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🎥 | "Scientific cartoon survival" movie 2nd 8.13 release decision This work is the original popular "Deep sea survival! 』\


Photo Anime movie "Deep Sea Survival! Teaser Visual (C) Gomdori co., Han Hyun-Dong / Mirae N / Jeong Jun-Gyu / Ludens Media / Asahi Shimbun Publishing (C) 2021 Toei Manga Festival Production Committee

"Scientific cartoon survival" movie 2nd 8.13 release decision This work is the original popular "Survival in the deep sea! 』\

 
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The giant squid and sperm whale are also drawn in front of the light.
 

The second movie adaptation of the popular science manga "Science Manga Survival" series "Survival in the Deep Sea! 』But from August 2th nationwide ... → Continue reading

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Sperm whale

Sperm whale(sperm whale,Physeter macrocephalus) IsArtiodactyla(There is also a theory that it is Cetartiodactyla) Whales classified in the sperm whale family Sperm whale genus.This species alone constitutes the genus Sperm Whale.

The largest of the whales,toothAnimals[7]It is the largest in the world and features a huge head shape.

Designation

scientific name

Genus name Physeter Is "of whalesSquirtingMeans Ancient greek: φυσητηρ (physētērDerived from Pusetail)[Annotation 1]..In particular, sperm whales were later named after their genus, probably because the tide that blows forward is often noticeable.Pronounced like "Faisita" in English[Annotation 2]..In Japanese, it is often called "fisetel" or "fiseter" by convention.

Seed name macrocephalus TheAncient greek: μάκρος (makros) "Long, big" + head (kephalē) A compound word for "head".

Japanese name and fragrance

Japanese nameThe kanji notation for "sperm whale" is "maka whale".An item that has been prized by Arabian merchants since ancient times, regardless of the east or west of the ocean.spicesIsMedicineButaphrodisiacBut alsoAmbergrisHowever, there was no way to get it except by accidentally finding something that was washed up on the beach or floating in the sea.However, in fact, the true identity of this fragrance was rarely formed in the intestines of sperm whales and was sometimes excreted naturally.StoneIn the era of active whaling, it became possible to directly harvest sperm whales that were hunted.This "Ambergris" of the sperm whale isincenseBecause it has a scent similar to (Mako), it is modern JapanNatural historyThen.ChineseIt was called after the name "sperm whale" in the sense of "sperm whale (having ambergris like ambergris in the body)", and it was established as the Japanese name as it is.

English name and oil

English name sperm whale The original meaning of is "semen whale" or "semen (which can produce spermaceti, which is a liquid like) whale" ("#Brain oil (spermaceti)See section).Another name is Cachalot, which is derived from French.US NavyIt is also the name of the ship (separate item "Submarine CachalotSee).

distributed

It is distributed worldwide from the Arctic to the South Pole, with the largest population off the deep sea.The social unit is stable and females and offspring partially live in matrilineal populations.Males also advance into cold watersheds at high latitudes, but females and offspring rarely leave warm watersheds.

in JapanOgasawara IslandsA herd of females and children settled in the sea,Shiretoko PeninsulaMales can be seen in the coastal waters (males near maturity form a herd,Berardius,Stejneger's whaleThe iso-deep sea type is unique in that it is so close to land that it can be observed from land).Off the coast of KaikouraIonian SeaThere are also complete or seasonal settlements in the Mediterranean.This is a peculiar case, as sperm whales usually migrate.Also, in JapanWakayama OfKii PeninsulaOffshore and Kochi prefectureMuroto CapeIt may travel offshore and, if you are lucky, you can see it.

Some of the populations that inhabit a large number on a global scale are unclear, and although details are unknown from the observation of click sounds and analysis of sightings in the Mediterranean Sea, they are inhabiting more than expected. Deaf facts have also been confirmed (see "Adaptation to the Deep Sea" for details).However, off the west coast of North America, around the United Kingdom, southwestern Australia and around New Zealand (FiordlandRecovery is delayed due to the effects of whaling, such as on the coast), and there are some sea areas with low populations.

form

This species has the largest gender difference of all cetaceans.A standard male is about 16-18 meters long (Length comparison material : 1 E1 m), 12-14% larger than the female's about 30-50 meters.The weight of males is 50 tons, while that of females is 25 tons, which is almost double the difference.At birth, both males and females are about 2 meters long and weigh about 4 ton.WhaleIt is the largest species among them, and some grown males are over 20 meters in length.

The significantly enlarged head that characterizes this species is male and reaches one-third the length.This is exceptionally large among cetaceans.brainIs probably the largest and heaviest of all animals, averaging 7 kilograms in adult males, but by no means a large brain compared to body size.

The color of the back is uniformly gray, but it may appear brown in sunlight.The skin on the back is usually uneven, in contrast to most other large whales, which have smooth skin.

