn 1971Mito KomonAfter playing the role of Suke-san, he secured the position of a historical drama star.Also grew up in Nikkatsu's contemporary dramaHideki TakahashiEmerged in the TV historical drama from the taiga drama "Ryoma ga Yuku", and the 1967 NHK historical drama "Bungo catching pictureDebuted in a historical dramaRyotaro Sugi, 1978 on TV AsahiRamenbo ShogunBecame a popular actorKen MatsudairaA historical drama star was born from TV.

1980-2000 TV historical drama

On the other hand, in the 1980s, there was a tendency to emphasize culture for young people in historical drama, and although historical drama was produced using young actors, the audience rating was sluggish across the board, and the unpopularity of historical drama became apparent. Television stations have reduced historical drama programs.And the end of broadcasting of the long-term series "Shadow Warriors" and "Hisatsu" series has come to be said to be the decline of historical drama in the world of television.[68].

However, in the latter half of the 1980s, Nippon Television produced "In 1985 (Showa 60)" against the Red and White Song Battle on New Year's Eve.Chushingura, The following year, 1986 (Showa 61)White Tiger Corps”Raised a high audience rating, and in 1987 (62) the NHK Taiga drama“Solitary Dragon MasamuneRecorded a high audience rating, and in 1989 (Heisei XNUMX), Fuji TV's "Female mouse kid''Onihira criminal record book』Beginning, and TV TOKYO's New Year wide historical drama has continued since 1981, four programs lined up during the golden time on January 1991, 1, creating an atmosphere of historical drama revival, Nikko in 2 Opened in 4 locations startingEramuraThe know-how of historical drama production was incorporated likeTheme parkWas also built.

However, in the latter half of the 1990s, the situation changed completely again, and the regular quota was gradually reduced after 1996 (Heisei 8).[69].

1990 era OfTrendy dramaSince its advent, the main target of television has been the youthAudience ratingHowever, it is difficult to take in historical drama, permission for historical evidence and material citation andProps-PropsProduction and procurement of such items, as well as production costs and labor for makeup, wigs, costumes, etc., and urbanization has made it difficult to secure natural locations in Japan.[Annotation 90], Lack of successors for production personnel and lack of human resources development,Moral disciplineThe number of productions and broadcasts for TV has decreased significantly due to reasons such as the fact that many of the styles of the movie have become popular and are no longer accepted by viewers.[Annotation 91].

Status since 2001

Production of new TV historical drama continues to decline (for the current situation (#Main TV historical drama broadcast frames(Refer to each item, etc.), December 2011, 12, which has long been popular as a historical drama at 19:8 pm on Monday night.Mito Komon』(TBS system) reached the final special, and there was an event that the curtain was closed in the history of 42 years.While the crisis of the existence of historical drama is whispered, from the 2010s when the spread of digital broadcasting became full-scale, the broadcasting of historical drama increased with BS digital / CS broadcasting, which is said to have more senior viewers than terrestrial broadcasting. ..Although many existing works are rebroadcast, the number of new works is also increasing as will be described later.

In terrestrial commercial broadcasting, in March of the following year (2012), one cool broadcast was broadcast on TV TOKYO at midnight.Fugitive Orin 2After the end of the broadcast of "", which will be broadcast on TBS from October 2012.Friday drama-Ooku-Birth [Achievement/Iemitsu]The regular broadcast of the new TV historical drama was cut off for half a year until[70][Annotation 92].. In 2014, Fuji TV became one of the 55th anniversary projects.9 frames a monthThe first historical drama work "Nobunaga ConcertoWas broadcast and made into a movie in 2016[71]..As of 2018, TV TOKYO's new TV historical drama, which was regularly broadcast on terrestrial commercial broadcasting, will be broadcast on Friday at 2016:10 in October-December 12.Ishikawa GoemonWas the last to be broadcast.Also, after the mid-2010sHulu,NetflixMany video streaming services such as are appearing, but the distribution of past works is small, and the site's original historical drama has not been produced at this time.

Meanwhile, in 1997, with Toei Shigeru OkadaSTEAL OfTakao KajiCentered onHistorical drama content promotion councilStands up andChannel specialized in historical dramaIn CS broadcasting, which has aimed to maintain and redevelop the historical drama, such as by broadcasting on TV.SKY PerfecTV!Japanese movie satellite broadcasting (currentlyJapanese movie broadcast) In collaboration with CS's first completely new historical drama, "Onihei Gaiden Night Rabbit KakuemonWas broadcast and gained popularity, and in February 2012, it became the second project of the project, "Onihira Gaiden Kumagoro's faceWas aired.Since then, he has been producing and broadcasting new works at a pace of one or two works a year.

Initially, BS digital broadcasting focused on new broadcasts on NHK, but since mid-2015,WOWOWNew historical drama of single-shot and regular broadcasting is produced and broadcasted even in BS commercial broadcasting except for, and Mito Komon mentioned above was also produced and broadcasted in 2017.BS-TBSI changed the casting withNew seriesWas broadcast.

On the other hand, from the mid-2000s to the 2010s, the production and release of historical drama films has been on a slight increase, although it is far from the past, and new historical drama is shifting from television to movies again. In 2010, a joint project "Samurai Cinema Campaign" was held by five movie companies, and five works released at the same time in the same year (""Thirteen thugs''Sakurada Gate''Thunder cherry''Samurai household account book''The last Chushingura]) Collaborated to carry out a promotion campaign.

Although this article deals exclusively with live-action historical drama, it has been around for a long time in Japan.Historical drama animationHas also been produced in large numbers.There are no restrictions on video expression or location, and it can be expected to appeal to young people, so in recent years, the production of historical drama by animation has become rather popular.In addition, "Onihei Hankachō" "Workman Fujieda UeyasuA magazine specializing in historical manga with the manga version of ""Comic Ran"Comic Ran Twins")ButLeidIt has been stable and popular since the beginning of the 2000s, such as becoming the axis of.

In addition, from the perspective of the sense of crisis that Japan's unique video culture and technology will be cut off from the people involved in production, and the maintenance and succession of production technology at the site.Toei Kyoto StudioThe "Jidaigeki Reconstruction Committee" was established by the contract employee union of Japan, and is not a famous historical drama actor (so-called ""Large room actor") And others are exploring ways to survive the historical drama in various ways, such as performing sword fighting attractions at Toei Kyoto Studio Park.

Other

Historical examination

Historical examinationAlthough specialized staff are assigned to many historical drama works, as the years go by, they are omitted due to various circumstances, and the parts that are different from the original ones are increasing, which is a work with a strong literary element. But it is no exception.

Until the 1960sTooth black,EyebrowHowever, it is a distant past custom that was already obsolete in the Meiji era, and it is difficult for modern people to accept it because it seems that the teeth are black and the hikimayu is eerie. It can be said that even if the role corresponds to the above, it is not excluded from some roles to have black teeth and hikimayu.Also, originallyLoinclothMen's underwear that should beMonkey crotchThere are many miscellaneous parts, such as the fact that the story is about the Genroku era, but the clothes and hairstyle are the end of the Edo period.On the other hand, of womenJapanese hair OfWigPreviously, all wigs were commonHigh definitionWith the generalization of recording, we have come to use partial wigs that make the hairline look natural.AlsoDeputy official-Awakening-Concentric-DwarfIn many cases, strict examinations have been omitted due to the fact that the clothing for minor roles such as, and the parts such as food stalls and buildings are reused at the shooting site and related to sets and tools.

Japanese sword OfKnifeThen, since there was almost no sound such as sword attack, sword pulling, and sword delivery, it was originally silent, but in the 60s,Bouncer"When"Three samurai』Appearance gradually variousSound effectCan now be inserted.

