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In addition to Cornell Dupree (guitar), Chuck Rainey (bass), Bernard Purdie (drums), Aresa sings her roots "gospel" with the background of the Southern California Community Choir. This legendary live was actually shot as a documentary film.
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specificthemeIt is a movie, a TV program, or a radio program that records the facts (selectively) by setting.
By the way, to explain how the term documentary was born, the term "document document" in English means "a handwritten document, printed matter, electronic medium, etc. that provides information, evidence, or official records."The adjective is "documentary documentary", that is, the expression "documentary", which is similar to a document, and it is nominalized, that is, the adjective is nominalized. Is the term documentary, which is originally a documentary expression.
documentIt has a very long historyTextSince the invention of, it was originally recorded exclusively in text, but after the technology for recording video was developed (around the end of the 19th century), it was traditionally done only in text using that technology. It means that the creation of documents has come to be done with video, and it has come to be called documentary.
Since it is a documentary that sets a specific subject and records the facts, for example, a video (data) in which a street scene is simply recorded for a long time with a fixed-point camera is visualized. Yes, but there is no subject, so it is not categorized in the documentary.
Regarding the movie, "Recorded video""Record movieIt is also said.TV programIn the case of, it is called "documentary program", "documentary", "recorded video", etc.For documentariesrecordingdo itradioBroadcast on, for example, street recordingNarrationThere is also a radio program composed of recordings, etc. radio documentary"It is called.
There are various methods for each medium and each work.
Documentaries are generally recognized as "depictions of facts that do not include the intention or subjectivity of the creator", while "Feature film (Drama film) ,DramaIs creativefictionHowever, there is no difference in that the creator's intentions are involved and that a kind of lie may be lied.Tatsuya MoriIt is pointed out by practitioners such as..A documentary for dictators, powers, and their minions to deceive and manipulate the people, taking advantage of the fact that many people think that documentaries are a record of "unintentional" facts. It is necessary to be careful there because it may be produced and broadcast.
The history of documentary began with the film.Lumiere brothersThe first movie in history byFactory exit(1895), as the name implies, is a one-shot shot of employees coming out by installing a camera at the exit of the factory.Continue"Arrival of a train at La Shiota Station(1896), the audience mistakenly mistaken the screen image for the real thing and made a fuss.These are documentaries in the above definition..Other footage shot by Lumiere and others (such as a family dinner) is also a kind of documentary film.
In the early films, landscapes from all over the world were actively filmed and promoted to the masses.This can also be said to be the forerunner of travel documentaries.
The boundaries between fiction and non-fiction in early films were ambiguous and undifferentiated into the various genres that were born later.At this stage, the audience was always interested in the fact that the image was being shown and that something unusual was being shown (in this flow, from the image of the play taken with a fixed camera.Feature filmWill be born).
The era of pioneers
Eventually, as some of the possibilities of the medium of cinema became clear, some creators were willing to project their own awareness of the problem into their works while emphasizing the element of recording medium.Said to be the father of a documentaryRobert Flaherty(USA, 1884-1951)Joris Ivens(Netherlands, 1899-1989),Ziga Vertov(Soviet Union, 1896-1954) and so on.
Flaherty is a masterpiece "Far north mystery (Nanook of the North) 』(1922),InuitI made it while living with the Nanook family for a year.Event was initially a "bridge" (1928) And "rain" (1929) ByAvant-gardeAlthough acclaimed as a filmmaker, these film productions are the beginning of his subsequent consistent documentary career.Vertov is a masterpiece "Man with a camera" (in:Человек с киноа ппаратом) Through the production of, he advocated the documentary film principle "", which makes a thorough record of reality the best, and continues to influence later documentary filmmakers.
Based on these achievements in the 1920s, the British documentary filmmakers reached the 1930s. (Paul Rotha) , (John Grierson) Film production with the intention of transforming society by utilizing the educational and promotional effects of movies, such as "", which they advocated, flourished.The modern term "documentary" originates from this movement.
Two World Wars and a documentary
With the establishment of these documentary techniques and techniques, the public promotion ability of movies has attracted attention and is national.propagandaMany works aimed at this have also appeared.In particularWorld War ISince then, the production of propaganda movies has been emphasized as one of the measures to enable total war.