FumaroleThe positions of (breathing holes, nostrils) are concentrated in the front of the head and are shifted to the left in the swimming direction.so that,SquirtingBecomes a characteristic that faces forward.The dorsal fin is located two-thirds of the front along the spine and is usually in the shape of a short isosceles triangle.The tail is triangular and very thick.Before the whale begins a deep dive, its tail is pulled very high above the surface.

Sort

There is also a theory that only the genus Physeteroidea constitutes the family Physeteroidea.[4].. In MSW3 (Mead & Brownell, 2005), the genus Pygmy sperm belongs to the family Physeteroidea.KogiaSubfamilies are not allowed, including[8].

Ecology

Teeth and eating habits

lower jaw20-26 pairs on (chin)coneHas shaped teeth.Each tooth weighs about 1 kilogram.

It is believed that teeth are not needed to eat squid that can be swallowed, and it is not clear why this species has teeth.Wild individuals that are healthy and fat despite having no teeth have also been observed.It is now believed that teeth may be used when competing between males of the same species.This hypothesis can also explain why the wounds found on the heads of mature male individuals have a tooth profile, or the teeth are conical and widely spaced.There are also underdeveloped teeth in the upper jaw, but they rarely come out into the oral cavity.Has similar eating habitsRisso's dolphinLike the sperm whale, it has teeth only on the lower jaw.This speciesOceanic dolphinAlthough it belongs to, it is very similar to the sperm whale in many parts.

Recent studies have confirmed that parents who go to the deep sea to catch their prey while leaving their offspring on the surface of the sea take the caught prey with them as food for their offspring.The prey contained in the video was the giant squid, which brought back only a part of it, not the whole one.From this, it is possible to hypothesize that the reason for the existence of teeth is to bite the prey and to prevent the prey from slipping when it is transported from the deep sea to the surface of the sea.

食餌

Squid,Giant squidThe main eating habits are squid,Walleye pollock,Menuke,Ribbonfish,Dogfish sharkLarge likeDeep sea fishKinds also feed.

Estimates estimate that sperm whale food intake is 9 million tonnes-2 million tonnes per year.[9]..If 95% of this is squid, about 8 million tons-2 million tonnes of squid will be eaten by sperm whales, which is 30-66 times the world's annual catch.[9]..However, the squid eaten by sperm whales is large squid such as the squid that mainly inhabits the middle and deep layers.[Annotation 3]It is thought that those squid are not used for human consumption[9].

Besides, although it has a low priorityShark,Sleeper shark,Mega mouse,Shortfin mako shark,A,TunaSuch as large fisheel,SalmonThere is also a record that it is thought that it preys on various fish such as[10][11].

Parenting and social formation

This species has very strong family ties.The child cannot dive into the deep sea immediately after birth.Mothers often train their children to allow them to dive into the deep sea, but if the child is having difficulty divingBreastmilkDive while drinking.Recent studies have shown that they frequently travel between the deep sea and the surface of the sea.

Mature males usually stand alone and migrate extensively to the polar waters where females and children do not advance.Form a unique group of young males.Also, a herd of females and childrenOrcasesMay come to rescue when attacked by a whaling ship or[12]..To protect the flockWhaling ship(largesailboat) Was attacked and sunk by a male[Annotation 4]Also exists.

Other actions

in recent years,Whale watchingIs becoming popular all over the world, and this species, which has a relatively large number of individuals, is also subject to observation.in particularKaikouraVarious areas such as whale watching have developed for sperm whales.In addition, as the number of younger generations who do not know whaling has increased, their alertness to humans and ships has diminished, and they are becoming more friendly.[13]..In addition, it may show resistance to predators by forming a flower-shaped circle, but this is not the case with this species.Right whaleBut it was confirmed.This behavior can also be seen in the absence of natural enemies[14].

Humpback whale,Fin whale,Minke whale,OrcasesIn some cases, they may act together.in Japan,Nemuro Strait[15],Izu IslandsThese exchanges were observed in the above.

Sperm whales are basically deep-sea, but in Asia, for example.Kuril Islands,Commander Islands,Shiretoko Peninsula,Mt. KinkaOffshore, around Tokyo Bay and Boso Peninsula (Tateyama Bay,Miura Peninsula[16],ShirahamaOffshore[17],Chikura Town[18]Such),Izu PeninsulaAround[19][20]From Izu Islands,Volcanic islands,Yakushima-Amami IslandsからNansei Islands[21][22],Taiwan,Mariana Islands[23]There are many sea areas that can be seen near the coast.These areas are often the subject of active observation.In particular, mature males may enter shallow bays where they cannot swim satisfactorily, rest for a while, and then go out to the open sea.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euOffshoreフィリピンThere are also special coastal populations such as those on the coast.[24].

diving

He also spends two-thirds of his life in the deep sea.It can dive lightly for 3 meters and is thought to hunt in groups.In the deep sea where the light does not reachDolphinEtc.Echolocation(Echolocation) is used.It is believed that sound is also used for family conversations.