One of the most different is the horseback riding scene, which should have been almost nonexistent in Japan before the Edo period.Thoroughbred,Quarter horseIt is replaced by the mainstream riding horse in modern Japan with a body height of 160 cm or more, which has been bred in the West.Body height (height to shoulder) is about 130-135 cmJapanese native horseHowever, the physique of modern Japanese actors, which have become larger, is not balanced with Japanese native horses and is inferior in visual appearance, and the number of horses is smaller than that of riding horses. It is a factor that it is extremely difficult to do.Reputed for the rigor of historical evidenceAkira KurosawaEven the director uses Western horses when it comes to horses[72][73].

Also, for daily necessities and furnishings such as pottery and lacquer ware, use the actual products of the time and crafts created by modern craftsmen with the same techniques as before, and the techniques of the time for shooting It is often difficult to manufacture only the required amount at present due to budgetary reasons, and as a result of searching for and substituting modern products that reproduce expression techniques similar to those of the Edo period within a limited time and budget. In terms of technique, expression, fashion, etc., it often happens that it does not match the time setting.

Film shooting in a TV historical drama

The historical drama for television is for movies until the latter half of the 1990s, while other television programs are rapidly switching to recording by video shooting.the filmIt has established a peculiar position as "movie" content rather than "drama".This is a historical dramaCriminal dramaIt was a feature that can be said in the special effects hero program.At that time, in historical dramas, it was common practice to apply movie film-like image correction to video images.It is said that this is because there are many producers and viewers who love the "taste" unique to film images even in the era when VTR photography became common sense, but this is because the actor's wig and bare skin. It is said to prevent the boundary between the wigs from being clearly visible and the indoor set from becoming too clear and unrealistic.In addition, in order to create the atmosphere of the times, such as the lives of low-ranking samurai and peasants, even recently, there are cases where images taken with high-definition video are intentionally dropped and broadcast.

Film shooting has decreased since the 1990s because it costs more than VTR shooting, but Fuji TV has1998In subsequent film works, I shot with the "Super 16" standard.Shoot with Vista size angle of view instead of standard size angle of view, and release to theatersHDTVBy supporting "one-soft, multi-use" such as broadcasting, long-term cost recovery is possible and the possibility of film photography is ensured.

Classification of historical drama

Classification by media

Classification by content / standard

Classification by director and era

  • Makino historical drama: In the early days, Matsunosuke Onoe was the main characterkabukiIt was a historical drama featuring Matsunosuke's unique sword fighting, with a keen taste added to the sword fighting, but it was intended for absurd children.Eventually, he shared his affair with Matsunosuke Onoe, and under the influence of Shojiro Sawada, a new national drama, he drew a realistic turn like "Jitsuroku Chushinzo."
  • Meiro period drama : Chiezo ProAs a humorous and bright story, he also influenced the later Narutaki group in order to dispel the gruesome and dark image of his work.Nonsense historical drama that sells absurdity also falls into this category.
  • Toei period drama: Toei's historical drama group that prevailed after the Showa era.It was a movie starring a star, with brightness and glitter.
  • Daiei period drama: In the early days, many of them are set not only in swordplay but also in literary works and other than the Edo period.Tooth black,Eyebrow, Etc., with an emphasis on historical evidence.However, in the latter half of the year, outlaw-based historical dramas such as "Nemuri Shiro" and "Zatoichi" became the main focus.
  • Kurosawa historical drama : Akira KurosawaA group of director's works.It features a realistic sword fight and a story full of humanism.

ス タ ッ フ

Film director

TV Producer (Production)

  • Akira Aikawa- "Hana no Shogai" "Ronin Ako" "Minamoto no Yoshitsune" (NHK)
  • Toshio Endo- "Kunitori Monogatari" (NHK)
  • Susumu Kondo- "Golden Days" "The Age of the Lion" (NHK)
  • Kei Murakami-"Shingen Takeda" "Benkei Musashibo" "Hell of Oil Killing" "Onyado Kawasemi" (NHK)
  • Ryuji Koga- "Shin Heike Monogatari" "Genroku Taiheiki" (NHK)
  • Yasuo Shibuya-"Ieyasu Tokugawa" "Lady Kasuga" (NHK)
  • Tsuneho Matsumoto-"Kennosuke Yaguruma" "Tenpyo Tenma" "Seven Changes in Kotohime" (NTV)
  • Shunichi Nishimura --"The Samurai" "Mito Komon" "Ooka Echizen" (TBS)
  • Minoru Henmi- "Mito Komon" "Ooka Echizen" "Kill Edo" (TBS)
  • Yoshihiko Okamoto-"Sword" "Oniwaban" (NTV) "Ukiyoe Onna Mouse Boy" (Fuji TV)
  • Shinji Kamizuki-"Shinsen Tsukikage Hyogo" "Shinsengumi Blood Wind Record" (NET)
  • Hisao Ichikawa-"Onihei Hankachō" "Kenkaku Shobai" "Edo no Kaze" (Fuji TV)
  • Saburo Ogaki-"Ieyasu Tokugawa" * Starring Utaemon Ichikawa (NET)
  • Shinya Hashimoto-"Sanada Yukimura" * Starring Kinnosuke Nakamura (TBS)
  • Kunio Takahashi- "Heiji Zengata" * Starring Hashizo Okawa (Fuji TV)
  • Hisashi Yamauchi-"Sukezaemon Shidaiki" "Hisatsu" series (Asahi Broadcasting)
  • Takeshi Motomura- "Oedo Investigation Network" (Tokyo Channel 12)
  • Norio Kato- "Lone Wolf and Cub" "Momotaro Samurai" (NTV)
  • Motoharu Nozaki-"Denshichi Torimonochou" (NTV)
  • Masaru Kakutani- "Zatoichi Monogatari" (Fuji TV)
  • Ichiro Nakamoto-"Edo no Kaze" (Fuji TV)
  • Tetsuo Kato-"Ooku" (Kansai TV)

TV director (director)

  • Hiroshi Nagayama- "Half-Seven Catchbook" * First TV historical drama (NHK) starring Takeo Oikawa
  • Kono Kazuhei-"Enoken's Mito Komon Manyuuki" * The first commercial broadcaster's historical drama (Nippon TV) "Haguregumo" (NET)
  • Hiroshi Miyamoto-"Kurama Tengu" * Starring Komazo Ichikawa (Radio Tokyo TV)
  • Minoru Ishikawa- "Shadow Master of Edo" "Matashiro's memoir" * Starring Takeya Nakamura (Radio Tokyo TV)
  • Kazuo Yamamoto-"Shinsengumi Chronicles" * Starring Takeya Nakamura (TBS) "Bakumatsu" (TBS)
  • Toshihiro Iijima-"Naruto Secret" * Starring Michitaro Mizushima (Radio Tokyo TV) "Sota Akanishi" "Hawk of Oedo" (TBS)
  • Hiroshi Inoue- "Hana no Shogai" "Akaho Roshi" (NHK)
  • Naoya Yoshida --"Taikoki" "Minamoto no Yoshitsune" (NHK)
  • Tsutomu Wada -"Ryoma goes" "Bungo catch picture" (NHK)
  • Sakae Okazaki- "Ten to Chi to" "Ten to Chi to" "Ten to Chi to" (NHK)
  • Makoto Ohara ―― "The tree of the tree remains" "Wind, cloud and rainbow" "Ieyasu Tokugawa" "Yoshimune Yashiro" "Taheiki Sanada" (NHK)
  • Yuji Murakami- "Kunitori Monogatari", "Kashin", "Seizaemon Remaining Diary" (NHK)
  • Satoru Saito- "Kunitori Monogatari" "Genroku Taiheiki" "Kashin" "Bungo Prey Picture" (NHK)
  • --"Taheiki", "Taiheiki", "Onyado Kawasemi" (NHK)
  • Kazuhiko Shimizu --"Shinsengumi" "Furin Kazan" (NHK)
  • Kenji Tanaka --"Furin Kazan" "Gunshi Kanbei" (NHK)
  • Keishi Otomo-"Ryomaden" (NHK)
  • Tetsuo Kato- "Kaze no Samurai" "Kaze no Sanbikasa" * Starring Shunji Natsume (Kansai TV)
  • Gosha Hero --"Three Outlaw Samurai" (Fuji TV)
  • Ou Yoshida-"Ronin of the Wilderness" "Jiro Chosangokushi" (Fuji TV)
  • Mt. Ooyama Katsumi- "Sanada Yukimura" * Starring Kinnosuke Nakamura (TBS)
  • Hideo Koyama-"Ochijo" * Chiezou Kataoka's first TV appearance (Fuji TV)
  • Mitsu Kono-"Ieyasu Tokugawa" * Starring Utaemon Ichikawa (NET)
  • Tetsuya Yamauchi -"Mito Komon" * Starring Eijiro Tono (TBS)
  • Kiyomi Yada -"Mito Komon" * Starring Akira Nishimura (TBS)
  • Jinichi Narai- "Mrs. Tokugawa" (NET) "The Wife of Hanaoka Seishu" (NTV)
  • Yoshiki Onoda --"Hagure Ookami" "Onihei Hankachō" (Fuji TV)
  • Akira Inoue --"Kenkaku Shobai" "Kamiya Genjirou Prey" (Fuji TV)
  • Kosei Saito --"Oedo Investigative Network" (Tokyo Channel 12) "Children's Wolf" (Nippon TV) "Gokenin Zankuro" (Fuji TV)
  • Ryuji Sawada --"Tenamonya Sanbikasa" (Asahi Broadcasting Corporation)
  • Taishi Arai-"Yaguruma Kennosuke" (NTV) "Travelless Sen" "The Unfettered Shogun" (NET)
  • Kozo Katsuta-"Daichushingura" * Starring Toshiro Mifune (NET)