For example,Reni Riefenstahl(Germany, 1902-2003) work "Triumph of the will』(1935) IsNaziAlthough it is a video recording the party convention, it was finished as a sophisticated video work at that time, and its aesthetic impression made the publicNazismIt is said that it was induced to.Therefore it is stillGermanyIs prohibited from showing.
Nazi Germany left a detailed video record of its activities, some of whichJewConcentration campThe video of was also included.A masterpiece of a documentary film that used the recorded video originally taken for Nazi recording and promotion as a material and accused its criminality on the contrary.Alan Rene(France, 1922-2014) "Night and fog].
Since the 1930s, movie camerasCultural anthropologyIt has also come to be used for fieldwork.Especially anthropology utilizing such imagesVisual anthropology (Visual anthropology) The filmed footage is called an anthropological film.Here, the image is regarded as a recording means with absolute objectivity that is not influenced by the subjective interpretation of the recorder.
Anthropological films are purely academic records, which set them apart from documentaries in the modern sense, but are said to have had a certain influence on documentary filmmakers.
Second World WarLater, the documentary came from a field called industrial film / educational film.Neo-colonialism,資本主義Diversified to even those who disagree withtelevisionWith the advent and spread of TV, a field of work called TV documentary, which is premised on broadcasting, has appeared.
Among them, classical-style documentary production was actively produced in conjunction with serious social problems.For exampleVietnam WarJoris Ivens is exposed to the U.S. military's North BombHanoiEnter and take a picture of the daily life of the citizensFar from Vietnam』(1967) And "" (17e parallèle: La guerre du peuple 1968) Was produced.Among them, "far away from Vietnam"Chris Marker,Jean-Luc GodardIt became a collaboration with up-and-coming French filmmakers.
In JapaneseJunichi UshiyamaProduced "" as a TV documentary.In Japan, he also produced ""Susumu Hani,Minamata diseaseContinued to pursueNoriaki Tsuchimoto,Sanrizuka StrugglePaintedShinsuke Ogawa,Yukiyuki, Shinto"ofKazuo HaraEtc. were active.
さ ら に8mm movie,16 Miri (16 mm film) movies,Video cameraWith the widespread use of low-priced equipment, personal films dealing with the extremely private world have also risen.For exampleJonas Mekas (Jonas Mekas) of"Reminiscences of a trip to Lithuania(Reminiscences of a Journey to Lithuania 1972) Is the birthplace of the author himself living in the United StatesリトアニアI composed my own shooting of the appearance of visiting.GlimpseHome videoAlthough it is a typical work, it has been supported as a monumental work of personal movies all over the world.
On the other hand, documentary films as entertainment that appeals to the inferiority of the audience were also popular before the spread of television documentaries.These are cut-outs of the night customs of big cities around the world, decadent and bizarre events, and the "barbaric" customs of non-Western Asian (including Japan) and African peoples.In particularGualtiero Jacopettiof"World cruel story』(1962) IsTravelingIn the rare times of the world, he introduced the quirks of the world and made a big hit, and many documentaries of this kind were produced until the decline in the early 1980s (these films were produced).Mondo movieIt is called).
Many of these Mondo movies from the beginningYaraseIn addition to seeing the inferior East and Africa from the European sideOrientalismIt has been criticized that there was a typical line of sight.In the latter half of the Mondo movie boom, a semi-fiction thing that showed the inside of the hands of Yarase appeared, and the audience began to enjoy the existence of Yarase as a tacit understanding, and eventually it was absorbed by shocking special programs on TV and disappeared. I went.
Also, the documentary production techniqueStereotypeIn some cases, a fiction (drama) with a sense of realism and realism is produced by taking advantage of techniques peculiar to documentaries such as handheld cameras.1970 eraSince then, these methods have already appearedHollywoodIt is also generalized.Furthermore, in Japan1980 eraIn addition to the traditional coverage and composition format from around that time, "Documentary drama' (Docudrama) (In the United States, it is a format established in the 1970s), "", which is a mixture of quizzes and talk shows in the studio, has appeared and is becoming more common.