The diving ability of this species is outstanding among whales.Baleen whaleThe diving depth of the class is about 200-300 meters.In the case of sperm whales, the whole body筋肉In large quantitiesMyoglobinPossess and to this a large amountoxygenIt is possible to store.For this reason, it was possible to dive for an hour without breathing, and it was also revealed that this empties the lungs and is not affected by water pressure in the deep sea.Normally, it is known that predation and other activities are carried out in the deep sea for about 1 minutes from diving into the deep sea of ​​about 1,000 meters until it begins to rise to the surface of the water to take a breather.There is also a record that it dived 20 meters (Length comparison material : 1 E3 m),Abyssal zoneAtNuclear submarineCollision accident withSubmarine cableExamples such as the discovery of a corpse that appears to have been caught and drowned support this record.However, if you dive to a depth of 2,000 meters or more, the number of squid that you should prey on will decrease, so it is said that it is unlikely that you will try to dive more aggressively.Large ships will not damage the hull if they collide with sperm whales, but yachts and wooden ships are expected to suffer significant damage.

Adaptation to the deep sea

Sperm whales are special among whalesDeep sea dive typeIt is a highly evolved and adapted species.Although it is not yet clear under what conditions this evolution was caused, their ancestral whales compete in shallow water with other large and small whales and large sharks. It is inferred that it is a consequential choice after losing to[25]..Only when such animals find a way out elsewhere and can adapt appropriately to the new environment, they can leave offspring as new species and take their evolution to the next stage. It will be possible.However, it is also possible to think that because it is a dominant species, as a part of it expands its distribution area, it acquires different traits and finally differentiates into another species.In any case, their ancestors, under some conditions, challenged the deep-sea environment, which was unexplored for cetaceans, and over a long period of time acquired the current highly adapted sperm whale traits. It can be said that the fact that the abundance of the deep-sea environment is not poor due to the inhabitation of giant invertebrates such as giant squids supported and promoted the evolution of their ancestors.The ability of echo localization possessed by whales is also very powerful in the deep sea, pushing them to the dominant species.

Hydrophone (Hydrophone)byNeutrinoIn an ocean noise detection experiment for the purpose of detectionCataniaA click sound of a sperm whale was observed in the test area at a depth of 2,000 meters to the east.In addition, investigations based on sightings and acoustic records near the surface of the sea revealed that sperm whales inhabit more than expected even in areas where distribution was thought to be rare.Since there are two types of observed click sound patterns,地中海Sea basinIt has been suggested that there are passing whales that temporarily enter from outside the area, but it is not known whether the Mediterranean sperm whale is a closed population or interacts with the open sea population. , There are unknown parts left in the ecology[26].

Breeding and longevity

This species has a low fertility rate, slow maturity and long life.Females mature between the ages of 4 and 6 and have a gestation period of at least 12 months and up to 18 months.And parenting lasts 2-3 years.The sperm whale family is a matrilineal family, mainly females.Males act alone, or young males form small herds.MaleBreedingThe optimum age period lasts for about 10 years from about 20 to 10 years old, and growth does not stop even after 40 years old, and reaches the maximum at about 50 years old.In addition, childbirth is given only once every five years.

Males acquire multiple females in oneHaremDue to the nature of leaving offspring, they do not participate in parenting after mating with multiple females.The length of a mature male penis exceeds 1 meter.

The females and children who form the herd have a strong bond, surrounding their weak and injured companions to protect them from attacks by natural enemies such as killer whales and sharks, or pushing them into a safe zone in their original posture without breaking the enclosure. Behavior has also been observed.

Many scars can be seen on the body surface of large, ripe sperm whales.In particular, male individuals often have scratches on their heads that are engaged by the above-mentioned teeth, and this is said to be common after males fight over females during the breeding season.The wound turns white over time and remains on the body surface or is buried in the skin.

Mature individuals have ring-shaped scars, especially around the mouth and face, which were clung to strong tentacles and injured on the skin due to the desperate resistance of the giant squid. It is a thing.For individuals living near AntarcticaColossal squidSome of them had claws stuck in them, which were thought to have been attached by.

Due to the slow swimming and deep sea, individuals in warm watersCookiecutter sharkIt is also the target of.

Natural enemy

Besides humansOrcases Natural enemy[27], Not only cubs but also adults can be attacked and killed by killer whales[28].

Brain oil (spermaceti)

Spermaceti(Geirou) is another name for cloudy brain oil collected from the head.Because brain oil resembles semen, it was sometimes misunderstood as semen and is called spermaceti (original meaning: "whale-semen") in English.The English name sperm whale derives from this.

Brain oil concentrates sound waves during echolocation, which is found in whales such as dolphins and killer whales.lensHas the function ofmelonFills the head organ calledWax esterIs.In addition, although some people call it cerebrospinal fluid,脳漿Is completely irrelevant because it refers to the cerebrospinal fluid of the brain.Like other whales, echo-localized sound waves are used to detect obstacles during swimming and search for prey, but sperm whale brain oil is a powerful sound wave with high directivity toward prey. There is also a theory that it is possible to faint or paralyze and catch by releasing.Not actually confirmed.