script

Sword

  • Adachi Kojiro
  • Kentaro Yuasa
  • Ryu Kuze
  • Ryusei Ouchi
  • Kunishiro Hayashi
  • Akinori Tani
  • Ryushi Kikuchi
  • Toshio Sugawara
  • Takeshi Nikaido
  • Hiroshi Kuze
  • Kanzo Uni
  • Koji Uenishi
  • Shohei Miyauchi
  • Masahiro Kunii
  • Ryuzo Ueno
  • Shinpachi Miyama
  • Yoshio Oda
  • Yujiro Omi
  • Junnosuke Doi
  • Shinnosuke Ogata
  • Eiji Takakura
  • Hiroyoshi Yamaguchi
  • Toshiro Takeda
  • Hirofumi Nakase
  • Takahito Ouchi
  • Mitsuhiko Seike
  • Yuji Takatsuki

Historical drama actor / actress

Taisho era star

Six major historical drama stars

Leading actor after the Meiji era

Born in the Meiji era

Born in the Taisho era

Born in Showa

Actor who has been active for many years

Born in the Meiji era

Born in the Taisho era

Born in Showa

Actress who has been active for many years

Born in the Meiji era

Born in the Taisho era

Born in Showa

Major TV historical drama

TV drama reference material: "History of real TV historical drama" (written by Yoichi Nomura) Historical drama broadcast record at the end of the book

Many others (TV series only, excluding special editions and special editions)

* Excludes single-shot dramas and dramas that complete one episode.

Manga / anime works

Many of the manga are the original works of the above movies and TV dramas and have been made into live-action films, but here we mainly list those that have not been made into live-action images in that way.This includes works that are made into live-action movies or dramas, but whose main readers and viewers are younger.

Major TV historical drama broadcast frames

Main broadcast throughout the year

Broadcast in a single shot every year

Main rebroadcast slots

Past main broadcast

NHK

NTV

TV Asahi

  • Angkor F[Annotation 138]
  • TBS system

    TV Tokyo

    Fuji TV

    Historical drama studio

    current

    Has a permanent set that allows you to shoot historical dramaス タ ジ オ, Other places.