1990 eraAfter that, in the TV broadcast, "Reality showThe style of observing the words and actions of characters such as amateur performers recruited from viewers without a script (in front of the building) under a certain extreme setting, which is called ", has become popular worldwide. ..This technique was novel in the sense that it was expressed as true because of its surveillance camera-like image, but there are conspicuous examples of making the directed (or fictitious) shooting object look true by the expression method.
Reality programs, true story reproduction programs, police officer-based programs (JapanPolice 24:XNUMX,in AmericaUS Police 24 o'clock Cops) And other prosperity have made it clear that people are preferring what looks like truth and documentary to scripted dramas.Also,2001 OfAmerican terrorist attacksThe drama was hit by the influence of, while documentary films in a style similar to reality programs in which the director himself and amateurs assault social issues began to produce good box office results. "Fahrenheit 911And 'Supersize Me] Is an example.
Difference between documentary and press
Documentaries and news reports are the same in terms of addressing social issues,Tatsuya MoriThe difference is that documentaries have the highest priority to express the creator's subjectivity and worldview, while the press should always be aware of objectivity and neutrality as much as possible. ing.
Also in the forestChinese peopleMade byDocumentary movieTheAgency for Cultural AffairsWas subsidizedLDPIn the event of a case where screenings were canceled at multiple movie theaters as a result of some lawmakers' doubts, he stated the essence of the documentary as follows..
Of the LDPArimura HarukoA lawmaker has spread a big ripple in the Diet, saying that the swordsmith who was the subject is insisting that he want to delete the scene in which he is reflected.From the point of view of making a documentary, this raises a very important issue.Show it to the subject in advance and get an understanding.Given this, it's easy to crush a movie.The genre of documentary will surely perish.Me too,Kazuo HaraAlsoMichael mooreEveryone will have to change jobs.Self-madeMovie "A"I will cite.There is a scene of unjust arrest by a police officer in the middle.What should I do if that policeman says, "Don't use the scene in which I'm in the picture"?Or many media people who are reflected, do not get their consent.Of course, I didn't show the edited video either.Then can't it be screened?Documentary is a self-expression that cuts out reality and reconstructs the fragments into materials.If human rights and norms are given top priority, nothing can be taken.InadaThe legislator said before the preview: "If it's not objective, it's not a documentary."I was sharp with this.I am not joking.DocumentarySubjectivityis.It is the feeling of the creator.Politicians who need to have a more keen sense of the mediaLiteracyIf you can only have it, it's too pathetic. — Tatsuya Mori, Creation Edition “Great Discussion on Cancellation of Film Yasukuni” “Lecture at MIC / JCJ-sponsored rally on April 2008, 4” p14-58
Representative documentaries outside Japan
- Far north mystery (Nanook of the North) (1922, England) Robert Flaherty
- Man with a camera (1929, Soviet Union) Ziga Vertov
- (Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan) (1932, Spain) Louis Bunuel
- ア ラ ン (1934, England) Robert Flaherty
- Triumph of the will (1935, Germany) Reni Riefenstahl
- Olympia(Part 1: "Festival of the People" Fest der Völker / Part 2: "Festival of Beauty" Fest der Schönheit) (1938, Germany) Leni Riefenstahl
- Why We Fight (Why We Fight) (1942-45, USA)Frank Capra
- (1949, France) Alan Rene
- The living desert (1953, USA),Walt Disney
- Night and fog (1955, France) Alain Resnais
- World of silence(1956, France) Jack-Eve Cousteau,Louis Maru
- World cruel story (1962, Italy) Gualtiero Jacopetti
- Far from Vietnam (1967, France) Chris Marker,Jean-Luc Godard, Alain Resnais,William Klein,Joris Ivens,Agnes Varda,Claude Lelouch
- (1967, USA) Frederick Wiseman
- Woodstock / Three days of love, peace and music(1970, USA) (Michael Wadleigh)
- Reminiscences of a trip to Lithuania (1972, USA) Jonas Mekas
- Atomic Cafe (1982, USA) etc.