Unlike other whale melons, brain oil is liquid at the body temperature of sperm whales, but at about 25 ° C.coagulationIt is known to do.Cetacean scholar Clark noticed this property by inhaling seawater through his nose to cool his brain oil when diving.固化By letting it increase the specific gravity, when it ascends, it spits out seawater and drains blood to warm it.LiquefactionHe argues that it enables rapid diving and ascent by reducing the specific gravity.It has been confirmed that diving and ascent are performed almost vertically and rapidly,Diving illnessIt has also been confirmed that it does not fall into.

whaling

Spermaceti is high qualitycandle,石 鹸Raw material,kerosene, Used as machine oil.Especially for precision machinerylubricating oilThere was no substitute for it, and it was in demand until the 1970s.In the past, a large number of sperm whales were overfished for the purpose of this spermaceti.in particular米 国Then, from the 18th century to the 19th century, sperm whales were actively captured.United States to JapanOpeningOne of the reasons for pressing is the establishment of a relay station for whaling vessels.AmericaHe captured the sperm whales in the coastal waters and discovered that there was a large herd of the same sperm whales in the western Pacific region near Japan.It is said that there are still tens of thousands of sperm whales in the area.

Sperm whales also contain wax in their meat, so drain the oil when eating.Mainly in JapanYamato-niIn Osaka, the skin (roller) that has been used for oil removalOdenIt is common to eat with (Kanto boiled)[29]..Ayukawa, Tanabe City, Wakayama PrefectureIndonesia-Lesser Sunda IslandsOn Lembata IslandDried fishTo

There is a risk of diarrhea if you eat a lot without draining the oil, and there is a superstition that the whale meat of American whaling sailors is poisonous, and the fact that the meat was thrown away is not suitable for food like this. There is also a point.Also, in the age of American whaling with the sperm whale as the highest goal, it is not possible to store meat in a commercial value during the whaling voyage, which was standard for more than 3 years at the time when there was no refrigeration technology. It was possible.

Although it is a story in the novel, it has a career as a whaling sailor.Herman MelvilleWritten by白 鯨In 』, whale food was not strongly taboo even in Europe and the United States, so even from the perspective of contemporaries, it seems that it was doubtful that it was not even the meat of sailors.On the other hand, "I don't have an appetite when I see dozens of tons of meat in front of my eyes." It's really unlucky, "he said.On the other hand, it seems that he did not stop for the sailors who wanted to eat because it was seen as worthless, and steaks with sperm whale tails are also introduced.

In addition, surplus whale meat was also thrown away in the aforementioned Ayukawa, and it was later used for whale fertilizer (Use of whales # whalesSee also the use of debris).

When viewed as food, trace amounts contained in the body of sperm whalesmercuryYou need to be careful.Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfarePregnant womanLists food intake as one of the seafood to watch out for, and announced on November 2005, 11 that sperm whales eat once a week, assuming that they eat about 2 grams at a time. Up to (about 1 grams per week) is a guide[30].

Image

  • NHK BS3 "Wild Life Shine of Life" Atlantic Azores Whales Gather Sea Paradise "" (aired in September 2019)

Cultural aspects

fiction

White Whale Moby-Dick
The most prominent creations based on sperm whalesHerman MelvilleThe novel "白 鯨], And it will be the whale "Moby-Dick" that appears there.This sperm whale as a white whale isSecondary creationMany entertainment works in the form ofmovies,Comic,Anime,ゲームEtc.) (For details, refer to this section of "White Whale").
Sperm whales other than white whales
Sperm whales, which are not white whales, are large in so many creations[Annotation 5]It seems that it has not been treated, but the following works can still be mentioned.One is to describe the relationship between this species as a living thing and human beings, and the other is to make use of the presence of this species as the origin of ideas.