    The studio that once existed

    Prewar
    After the war

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Even if you say "the Edo period before the Meiji Restoration, or the period before that"Kamidai,HimikoDealt withYayoi PeriodIf the theme goes back to a distant era, the style and story of costumes, props, and props will be significantly different from the style of a general "historical drama".But of CS broadcastingChannel specialized in historical dramaThen, works dealing with such times are also broadcast.
    2. ^ Based on the display in the TV section of English newspapers.
    3. ^ EnglishIn the sphere, the historical drama of your own country period piece Or called period drama, the Japanese historical drama is "Samurai dramaTo distinguish them.
    4. ^ If the severe discrimination in the pre-modern period is drawn as it is, it is inevitable that the modern audience will feel uncomfortable or disgusted.In recent historical drama, it is often told that women play an active role, reflecting the improvement of women's status in modern times.
    5. ^ In the world of Kabuki, the way of drawing Harada Kai of the Date Sodo is a villain of a rebellious vassal in the prewar movie, but in the postwar "Kaki no Ki Remains", he became the leading role as a loyal vassal.In addition, Chushingura and Ronin Ako have the same "blade wounds" and "attacks" as the historical facts of the Genroku Ako incident, but the other episodes are creations of posterity, and even the personal names of the forty-seven men are "Tokkuri "Akagaki Genzo" of "Farewell" actually exists as the name of "Ako Genzo".
    6. ^ This activity photo was taken in the open air behind the Kabukiza Theater at that time, and was screened at the Kabuki box office when Danjuro was absent, and was released at the Kabukiza Theater in 1909, the year after Danjuro and Kikugoro died. .. See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2, "Reviewing movie history", page 182
    7. ^ Released on July 1922, 7.Director Hotei Nomura.Screenplay by Daisuke Ito.Starring Yotaro Katsumi Yoshiko Kawada Sakuko Yanagi.Silent movie.
    8. ^ One year later, in 1 (Taisho 1923), "Woman and the Pirates" (released on July 12, 1923. Directed by Hotei Nomura. Screenplay by Daisuke Ito. Starring Yotaro Katsumi Kawada There are many materials that make Yoshiko Yanagi Sakuko (silent movie) the first movie named historical drama movie (Silent movie).Hiroshi Inagaki The book "Hige to Chonmage" by The Mainichi Newspapers, etc.), but Professor Hiroshi Komatsu of Waseda University Faculty of Letters wrote "New Jidaigeki" in the advertising phrase of "Shimizu no Jirocho" produced in 1922 (Taisho 11) the year before. (Refer to Hiroshi Komatsu, "Old Drama Innovation and Historical Significance," page 170. This is quoted from the commentary in "Japanese Film is alive," Volume 2, "Reviewing Film History.").And in the recently published "Birth of" Jidaigeki "" (written by Kenji Iwamoto, published by Yoshikawa Kobunkan in July 2016), it was clearly published in the magazine of 7 (Taisho 1922), "New Jidaigeki" and "Pure Movie". The advertisement of "Shimizu no Jirocho" is explained with a photo as "drama", and the theory that it is "woman and pirate" produced in 11 (Taisho 1923) is incorrect.However, Kenji Iwamoto, on the other hand, said that the term historical drama and historical film spread around the end of the Taisho era (around the mid-12s), and that the term was intentionally used by "woman and pirate."
    9. ^ Kabuki also went around, that is, there was a sword fight, and various ingenuities were made, but the essence is not realism, but stylistic beauty, formal beauty, and dance beauty.Shojiro SawadaRenewed this swashbuckler and gained popularity with the masses.It is said that when he saw the Douglas Fairbanks swashbuckler movie "Three Gunmen," which was very popular in the United States at that time, his sense of speed and dynamism evoked innovation in sword fighting in Japanese historical drama. See "Legend of Historical Drama-The Brightness of Chambera Movies" 14-15P
    10. ^ Edison invented the movie, and the Lumiere brothers in France invented the cinematograph, which devised a method to project it on a screen, and Katsutaro Inahata brought the cinematograph back to Japan. Then, it was Einosuke Yokota who was entrusted with the business of the movie box office by Katsutaro Inahata.
    11. ^ It was taken in the precincts of Daicho-ji Temple near Kyoto Senbonza, from Kabuki's "Chitose Soga Genji Foundation" to "Yoshinoyama Yukinaka" and "Koshiba Iridoya" as they are. See "Legend of Historical Drama-The Brightness of Chambera Movies" 63P
    12. ^ Matsunosuke collapsed and died while filming this movie.
    13. ^ A small storybook published from 1911 (Meiji 44), the main character of the paperback was a hero, a hero, or a ninja, representing popular culture at the time, and it was the hero of the Matsunosuke movie. "Thought of historical film" 15-16P
    14. ^ Matsunosuke Onoe's turn was basically a Kabuki style, and it was hard to see at key points.However, Matsunosuke added a keen taste to it and had a lightness of movement and a good tempo that made use of it. See "Japanese Films Are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing Film History" 163P
    15. ^ At that time, only at Nikkatsu Mukojima StudioTakeo Azuma, Takeo Oguri,Kinugasa Sadanosuke,Teijiro Tachibana,Shigeru Kito, Hijikata Katsusaburo,Misao Satsuki, There were female onnagata such as Yoshiya Oi, but Nikkatsu Mukojima Film Studio is shooting contemporary drama, and these female actors did not appear in the old drama (historical drama) at that time.However, like Teinosuke Kinugasa, Shigeru Kito later became the director of a historical drama at Shinko Kinema.
    16. ^ In addition to this, the actress who first appeared at the time of Shochiku's inauguration mainly appeared in contemporary drama.Kurishima Sumiko,Nobuko Satsuki,Chieko Matsui,Tsukuba Yukiko, Eiko Azuma,Yuriko,Haruko SawamuraAnd so on.
    17. ^ However, this initial ideal soon collapsed, and it was not possible to screen in Japan as expected, and it was necessary to compromise with entertainers who could not accept production by other companies by so-called block booking and secure the domestic market with vulgar content. is what happened.Then, less than a year after it was established to develop the domestic market, it rationalized its management, and for that reason Kaoru Osanai, a new drama, was angry. See "Secrets of Japanese Activities" by Junichiro Tanaka 1-210P Published in November 211 Waizu Shuppan
    18. ^ It is a company that inherits the flow of "Tennenshoku".
    19. ^ Matsunosuke had tried to make his mistress geisha an actress and play the other role, but it was a time when Kabuki had a strong influence, and he canceled it due to opposition from the movie theater owner. "Young days of Japanese cinema" (Hiroshi Inagaki, Mainichi Newspaper)
    20. ^ It is certain that Kyoto is the main studio for historical drama from the image of Makino before the war and Toei after the war, but even after the Showa era, even in the big city movie Negamo, PCL (Toho), and Nikkatsu Chofu. Historical dramas are being filmed, and Toho's Akira Kurosawa is filming historical dramas in Tokyo, not necessarily in Kyoto alone.
    21. ^ Einosuke Yokota regarded this as a rebellion against himself. See "History of Japanese Film", Volume 1, 202P.There is also a disagreement with Matsunosuke, who has grown, but there is a theory that there was a problem with Einosuke Yokota around this time. "Secrets of Japanese Activities" by Junichiro Tanaka, see 222-224P, published in November 2004, Waizu Shuppan
    22. ^ At that time, he incorporated the technique of American movie swashbuckler into historical drama and produced innovative works one after another, and there is a theory that the movie entered the stage called historical drama from the old drama. See "Japanese Films Are Living" Volume 2 "Reviewing Film History" 166P
    23. ^ The following year, Chojiro Hayashi's popularity became a social phenomenon, and in the New Year of 1928 (Showa 3), when Hayashi came to Tokyo for greetings, more than XNUMX female fans gathered at Tokyo Station, and even if they hit an avalanche, they cheered yellow. sent.For the first time in this overheating, "Meeha(Women's favoriteBodyWith a knob The"Weekly Sankei Extra Edition Great Killing Chamara Movie Special" (Sankei Publishing), which even gave birth to the term "swashbuckler"
    24. ^ Although it is a silent movie, a fake who speaks the name of a famous swordsman encounters a real swordsman and ends up fighting, but there is a story that "a fake wins the real thing". The message "authority is not that big" is included. See page 30 of "The Thought of Historical Films".It is also the movie that Kon Ichikawa, who was an old junior high school student at the time and later became a movie director, saw this movie in a movie theater and became an inspiration for the movie.
    25. ^ This name is said to have been taken from a famous baseball player at the time. See "Thoughts of historical films" 31P
    26. ^ "The most popular genre of historical drama in Japanese cinema reached its peak in the late Taisho and early Showa eras, and developed while showing various variations in the 10s of the Showa era." "The Thought of Historical Drama Films" 55P reference
    27. ^ Made by Shochiku in 1935.
    28. ^ Made by Makino in 1939.It was made in a hurry due to Chiezou Kataoka's sudden illness, and is said to have been completed in almost a few days.
    29. ^ "Oedo Singing Kouta" was the origin of the historical drama musical, and "Singing Lovebirds" was one of the peaks. See "Thoughts of historical films" 46P
    30. ^ Kawai Shokai, which was established by Tokusaburo Kawai in 1927, later became a Kawai movie, and in 1933 it was developed and renamed a metropolitan movie. It disappeared. It was a company that produced 1942 movies in 15 years (there is also a document that it produced 1,294 movies) and specialized in so-called B-class third-class movies.Later called Program Picture, the film was produced twice a week and 1,325 films a year, but today the film was burnt down in the war and there is almost no remaining film. In 2, there is a record of producing 100 pieces a year.The actors who belonged to Kusuo Abe, Sozaburo Matsuyama, Shosaku Sugiyama, Hachiro Daijoji, and Jushiro Konoe, who later became a postwar period drama star, and Junzaburo Ban also belonged temporarily. See "Phantom B-class big city movie goes" 1937P / 110P and 65P
    31. ^ Kanjuro Arashi also started production twice during this period, but both ended in a short period of time.
    32. ^ However, it has been confirmed that movies from at least the 1920s onwards have bloody depictions using blood glue, and in the work of director Hiroshi Inagaki in 1938, when the fighting spirit began to be screamed, "Blood oozes on the bleaching. The depiction was caught in censorship. " See "Japanese Films Are Living" Volume 2 "Reviewing Film History" 171P
    33. ^ During this period, the "Osho" series was produced by Tsumasaburo Bando, and the "Bannai Tarao" series was produced by Chiezou Kataoka.
    34. ^ A company that existed before the war, it supplied works to Toho after the war and continued until 1968, during which time 177 works were produced.Kanjuro ArashiKurama TenguThe series and the "Right Gate Catchbook" series were also produced by Takarazuka Revue in the first period after the war and distributed by Toho.Actresses who co-starred at this time included Takarazuka Revue Yachiyo Otori, Hanayo Sumi, and Chikage Oogi.
    35. ^ After the war, he acquired the pre-war Shinko Kinema Studio and established it as a rental studio, "Oizumi Studio," and then started making movies, but it was in the red.Later Toei Tokyo Studios.
    36. ^ Since the latecomer "Tokyo Movie Distribution" was used as the surviving company and the other two companies were absorbed and merged, the establishment date of "Toei" was October 2, 1949, the establishment date of "Tokyo Movie Distribution". There is.
    37. ^ In the 1950s, Toho produced a total of nine works, and in the 9s, Toei produced a total of four works under the same director.
    38. ^ Chiezou was called "Oyama no Odai" because he had a home on the hill of Kyoto Uzumasa, and Utaemon was called "Kitaoji no Odai" because he lived in the same Kitaoji in Kyoto. See "Chiezo Ichidai" 154P
    39. ^ A director who represents Toei in every sense.Immediately after the war, he worked on the Toyoko Eiga series with Chiezou Kataoka, Kosuke Kindaichi, and Bannai Tarao, and then took some megaphones from the "Boring Man", "Sazen", "Mito", "Right Gate", and "Shingura" series, and "Chushingura". Also supervised three times.My father is Shozo Makino and is the half-brother of Masahiro Makino.
    40. ^ Representative works are "Chiisakobe", "Shinran", "Cold rice and Osanto-chan"
    41. ^ The masterpiece is "Shura Hachiara"
    42. ^ Representative works are "Isshin Tasuke, a big thing in the world" and "Rampage Brothers"
    43. ^ Representative works are "Mother of the eyelids" and "One Tokijiro Yuuki"
    44. ^ The masterpiece is "White Fan Midare Black Hair"
    45. ^ The masterpiece is "XNUMX thugs"
    46. ^ All three films directed by Mizoguchi were shot by Kazuo Miyagawa.
    47. ^ This is the only work that was made in Daiei after leaving Toho in the Toho dispute that occurred immediately after the war.That is the "Venice Film Festival Grand Prix Winner"Rashomon"was.After this, he returned to Toho.
    48. ^ Daisuke Ito has been taking megaphones at various companies since the Taisho era, but in Daiei, "Scar Yosaburo" starring Raizo Ichikawa is a masterpiece.Later moved to Toei.
    49. ^ Each company has been taking megaphones for a long time since before the war.In Daiei, in 1958, the all-star cast starring Kazuo Hasegawa, "Chushingura] Is being made.
    50. ^ Representative works include Raizo and Katsushin's co-starring "Samurai Vendetta", Katsushin's "Shiranui Inspection School", and Raizo's "Obosatsu Pass Part XNUMX".
    51. ^ "Princess Sen in Edo" starring Fujiko Yamamoto, "Kill" and "Kill" starring RaizoOisoThe first and second parts, "The Tale of Zatoichi" starring Shintaro Katsu are representative works.
    52. ^ Co-starring Kanjuro Arashi and Kogiku Hanayagi, Tadao Sato describes the film as "the best of Yasubei Nakayama's works before and after the war." "Kanjuro Arashi and 100 Stars-Actress Edition-" 142P by Hiroo Narimura
    53. ^ Made in 1955.Shintoho.Director Daisuke Ito.Starring Jun Tazaki and Michiko Saga.It depicts the tragedy of a servant who is loyal to his stupid master.
    54. ^ Produced in 1957.Shintoho.Director Tatsuo Yamada.Starring Kanjuro Arashi.Kai Harada of Arakan is a villain and ends up in a big turn.
    55. ^ The director, who is also famous as a master of early shooting and has traveled to various companies, is making the only blockbuster work of Shintoho, "Emperor Meiji and the Great War between Japan and Russia," although it is not a historical drama.
    56. ^ The script for both of these works is Ryuzo Kikushima.
    57. ^ Produced as a movie commemorating the 3rd anniversary of the resumption of Nikkatsu production.Starring Frankie Sakai.However, Nikkatsu stars such as Yujiro Ishihara, Akira Kobayashi, and Hideaki Nitani all appeared as supporting characters in the all-star cast.It depicts a human pattern at the Shinagawa Yukaku, which is based on the classic rakugo "Izama Saheiji" and "Shinagawa Shinchu".It is now highly regarded as a comedy historical drama.
    58. ^ Produced in 1957.Shochiku.The second generation Ichikawa Ennosuke (first Ichikawa Ennosuke) from the Kabuki world as Oishi built-in assistant, Ichikawa Danko (later third generation Ichikawa Ennosuke, second generation Ichikawa Ennosuke), Hayano Kanpei as Takada Kokichi, and others Bando Yosuke, predecessor We gathered stars in the Kabuki and movie worlds such as Koshiro Matsumoto and Somegoro Ichikawa (currently Koshiro Matsumoto).The script is Masato Ide.
    59. ^ Hajime Takaiwa wrote a play written by Junji Kinoshita, which was originally an adaptation of the "tricorn hat" written by a Spanish writer. Made in 1958.Produced Kabuki-za and distributed by Shochiku.Starring Kansaburo Nakamura, Yunosuke Ito, Ineko Arima, and Kyoko Kagawa.A humorous depiction of the night crawling of the village festival, the original was later used in Kabuki, TV dramas, and operas.
    60. ^ Made in 1960.Shochiku.It depicts the tragedy of the Ashigaru family who served the warlords of Kai Takeda Sandai (Nobutora, Shingen, Katsuyori).Starring Takahiro Tamura, Somegoro Ichikawa (currently Koshiro Matsumoto), Hideko Takamine, Shima Iwashita and others.Kinoshita's few historical drama works.
    61. ^ At that time, Toei was treated as a sword fighter, and he was often entrusted with directing the scenes, but Toho was not recognized as a profession.Akira Kurosawa appointed Ryu Kuze as Toho's first sword fighter to shoot "Yojimbo" and was looking for a new sword fight against the Toei period drama.Rather than sticking to deciding the shape of the Toei style in a cool way, he seeks a realistic action of sword fighting, and Toshiro Mifune, the leading character, slashes with extraordinary physical strength and physical ability, and even how the sword fighting role attacks this. Thinking and slashing, the result was a realistic force for the sword fight, and the last Mifune's "Twelve Slashers" became a hot topic.Director Sadatsugu Matsuda, the ace of the Toei period drama, later said, "The" Akō Roshi "that I shot is not as good as the" Bouncer "in terms of work density." See "Sinking of Japan Without Justice" 80-84P and 97P
    62. ^ Director Hiroshi Inagaki has taken five megaphones for Musashi Miyamoto before the war and three for Toho after the war, starring Toshiro Mifune, for a total of eight megaphones.
    63. ^ Director Makino later said, "For me, this" Jirocho Sangokushi "was a fun job.It was this "Jiro Chosangokushi" that laid the foundation for today's Toho.If I didn't shoot this, the company would have collapsed. 》.
    64. ^ One of the Tokaido series, starring Kinnosuke Nakamura and starring Shimizu no Jirocho.At this time,Sanjuro TsubakiThe distribution revenue was 18 billion yen, while the all-star historical drama starring Kinnosuke was 11 billion yen, nearly doubling. See "Japan Sinks Without Justice" 95P
    65. ^ Looking at "Sanjuro Tsubaki," one Toei official said, "This is an enemy," and Norifumi Suzuki said, "When blood spouts from the body of the last Nakadai, the stylistic beauty of Toei's historical drama makes a sound. It stood up and collapsed. " See "Akan Yatsura Toei Kyoto Studio Blood Wind Record" 153P
    66. ^ Until then, 1 films were produced annually with only one system, but the second Toei, which was originally supposed to be a contemporary drama line, had to make a historical drama at the strong request of the movie theater side, and if it is fixed in a year, two systems And 80 of them were making historical drama far beyond.As a result, there was a shortage of stars, and from ShochikuHirokichi TakadaとToshiro KonoeWas calling.Jushiro Konoe moved to the prewar metropolis, postwar Shochiku, and Toei, and then the TV historical drama "Shoujin Tsukikage Hyogo』Immobilized the position of a popular star.