Nickname

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Appendices I, II and III<http://www.cites.org/> (accessed November 12, 2016)
  2. ^ a b c Taylor, BL, Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, SM, Ford, J., Mead, JG, Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, RL 2008. Physeter macrocephalusThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41755A10554884. two:10.2305 / IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41755A10554884.en, Downloaded on 12 November 2016.
  3. ^ The Mammal Society of Japan Species Name / Specimen Review Committee Mena Problem Study Working Group "Proposal of Japanese names for higher taxa and taxonomic ranks of mammals"Mammalian Science" Vol. 43, No. 2, The Mammal Society of Japan,2003, Pages 127-134.
  4. ^ a b c d Dale W. Rice, "Family PHYSETERIDAE" Marine mammals of the world systematics and distribution, Society of Marine Mammalogy, 1998, Pages 82-83.
  5. ^ Toshio Kasuya "Sperm Whale", "Animal World Heritage Red Data Animals 8 Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean", edited by Hideo Obara, Masanori Uramoto, Hidetoshi Ota, Masafumi Matsui, Kodansha, 2001, pp. 169-170.
  6. ^ Christina Lockyer "Sperm Whales" Translated by Toshio Kasuya "Animal Encyclopedia 2 Marine Mammals" Supervised by Kiyoji Okuma, edited by DW McDonald's,平凡 社,1986, Pages 52-57.
  7. ^ "Whales used to walk on land" Seiji Osumi ISBN-4 569-53353-1
  8. ^ Games G. Mead & Robert L. Brownell Jr., "Physeteridae". Mammal Species of the World, (3rd ed.), Volume 1, Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (ed.), Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, Page 737.
  9. ^ a b c Squid and Japanese ―― 2. Squid resources and fishing grounds National squid processing industry cooperative
  10. ^ Kawakami, T. A review of sperm whale food. 199-218.
  11. ^ SPERM WHALES EAT SHARKS. IT'S PRETTY AWESOME.
  12. ^ Toshio Kurita, 2010, "Behavior of sperm whales attacked by killer whales", Japan Setology Study Group Newsletter No. 25
  13. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0FzLZnah1o
  14. ^ Ponnampalam SL, 2016, No Danger in Sight? An Observation of Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in Marguerite Formation off Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
  15. ^ Shiretoko Nature Cruise. 2008. http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/shiretokorausu/diary/200806300001/. Rausu Town Tourism Association[Source invalid]
  16. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5xVIc5zCts
  17. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JZaXzhfK4s
  18. ^ http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~it6m-sbym/marine/9509kuji.html
  19. ^ https://sv361.xserver.jp/~tes-sev/kohkaimaru.com/?photo_gallery&l=1
  20. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=purfxbOkkk0
  21. ^ http://monodon.jimdo.com/ryukyu-islands/
  22. ^ http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/kujirabaka/48480791.htmlAnimal
  23. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJw6xwNueYY
  24. ^ http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/scotland-sperm-whales.html#cr
  25. ^ NHK "Darwin is here! "Than
  26. ^ Nicola Nosengo (2009). “Underwater acoustics: The neutrino and the whale”. Nature 462: 560-561. two:10.1038 / 462560a. http://www.nature.com/news/2009/091202/full/462560a.html.  News Features: Neutrinos and Whales
  27. ^ Robert L. Pitman, Lisa T. Ballance, Sarah I. Mesnick, Susan J. Chivers, KILLER WHALE PREDATION ON SPERM WHALES: OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Marine Mammal Science., 26 August 2006, two:10.1111 / j.1748-7692.2001.tb01000.x
  28. ^ Scientists Report Rare Attack by Killer Whales on Sperm Whales
  29. ^ Sperm whale market fish and shellfish pictorial book
  30. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Food Safety Department, Standards Examination Division (June 2003, 6).Regarding the review of precautions regarding the feeding of fish and shellfish to pregnant women and mercury (Q & A) (November 17, 11)". About mercury contained in seafoodMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare. As of March 2013, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/4/15Browse.
  • Cetacean Societies Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales, Mann, Connor, Tyack and Whitehead (eds). ISBN 0226503410

注 釈

  1. ^ ア リ ス ト テ レ スThe book "Animal magazineThe term used in ”, originally“bellowsIt was a word that meant.
  2. ^ Audio material : --howjsay.com: You can listen repeatedly by hovering the cursor over the character.
  3. ^ Typical species include robust squid, neon flying squid, giant squid, tsumeika, uroko squid, cranchiidae squid, giant squid, and giant squid. ("McCow Whale Nature Magazine" Hidehiro Kato Heibonsha 1995 ISBN 4582527205 (Page 246) Giant squid squid is an important food for sperm whales (page 250), and it should be noted that the breakdown of this species, which is most widely distributed from the northern hemisphere to the southern hemisphere, differs greatly depending on the habitat.
  4. ^ After the crew of this "whaling ship sunk after being counterattacked by sperm whales" Essex, "disastrous drifting"survivalFamous as "an example of"(English edition),Herman Melvilleof"白 鯨』It is also a model.
  5. ^ Due to its distinctive appearance, it is sometimes seen in short stories such as anime and manga.However, there are many cases where teeth that are unique to the lower jaw grow up and down, or the morphology of sperm whales is not faithfully reproduced.

Related item

  • Cetology ――A field of marine mammal science that is modern and modern while drawing on the flow of ancient Greek natural science.
  • "Blind Sailing" Project - Mt. KinkaApproximately 1,200 kilometers offshore, it collided with a sperm whale and flooded the hull and sank.
  • The best list of living things in the world --The largest (mass) carnivore in the world (about 50 tons).An animal with the largest brain in the world (about 7 kilograms on average).It has the best diving ability in the world (maximum depth of about 3,000 meters).
  • Length comparison material

Giant squid

Giant squid (Giant squidArchiteuthis dux) Is a squid classified in the Oegopsida giant squid family.There was a theory that there are multiple species in the genus Giant squid, but it turned out to be the same species that is genetically very uniform.[2].