    67. ^ However, the content was a musical storytelling and a variety show.
    68. ^ It started as a radio program from KR Radio in 1957, and later became a television program from Radio Tokyo Television.The lead is Midoriya Onoe.The co-stars were Sayuri Yoshinaga, Yumiko Fujita, Akiko Santō (narration) on the radio, Sayuri Yoshinaga in the same role on TV, and Midori Satsuki.At about the same time, Osaka Television (later divided into Asahi Broadcasting and Mainichi Broadcasting) in Osaka produced the same program separately.
    69. ^ Broadcast every Tuesday night from October 1961 to December 10, Isami Kondo is Takeya Nakamura, Toshizo Hijikata and Rokko Toura.It was a program that remains in the history of TV historical drama, including an outdoor broadcast with a TV camera instead of film shooting, which was unusual for the Ikedaya attack in a studio drama at that time.
    70. ^ It has been broadcast on Radio Tokyo TV and TBS with several different stars, and the first broadcast that began in November 1956 was by Koraizo Ichikawa, then Danko Ichikawa (later Sarunosuke Ichikawa), and Takeya Nakamura. Starring in 11.
    71. ^ In 1958, he starred Toshisaburo Wakayanagi and Takashi Toyama in the middle of the NTV system.Co-starring Tomoko Matsushima.There is a series of Ryutaro Otomo in the movie.
    72. ^ 1958 Starring Tetsuro Tamba on NTV.
    73. ^ In 1958, he starred Tomisaburo Wakayama on Radio Tokyo TV, then Shoji Yasui on the same TBS in 1962, and later became a long-term series starring Hashizo Okawa on Fuji TV.
    74. ^ 1957 Starring Shuntaro Emi on NTV.Co-starred with Junko Ikeuchi.It was the first TV drama based on Renzaburo Shibata.
    75. ^ 1959 Radio Tokyo TV starring Michitaro Mizushima.
    76. ^ 1958 Starring Toshio Hosokawa on Nippon Television.After that, "Shingo XNUMXth Game" was broadcast on Fuji TV, starring Shunji Natsume.
    77. ^ Kazeko was in 1959 and Hakuba Doji was in 1960. Both works were produced by Toei and were NET (currently TV Asahi) affiliates.The lead is Shingo Yamashiro.
    78. ^ A Toei work produced in 1959, the same as "Kaze Kobo".Starring Kyonosuke Nango.It was Kinya Kitaoji, who was 13 years old at the time, who played Ushiwakamaru as a boy.
    79. ^ 1959 Starring Shunji Natsume on Kansai TV.Produced by Toho Takarazuka movie, which had a capital participation in Kansai TV.In theatrical movies, there is a series starring Hashizo Okawa.
    80. ^ Originally it entered the genre of covert things, but in the second part, it was successful to switch to the ninja route.And the actions and actions of the ninja here are the producer's original, and the poses and swastika-shaped shurikens that the ninja holds the sword in the opposite hand influenced the subsequent ninja things.See Naofumi Higuchi, "The Men Who Created the Moonlight Mask," page 2.Heibonsha Shinsho, September 165
    81. ^ 1994 and 1995 are not one year, but "Ryukyu Wind''Flaming''Flower disorder』Was broadcast for half a year and nine months.
    82. ^ Broadcast on Fuji TV from 1963 to 1969.At that time, it became a hot topic that the three ronin, directed by Hideo Gosha, Tetsuro Tamba, Mikijiro Hira, and Isamu Nagato, were the main characters, producing a terrible sword fight, and making noise in the scene of slashing people with a sword.After the second part, Go Kato appeared in place of Tetsuro Tamba.
    83. ^ 1965, NET system.Starring Asahi Kurizuka (role of Toshizo Hijikata).The role of Isami Kondo is Gen Funabashi.
    84. ^ 1965, NET system.It was a historical drama in the style of a journey by Jushiro Kondo and Ryuji Shinagawa.
    85. ^ From 1966 to 1984, starring Hashizo Okawa on Fuji TV.It became a long-term series of 18 years. All 18 episodes in 888 years.
    86. ^ It was broadcast on NTV in 1954, when the television was first established, starring Kenichi Enomoto, then in 1957, starring Hisao Toshu, starring Radio Tokyo TV, and in 1960, starring Hiroshi Hanayagi, starring Fuji TV and Saji Ichikawa. It was broadcast on NET as a daily broadcast production starring Nippon Television and Ryokunami Furukawa.After that, in the fall of 1964 after the end of the Tokyo Olympics, it was broadcast on TBS series starring Ryunosuke Tsukigata, a major figure in Toei movie, until the end of 1965, but the masterpiece was starring Eijiro Higashino and others, starting from 1969 on TBS series until 2011. It is a super long-term series that followed.Mito Komon was played by 5 people, 43 copies in total, and 1,227 episodes in total.It was a record television series.
    87. ^ An ultra-long-term series that lasted from 1970 to 1999.All 15 copies, total production number 402 episodes.Mito Komon was played by five people, but this Ooka Echizen was played by Go Kato for 5 years.The first time was March 30, 1970, the day after the opening ceremony of the Japan World Expo in Osaka.
    88. ^ It was broadcast on NHK starring Kotaro Bando in 1957, Fuji TV starring Shunji Natsume in 1960, NHK starring Tsurunosuke Bando in 1962, and Nippon TV starring Shinnosuke Ichikawa (later Keijuro Ichikawa) in 1967.However, what is memorable is the series that NET started in 1970, starring Umenosuke Nakamura, Danshiro Ichikawa, Yukio Hashi, Ryotaro Sugi, Hideki Takahashi, Hiroki Matsukata, Ken Matsudaira and others.
    89. ^ Originally written by Saho Sasazawa, directed by Kon Ichikawa, Kazuo Mori, Kazuo Ikehiro and others, and starring Atsuo Nakamura, it was broadcast on Fuji TV from January 1972.
    90. ^ But nowCGWith digital technologies such as these, it is possible to erase telephone poles and modern buildings from the screen, and it can be said that there is no need to choose a location than before.While it can be applied to some art such as props, it also has the fundamental problem of being expensive.
    91. ^ However, the demand for video content is high, and rebroadcast slots andCSPay-TV,DVD-videoIt is still useful in the field of sales. April 2009, 4Koto Mito (Panasonic Drama Theater)Was rebroadcast on the same dayTBSHas the highest audience rating among the programs of[1]
    92. ^ As of 2020, there are only three other historical drama series, NHK's "Taiga Drama" and two historical drama frames ("Saturday Period Drama" and "BS Period Drama"). The drama broadcast itself is reduced to several times a year-once every few years and in a single shot.
    93. ^ The climax is the sword (Japanese sword)bySwordIs the main axis.It occupies the majority of historical drama, and most of the content is more entertaining than literary elements from an entertaining point of view.In modern TV dramas, direct depictions of murder scenes using swords are being refrained from judging that it encourages crime for viewers, whereas in historical dramas, swordplay is a very formal physical technique. , Producers and viewers “Tacit understanding"For example, in a theatrical work that pursues visual literary elements and realism represented by Akira Kurosawa's work, at the moment of slaughter, the clothing on the murdered side tears and the skin is exposed, and blood spills over several meters. Or, you may set a scene where your arm is cut off and blood spurts out. On the other hand, in the historical drama of TV broadcasted for the tea ceremony where entertainment is important, such a realistic and direct murder depiction There is almost no such thing, and the hero's graceful and splendid roundabout actions and a certain story standard are used to slash and condemn the bad guys.catharsisThe work itself is composed of a certain stylistic beauty that emphasizes the sublimation of.Expressed by this tacit understanding, it is not criticized despite the fact that many humans have been killed by cutlery in a short period of time.
    94. ^ Produced by Toei in 1965.Director Tadashi Sawashima.A masterpiece depicting the world of yakuza in omnibus format based on the three stories of Tatsuya Nakadai, Takashi Shimura and Hiroki Matsukata, and Kinnosuke Nakamura's migrants.Kinnosuke Nakamura performed well with a weak yakuza who seems to be strong.
    95. ^ It was a hit with a ninja thing, but it was because the ninja route was changed from the second part on the way, and the original story was that General Tokugawa's younger brother hid himself and searched for each clan.
    96. ^ There is a tendency that ninja movies (ninja things) are basically treated separately depending on whether they are included in historical drama, but since the beginning of historical drama, ninja has been one genre (Kabuki). It was a popular genre at all times from the movie of Matsunosuke Onoe (which is also included in the program).In a broad sense, it does not mean that it will be included, but if you pursue the fun of the movie itself, it is quite natural to include unrealistic content, and the historical drama is only before the modernization of Japan. It holds.
    97. ^ Made in 1921.Nikkatsu.Directed by Shozo Makino and starring Matsunosuke Onoe.Silent movie.A ninjutsu trick based on Kabuki, the film still exists.
    98. ^ Made in 1960.Daiei.Director Kazuo Mori.Starring Shintaro Katsu.The movie's hit led to the Zatoichi series in the story of Katsushin's anma, in which the role of the blind Wal was doing bad things and becoming a Shiranui inspection school.
    99. ^ Produced in 1952.Director Ryo Hagiwara of Toei.The first full-scale Chushingura movie after the war.Chiezou Kataoka plays the dual roles of Lord Naganori Asanouchi and Oishi Yoshio.However, the story up to the sequel "Ako Castle" is a surrender of the castle, and there is no scene of the Kira residence being slaughtered.