Giant cephalopods from EuropeLegend"KrakenIs also thought to be modeled after the giant squid[Note 2].

Colossal squidWithThe world's largest invertebrate(at the same time,Cephalopod) Is known.It is much longer than the Colossal squid, but weighs much lighter than the Colossal squid.

Genus name"Architeuthis"Ancient greek: τευθίς (teuthis) "Squid" with a prefix meaning "highest, highest" archi-[Note 3] With.Japanese name"Rhubarb" in "Giant squid" means "great king".

Biological characteristics

form

It ’s a very big squid,JapanAn example of the discovery in is the cloak length 1.8m,Tactile armIncluding, it reaches 6.5m.EuropeWhen it comes to the population found in (formerly classified as the giant squid or the giant squid), the particularly large ones are said to have exceeded 18 m in length.Colossal squidWithWorld's largestClass invertebrateKnown as (at the same time, the largest cephalopod).Huge with a diameter of 30 centimetersEyeHas,Colossal squidAlong with that, it is considered to be the largest in the biological world.As a result, it can capture a very small amount of light and exert its eyesight even in the darkness of the deep sea.

Compared to the length of the tentacles and the size of the torso, the swimming fins at the tip of the torso are smaller and in the musclesAmmonium chlorideIt has been thought that it does not have much swimming ability because it contains a large amount of, but it was released in 2013, especially when shooting a living figure, which will be described later.NHKIn the survey video off the coast of Ogasawara, a figure of skillfully moving in the deep sea is photographed.

Ecology

North America,EuropeNear大西洋,Island of Hawaiinear,JapanThen.Ogasawara IslandsNearThe Pacific OceanAlthough there are cases of discovery in a wide range such as, the number of discoveries is small as a whole because it lives in the deep sea.typhoonLaunched on the beach byCorpseMost of the discoveries such as drifting ashore.

Drifting is done in Japan, European countries,AfricaEach country,America,Australia,New ZealandReported in[3]..In Japan, it was reported on average about once every two years until 2013, and 2 individuals were reported in the 1 years from 1941 to 1978.[3]..However, in the winter of 2013/2014, there were extremely many reports, and 7 cases were reported.The reason for this is that the seawater temperature conditions similar to those in the winter of 2006/2007 have returned, and that there must have been many drifts that have not been reported in the past simply because the giant squid has become more popular. There is a theory.

There are few sightings of living individuals, and the live images are shown by Japanese researchers.2006It is said that the world's first photograph of a giant squid caught with a deep-sea rope set near 18m off the Ogasawara Islands in December (12) from the ship.The body color in the image at this time was reddish brown, but in the deep sea image off Ogasawara released in 650, the body color changes like other squids while being active, so it reflects light. It was a golden body color.The epidermis of specimens and individuals that have been launched dead will peel off and turn white.Regarding the giant squid, there are still many unclear points in terms of ecology and individual differences, and further research is awaited for details.

Natural enemy TheSperm whaleIs believed to be.The reason is that of sperm whalesstomachMany traces of this species are found in the contents of皮膚ToSuckerThere are traces of shavings and scars torn by their nails.For the giant squid suckersawIt is equipped with hard teeth in a circular shape, and it is thought that when catching prey, it is strongly entwined by letting it bite into the opponent's body.[Note 4]..In addition, it is thought that weakened individuals and carcasses are used as food for other carnivorous organisms such as sharks and killer whales, and juvenile squid are also used as food for many organisms during the floating period when they are young.The eggs of the giant squid are cream-colored or white, and are approximately 1mmIt is a degree.

New ZealandFrom a survey in the coastal waters, the giant squidPredationThe prey to beOrange roughy(Slimehead OfOrange roughy) AndHokiIt has been clarified from the contents of the stomach that it is a fish such as squid or a squid that lives in the deep sea.[4][Note 5]

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Genus synonym

Species synonym

So far, 21 species have been recorded in the genus Giant squid.[2]..When the giant squid is a single species, they are all synonyms.In the past, there was a theory that these were 8 species, and there was a theory that 1 species was 3 subspecies.[2].

Australia,スペイン,The United States of AmericaFlorida,New Zealand,Japan43 giant squids found in the waters ofDNAAs a result of analysis, there is a theory that there is only one species in the genus Giant squid because the difference in DNA characteristics was so small.[5].

Architeuthis dux Other than that, there was a theory that it was a closely related genus.

Relationship with human

Although the population is unknown, the risk of extinction as a species is low as of 2014 due to its extremely wide distribution, inhabiting the deep sea, which is not easily affected by humans, and the lack of fisheries targeting this species. It is believed that[1].

Works dealing with the giant squid

It may appear in literature under the name of Kleeken.