    100. ^ There are two works with the same name, the first being a Daiei work released in September 2.Director Ryohei Arai.Yataro Kurokawa's Takumi Asanouchi and Eitaro Shindo's Oishi built-in assistant. A rokyoku version of Chushingura, in which a popular rokyoku master at the time groans in four episodes.The second is a Toei work released in December 1954.Director Masamitsu Igayama.A movie starring Amanoya Rihei, played by Ryunosuke Tsukigata, a gaiden of Chushingura.Denjiro Okochi is dressed as Oishi Kansuke, and this work also contains a rokyoku.
    101. ^ Published October 1954.The first work produced under the title of "Chushingura" after the war.According to the materials at the time of publication, the screening time was 10 minutes for Part 1 (flower roll) and 104 minutes for Part 2 (snow roll), for a total of 137 hours and 4 minute, but the existing version is 1 hours and 3 minutes. Is.This is the longest post-war Chushingura movie and is considered to be the longest single release.Koshiro Matsumoto, the eighth generation, is played by Koshiro Matsumoto, Kokichi Takada is played by Takumi Asano, Osamu Takizawa is played by Kira Uenosuke, and Tatsuo Osone is the director.Tatsuo Osone is also directing the same Shochiku "Daitachu Shinzo" three years later.After this, Koshiro Matsumoto, the eighth generation, moved to Toho, and eight years later, he played Oishi Yoshio again in the movie "Chushingura" commemorating the 8th anniversary of Toho's founding.
    102. ^ Published September 1962, 9. This is a re-edited version of "Daitachu Omizo," which was produced five years ago, and was originally a 9-minute movie reduced to 5 minutes.And it was released in a double-barreled manner with the "Yoshishi Shushuki" described later.
    103. ^ Made in 1962.Director Shochiku and Tatsuo Osone.The title of "Daitachu Omizo", which was produced five years ago, was changed to "Kanadehon Chushokuzo" and screened for a revival. I'm drawing until I let you.Shinnosuke Ichikawa, Shogo Shimada, Mariko Okada, and Shima Iwashita are appearing.
    104. ^ Produced in 1954.Daiei.Director Kenji Mizoguchi.Starring Kazuo Hasegawa and Kyoko Kagawa.A play by Matsutaro Kawaguchi based on the Kabuki play "Daikyoushi Kokei" written by Chikamatsu Monzaemon almost 30 years later, based on the true story of "Osan Shigebei" in Saikaku Ihara's "Five Women of Amorousness". It is a movie adaptation of "Osan Shigebei".
    105. ^ Made in 1958.Shochiku.Director Tadashi Imai.Starring Rentaro Mikuni and Ineko Arima.Screenplay by Shinobu Hashimoto and Kaneto Shindo from the play by Chikamatsu Monzaemon.It depicts the unfaithful communication of the samurai's wife.
    106. ^ Made in 1959.Toei.Directed by Tomu Uchida, starring Kinnosuke Nakamura and Ineko Arima.A heartfelt thing based on Chikamatsu Monzaemon's "The Courier for Hell".Chiezou Kataoka appears in the role of Chikamatsu Monzaemon.
    107. ^ Made in 1969.Expression company and ATG.Director Masahiro Shinoda.Starring Nakamura Kichiemon and Shima Iwashita.A unique work in which Kuroko appears by boldly incorporating the Kabuki style.
    108. ^ However, the original of the movie is "In a Grove" of the same Akutagawa.
    109. ^ Published January 1953, 1.Made by Shintoho.Director Torajiro Saito.Starring Roppa Furukawa's Oishi Yoshio, Entatsu Achako, Kingorō Yanagiya, and Junzaburo Ban.
    110. ^ Japan's first cinemascope work.Starring Taro Otomo.A historical drama that humorously depicts Wakaden-sama's search for a bride. Published April 1957, 4.
    111. ^ An upward comedy program produced on Osaka OTV since 1957.At that time, Nakata Daimaru Racket, who was a manzai and predominant in the world, was in the spotlight, and Makoto Fujita played the power to guide it, and Mitsuko Mori played her younger sister, a martial arts expert.Makoto Fujita and Mitsuko Mori became known all over the country from this program, and it was a successful work for them.
    112. ^ Made in 1922.Starring Matsunosuke Onoe.It is a 64-minute silent movie, and is said to be the only movie in which the full-length film remains in the movie "Matsumoto-chan".Bangoro Shibukawa is a real person and a jujutsu artist in the early Edo period.In the movie, Matsunosuke plays as a hero who is proud of his power and defeats the youkai and his father.The director is Kokichi Tsukiyama, not Shozo Makino.
    113. ^ Made in 1962.Toei.Directed by Tomu Uchida and starring Hashizo Okawa.A fantasy period drama of the Heian period, based on Ningyo Joruri's "Ashiya Doman Dainaikan" and Kiyomoto's classic "Honame Frenzy", with the main character being Yasushi Abe, a court onmyoji.It is a unique work of unique visual expression not seen in other historical drama.By the way, the main character is the father of Onmyoji Abe no Seimei, and the last scene of this movie ends with the birth of Seimei.
    114. ^ Made in 1964.Toei.Director Tai Kato.Starring Hashizo Okawa.The original is Ryotaro Shiba.
    115. ^ A boy swordplay that was aired on Nippon Television in 1959 in opposition to "Akado Suzunosuke" on Radio Tokyo Television.The lead is Shigeo Tezuka.He later joined the vocal group "Three Funkys" and became a singer.At that time, it was Gentaro Takahashi who left this group in turn, and he later played "Ukkarihachibee" in the "Mito Komon" series for 30 years.
    116. ^ Strict historical evidence and reproducibility are not important for settings such as culture, customs, and clothing.Western-SFMixing elements of all genresAvant-gardeContents.It also includes works with a strong element that is similar to the above-mentioned "swashbuckler".
    117. ^ Under the influence of the Narutaki group, he entered Kyoto University, but after immersing himself in the Tahata studio, he dropped out of the university and became the director of the Nikki Kyoto studio. He left behind works such as "Shunju Ichito-ryu," "Uguisu Samurai," "Katakiuchi Symphony," "Kitsune no Kure Baby," "Tengu Hikyaku," and "Snake Princess Dochu."By the way, it is said that the name Marune was taken from actress Marlene Dietrich, and Shotaro was taken from "Santaro's Diary".
    118. ^ In 1954, 1957, and 1962, he made the sequel to "Tadaomizo", "Kurama Tengu" by Hiroshiro Arashi, "Hatamoto Taikutsuo" by Utaemon Ichikawa, and Hibari Misora. He is a representative film director of the Shochiku period drama, shooting various star movies such as "Hibari Hime Hatamoto Taikutsu" with Shochiku.
    119. ^ During the period from 1949 to 1953, Daiei and Toho filmed "Mito Komon" by Tojiro Okouchi, "Kurama Tengu" series by Kanjuro Arashi, "Scarlet Peony Thief", "Abare Toto", and "Manka Jigoku". However, on December 1953, 12, he died of gas poisoning at Takarazuka's dormitory after shooting "Kurama Tengu Slashing" (Takarazuka movie).
    120. ^ An upper comedy that plays with Isshin Tasuke.It was a 6-minute live theater broadcast every Sunday from 30 pm on a theater public program at the South Street Hall in Minami, Osaka.Manzai cousin Koishi and three female vocalists "Trio Koisanzu" will appear as supporting characters.This theater is usually a movie theater, and the movie was shown until the evening on that day.
    121. ^ The original is "Kamiya Genjirou Torture Copy" (Shuhei Fujisawa), and Kikugoro Onoe plays Genjirou Kamiya.
    122. ^ It was produced until the 6th season, but Tetsuro Tamba dropped out halfway only in the 1st season, and Go Kato joined from the 2nd season.
    123. ^ The original is Shotaro Ishinomori's manga "Sabu to Ichi Torimono". The title of the TBS version has been changed to "Jitte bastard catch copy". It was produced as a special historical drama on Fuji TV in 1981 under the title of "Sabu to Ichi Torimono".The anime version was also broadcast on Mainichi Broadcasting System in 1968.
    124. ^ Kazuo Hasegawa first appeared on TV.Recorded the highest audience rating of 53% in the history of taiga dramas.
    125. ^ See the separate "Killing Edo" series (Teruhiko Saigo and Kotaro Satomi).
    126. ^ The first NHK Taiga drama.
    127. ^ The first historical drama in the history of TV dramas.
    128. ^ The theme is "the wrong view of Japan that Americans think", and the content falls into the category of "hyper historical drama".
    129. ^ In terms of content, it falls into the category of "hyper historical drama".
    130. ^ The original is Norio Nanjo's "Surugajo Gozen Game", but it has been greatly adapted by Yamaguchi.
    131. ^ Keiichiro TakashiA cartoonization of an era novel.
    132. ^ Futaro YamadaA cartoonization of the original period novel.
    133. ^ Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd. Mito KomonAnime.
    134. ^ Broadcast on one of the three days of January every year.
    135. ^ From 1985 to 1993, it was broadcast for two consecutive nights on December 12th and 30st (only 31st after 2), and ended in 1991. "Chushingura"White Tiger Corps"Taharazaka"And so on.
    136. ^ In addition to being broadcast as a single shot after the end of the series, it was a serial work in 2009 after a long absence.Deadly Workman 2009Broadcast.
    137. ^ Started in January 2009Deadly Workman 2009Is applicable.
    138. ^ Recently, modern drama may be assigned to this frame.It used to be called the "Hall of Fame of Historical Drama".
    139. ^ Monday 20: 20-54: 1969, 2001-XNUMX in principle historical drama, after thatMito KomonAnd contemporary drama are broadcast alternately.
    140. ^ Every yearMay 1Broadcast to.
    141. ^ Historical drama.Broadcast on Kansai Telecasting Corporation from October 1973 to March 10 at 1975:3 on Sunday for a year and a half.After the end, it will be inherited by "Kansai TV production serial historical drama".