NEWS

  • National Science Museum OfTsunemi KuboderaSucceeded in taking a picture of the giant squid, which is alive for the first time in history[6].2005(Heisei17 years)May 9, Academic journal "(English editionThe treatises and photos will be published on the website[6].
  • 2006(18)May 12, Also with KuboderaNHKA living giant squid was captured in Ogasawara by the research team.that time,funnelIt was confirmed by the video that seawater was spouted vigorously from the sea and gained strong propulsion, and the conventional theory that "living slowly in the deep sea" was denied.
  • 2007(19) March 7,TasmaniaWest Bank Port Town Strone (Strahan Village) It was launched in the suburbs.
  • 2008(20) On July 7, at the Shinjuku Branch of the National Science Museum, under the supervision of Kubotera, Chairman Ryuka Yamamoto and members of International UotakukaboformalinTake the stored giant squid out of the aquarium and color it by the indirect method.UotakuWas produced.Tactile armtentacleWith a stretched composition, we succeeded in completing the appearance of the giant squid swimming vigorously in the water as a colorful gyotaku.It is a valuable gyotaku in which the full-scale giant squid is reproduced in detail with the body color of its life.Two of these fish works were produced, and one was presented to the Science Museum for use as educational material.The production status is NHK's TV program "Enthusiasm timeWas interviewed on October 2008, 10NHK Satellite 2 Television (NHK-BS2)Was broadcast on.
  • 2010(22) February 2, JapanNiigataNishi-wardOn the coast of Ikarashi Ichinomachi, a dead giant squid with a total length of 3.4 m and a weight of 109.2 kg, including its arms, was washed ashore.
  • 2013(25) January 1, Tsunemi Kubodera, Edith Widder, Steve O'She and othersOgasawara IslandsChichijimaOf the giant squid living in the deep sea off the east coast ofMovieAnnounced that it was the first successful shooting in the world.same year"NHK Special"The world's first shooting! Deep-sea giant squid" broadcast on January 1[7]The state of this shooting was introduced at[8]16.8% (Video researchInvestigate and record a high audience rating (Kanto area).Later, after the video was added, it was made into a movie and DVD software.The program was co-produced by Discovery Channel and NHK, and was the result of about 2 hours of filming with two submersibles and an automatic camera.The deep rover that everyone thought was the favorite was the one who succeeded in shooting (Deep Rover)not,submarine(Italian versionWas[9][10].
  • Tsunemi Kubodera summarized the survey results in a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society in March 2013, and announced that it is a cosmopolitan species that changes its external morphology depending on the living environment.[11].
  • 2013January-February,National Science MuseumHeld a special exhibition "Deep Sea" with a catch phrase of "This summer, I meet the legendary" Giant Squid "."A huge specimen of the giant squid was exhibited, and a full-scale stuffed giant squid was sold for 20 yen.
  • August 2014, 1,ToyamaHimi fishing port[1]A 3.5-meter-long giant squid was landed at.It was landed on a net of cold yellowtail in the season.
  • August 2014, 2,HyogoShin Onsen TownA living giant squid, 4 meters and 13 centimeters in length, was landed at the Moroyori fishing port.This is the first time I have been captured alive.A fisherman who was diving in turban shells captured the giant squid swimming overhead.[2]
  • 2015On January 1, the giant squid "giant dried squid" with a total length of about 7 meters was released in Toyama Prefecture.Imizu CityIt was exhibited at the tourist market "Shinminato Kittokito Ichiba".It is said to be about 100 servings of normal size dried squid.On November 11, the previous year, the water depth was 27 meters offshore.White shrimpI hung alive on the fishing net.When it was landed at Shinminato Fishing Port, it was about 6.3 meters long and weighed about 130 kilograms, including its tentacles.Uozu AquariumAfter cutting out the tentacles for investigation, the fishery processing company "Hamajo Food Industry" in the city thought that "fresh squid should be made into dried fish" and processed it.Completed by removing the internal organs weighing about 25 kilograms and drying for about 10 days in the drying room used for processing squid.Weighs about 6 kilograms after drying[12].
  • On February 2015, 2, the world's first tasting party for giant squid processed into dried squid by "Hamajo Food Industry" was held at "Shinminato Kittokito Ichiba".Approximately 22 people visited on the day, and the dried squid of three giant squids, which had been confirmed to be free of harmful ingredients in advance by the Toyama Prefectural Food Research Institute, was cooked in small pieces and served to approximately 4000 people.[13].
  • August 2015, 5,KanagawaYokosukaOn the surface of the water in the Otsu fishing port, fishermen scooped a 1.2-meter-long giant squid with a net and frozen it.On June 6, the same year, it was found at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba Research Facility that it was a young individual less than one year old.It was exhibited at Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park from November 29th of the same year as an acrylic embedded specimen.[14].
  • December 2015, 12, Toyama PrefectureToyamaA giant squid was found in the basin of Mizuhashi Tsujigado, and the owner of a local diving shop dived and succeeded in shooting a close-up video.[15]..After that, he went offshore and disappeared.

edible

MotodaneColossal squidFor the body tissue of huge squid likebuoyancyTo getAmmonium chlorideIs included in large quantities.Therefore, the taste of these squid has a peculiar harshness and odor, and it is said that they are not suitable for food.

In past Japanese news programs, fishermen caught the giant squidsashimiAlthough the scene of eating was broadcasted, the impression after the meal was negative, saying that it was not a salty and edible substitute.Also,National Science MuseumAccording to the testimony of Dr. Tsunemi Kubodera, "There is nothing you can't eat, but there is a bag of ammonia in your body that has a lighter specific gravity than water, so it smells like ammonia." While chewing on the squid, the squid and bitterness come out "(not delicious).[16][17].. When landed on February 2014, 2,Round and round nine nineStaff interviewed for a special feature on squid all over Japan.At this time, the local fisherman ate the raw giant squid, but described it as watery in taste.After that, I received a part of the giant squid's leg on the same program, and in the programTakashi Okamura(Ninety-nine),Tokui Yoshimi(tutorial),MiyazakiEat the giant squid squid, but Okamura ate it with a distressed expression, saying, "The mouth feels very bad and the smell of ammonia is terrible."[18]..Since then,2014May 4ToToyama BayThe individual found inToyamaImizu CitySo it was landed and tasted by Shinminato Fisheries Cooperative staff, but as in the previous report, it is said that "there is no squid-specific chewy, salty, and it seems to be eating a lump of salt, which is not delicious."[19].

However, as with this species, there are cases where it was eaten by applying the processing technology of seafood containing ammonium chloride (other large squid, etc.), and in recent years it has mainly been eaten.South AmericaCountries are conducting full-scale edible research for export.

image

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ A giant squid that seems to be a giant squid secured on the northeastern coast of the United StatesAmericanZoologist(English editionIs a copy of.
  2. ^ The contrast with the kraken is mainly cephalopods, but when it begins to be limited to squid.ModernAfter that.
  3. ^ Ancient greek: ἀρχός Derived from "leader, chief".English: archangel "大 天使The same as arch- found in.
  4. ^ However, it is thought that sperm whales are swallowing this sucker regardless.
  5. ^ In the 2013 video, a large sodeika (around 1 meter) was used as bait to attract.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d Allcock, L. & Barratt, I. 2014. Architeuthis duxThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T163265A991505. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T163265A991505.enDownloaded on 03 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Winkelmann, Inger; et al. (2013) “Mitochondrial genome diversity and population structure of the giant squid Architeuthis: genetics sheds new light on one of the most enigmatic marine species ”, Proc Roy Soc B 280, http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1759/20130273 
  3. ^ a b Tsunemi Kubodera "Giant Squid, Miracle Encounter" 2013 Shinchosha Co., Ltd. ISBN-978 4103346913
  4. ^ KS BOLSTAD and S. O'SHEA (2004). “Gut contents of a giant squid Architeuthis dux (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from New Zealand waters”. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31 (1). two:10.1080/03014223.2004.9518354. 
  5. ^ "Giant squid living in the deep sea of ​​the world, all the same species or DNA analysis revealed". AFPBB News(July 2013, 3). http://www.afpbb.com/article/environment-science-it/science-technology/2934985/10470240 2013/3/18Browse. 
  6. ^ a b "[Celebration!Successful video shooting of the giant squid] "Monster" taken by the Japanese for the first time in the world-The title of "The First" in this hand-Japanese scientists who surprise the world”. Technical Review Company (January 2013, 1). 2013/1/18Browse.(First published in "English bastard Vol.2" published by Gijutsu-Hyoronsha (issued on December 2005, 12))
  7. ^ NHK Special World's first shooting!Super giant squid in the deep sea --NHK masterpiece selection (video / still image) NHK Archives
  8. ^ Special feature At that time, behind the scenes ... The unknown world captured by the diving photographer (Part XNUMX) NHK Archives
  9. ^ "Deep sea project close contact!Interview with the giant squid”. NHK. 2018/7/26Browse.
  10. ^ "Deep Sea Project The miracle submersible Triton has arrived! 1. Move a 3 ton submersible manually!”. NHK. 2018/7/26Browse.
  11. ^ Kubodera [2013: 176-178]
  12. ^ Asahi Shimbun(January 2015, 1) and others
  13. ^ "Shinminato de Daiowika tasting party 4000 people to make it huge"Northern Japan Newspaper February 2015, 2 23st and 1th pages
  14. ^ Tokyo Bay Giant Squid-Rediscovering the messenger from the deep sea- | Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park
  15. ^ Video of the giant squid swimming - YouTube[Broken link]
  16. ^ NHK general TV "Education of Nippon of the problem of laughter』From the broadcast on June 2008, 12.
  17. ^ "Giant squid, miracle encounter"ISBN-978 4103346913
  18. ^ Nippon TV "Round and round nine nine』From the broadcast on June 2014, 3.
  19. ^ "Giant squid "bad" Landed in Toyama Bay for two consecutive days, with the possibility of moving north due to global warming". MSN Sankei News (February 2014, 4). As of February 8, 2014オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014/4/10Browse.

Reference books

外部 リンク


 

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