    Source

    1. ^ Historical drama,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    2. ^ a b Historical movie, Kotobank, viewed October 2009, 10.
    3. ^ "World Film Encyclopedia" 379P Historical film section
    4. ^ See "Japanese Film is alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing Film History" 181P Junko Ogawa, Associate Professor, Faculty of Humanities, Chubu University
    5. ^ a b Sword play,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    6. ^ sword fight,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    7. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" 162P
    8. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" 163P
    9. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "", page 204
    10. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "", pages 48-52
    11. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "", pages 204-205
    12. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "", pages 204-205
    13. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "", page 69
    14. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" 163P
    15. ^ See Kenji Iwamoto, "The Birth of" Period Movies "" 205P
    16. ^ Period,Koto bank, Viewed May 2015, 8.
    17. ^ See "Legend of Historical Drama-The Brightness of Chambera Movies" 10P
    18. ^ See "Legend of Historical Drama-The Brightness of Chambera Movies" 11P
    19. ^ New school,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    20. ^ New play,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    21. ^ New national drama,Koto bank, Viewed May 2009, 10.
    22. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" 162P
    23. ^ "Thought of historical film" 12-15P
    24. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" Chambera and Kabuki 162P
    25. ^ See "110 Years of Japanese Film History", page 48
    26. ^ See "Japanese movies are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing movie history" 162P
    27. ^ See "Movie 100 Story-Japanese Film Edition-" 10P << People who built the tradition of Japanese cinema >>
    28. ^ See "110 Years of Japanese Film History" 74P
    29. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" 16P
    30. ^ See "110 Years of Japanese Film History", page 75
    31. ^ See "110 Years of Japanese Film History", page 54
    32. ^ "Secret Photographs of Japanese Activities" by Junichiro Tanaka See 200-202P Published in November 2004 Waizu Shuppan
    33. ^ See "Japanese Films Are alive" Volume 2 "Reviewing Film History" 164-165
    34. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" 16-17
    35. ^ See "Japanese Movies Are Living" Volume 2 "Reviewing Movie History" 164P
    36. ^ See "Thought of Historical Film" 23P
    37. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 26-28
    38. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" 25P
    39. ^ See "Legend of Historical Drama-The Brightness of Chambera Movies" 67P. However, it is originally quoted from Junichiro Tanaka's "History of Japanese Film Development 1", Chuko Bunko, published in 1975, 231P.
    40. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" 29-31
    41. ^ See page 33 of "The Thought of Historical Films".
    42. ^ See "Phantom B-class big city movie goes" 77P
    43. ^ "Chamara Kingdom Far East", edited by Yuuo Akai and Toshiro Maruo,Wise Publishing,Year 1998 ISBN 4948735914.
    44. ^ "World Film Encyclopedia" 380P Historical film section
    45. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" 39-43
    46. ^ "Weekly Sankei Extra Edition Great Killing Chambera Movie Special" (Sankei Publishing)
    47. ^ See "Japanese Movies Are Living" Volume 2 "Reviewing Movie History" 172P
    48. ^ "Kyousho Arakan Ichidai-Uncle of Kurama Tengu" (Takenaka Labor, Shirakawa Shoin)
    49. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 51-54
    50. ^ See "Sinking of Japan without Justice" 52-53
    51. ^ See "Japan Sinks Without Justice" 54P
    52. ^ See "Chiezo Ichidai" 146-147P
    53. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 88-96
    54. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 77-87
    55. ^ Originally, he entered the movie world from a benshi, became an entertainer, and became president of a movie company.After the bankruptcy of Shintoho, he established OP Eiga and started making pink movies.
    56. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 65-69
    57. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 71-73
    58. ^ See Takeshi Tanikawa, "The Whole Picture of the Postwar Tadaomizo Movie," p. 165
    59. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 74-76
    60. ^ See "Japan Sinks Without Justice" 73P
    61. ^ See "The Thought of Historical Films" on pages 57-65
    62. ^ See "Why historical drama perishes" 14-16 pages
    63. ^ See "Why historical drama perishes" 16P
    64. ^ See "Why historical drama perishes" 17P
    65. ^ See "Why historical drama perishes" 18P
    66. ^ See "Why historical drama perishes" 19P
    67. ^ "Why the historical drama perishes", p.20-21.
    68. ^ "Why the historical drama perishes", p.22-23.
    69. ^ "Why the historical drama perishes", p.24-25.
    70. ^ Yoshikazu Suzuki (October 2012, 10). “TV watching: "new sake" for TV historical drama". YOMIURI ONLINE. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2012th of February 11Browse.
    71. ^ "From Kimutaku to baton!Oguri "Nobunaga" x Mr. Children's first historical drama on September 9! !!". Sankei sports (September 2014, 9). 2014th of February 9Browse.
    72. ^ "Japanese native horses and Western horses --- Progress in veterinary medicine and history of veterinary exchange between Japan and Europe" (Japan Veterinary Medical Association)
    73. ^ "Great work and town cooperation" Battle of Nagashino "reproduction, Hokkaido Shimbun

    References

    • "The historical drama is here"Kawamoto Saburo By平凡 社 ISBN 4582832695
    • "Invitation to historical drama (Chamara)" Tsuyoshi Osaka, Saburo Kawamoto,Kikuchi Hideyuki, Tetsuro Nagata,Kazuo Nawata,Masataka Miyamoto Written by PHP El New Book PHP Institute ISBN 456963270X
    • "A masterpiece! Buraiha historical drama-Kill the hard-boiled hero!" History group image series Gakken ISBN 4056032688
    • "The Thought of Historical Films-The Whereabouts of Nostalgia-" Kiyotada Tsutsui Written by PHP Shinsho Published in November 2000
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