- (1982, France) Chris Marker
- Koyanis Katzi (1982, USA) (Godfrey Reggio)
- Astonishing document Calamba beyond cruelty (1983, Italy),
- Harvey milk (1984, USA)
- Tokyo painting (1985, Germany) Wim Wenders
- Shore (1985, France) Claude Landsman
- (1986, Spain) Miguel Littín
- (1989, France) Robert Kramer
- (1990, France)Nicolas Philibert
- Reni (1993, Germany / Belgium) Ray Müller
- (Hoop Dreams) (1994, USA) (Steve James (producer))
- (1995, South Korea)
- Buena Vista Social Club(1999, Germany, USA, France, Cuba) Wim Wenders
- WATARIDORI (2001, France) Jacques Perrin
- Bowling for columbine (2002, USA) Michael moore
- Fahrenheit 911 (2004, USA) Michael Moore
- Supersize Me (2004, USA) Morgan Spurlock
- Emperor penguin(2005, France) Luc Jacquet
- Inconvenient truth (2007, USA) Davis Guggenheim
- Sicco (2007, USA) Michael Moore
- Yasukuni(2007, China)Li Ying
- Capitalism-Money dances-(2009, USA) Michael Moore
- The Cove(2009, USA)Louie Psihoyos
- Michael Jackson THIS IS IT(2009, USA)Michael jackson,Kenny Ortega
- Act of Killing(2012, Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom)Joshua Oppenheimer
- (2014, Singapore),
- Citizenfour Snowden Reveal(2014, USA, Germany)
- Icarus(2017, USA)
Representative Japanese documentary works
- 1899 『Autumn leaves"
- 1923 "" Koichi Ito(Re-edited as "" in 1992)
- 1938 『Shanghai" Fumio Kamei
- 1938 『Nanjing"
- 1938 『Fighting SoldiersFumio Kamei
- 1942 『Sky God Soldier"
- 1946 『Japanese tragedyFumio Kamei
- 1950 『Terakoya" Masahiro Makino
- 1956 "" Susumu Hani
- 1965 『Tokyo Olympics" Ko Ichikawa
- 1968 "" Shinsuke Ogawa
- 1969 『Japan '69 Sex Bizarre Zone" Nakajima Sadao
- 1969 "" Satsuo Yamamoto
- 1970 "" Noriaki Tsuchimoto
- 1972 "" Kazuo Hara
- 1973 "" Shinsuke Ogawa
- 1974 『Burning man Shigeo Nagashima Glory uniform number 3"
- 1974 "" Kazuo Hara
- 1975 "" Noriaki Tsuchimoto
- 1975 『A film director's life Kenji Mizoguchi's record" Kento Shindo
- 1976 『God Speed You! BLACK EMPEROR" Mitsuo Yanagimachi
- 1977 "" Mariko Miyagi
- 1977 "" Satsuo Yamamoto
- 1982 "" Shinsuke Ogawa
- 1983 『Tokyo trial" Masaki Kobayashi
- 1986 "" Shinsuke Ogawa
- 1986 "" Sumiko Haneda
- 1987 『Yukiyuki, Shinto』\ Kazuo Hara
- 1987 『The Story of Yanagawa Horiwari" Takahata Isao
- 1989 ""
- 1991 "" Hirokazu Koreeda
- 1992 "" Makoto Sato
- 1992 "" Naomi Kawase
- 1994 "" Naomi Kawase
- 1994 『A Dedicated Life』\ Kazuo Hara
- 1995 "" Mitsuo Yanagimachi
- 1995 『Nao-chan" Shinichi Ise
- 1996 『SAWADA From Aomori to Vietnam Pulitzer Prize Photographer Kyoichi Sawada's Life and Death" Igarashi Takumi
- 1997 『A" Tatsuya Mori
- 1999 『Annyon Kimchi" Tetsuaki Matsue
- 1999 "" Yutaka Tsuchiya
- 1999 ""
- 2001 『with… The life of a young female artist" Takeshi Shiba
- 2001 『Japanese guizi"
- 2002 "" Seiichi Motohashi
- 2003 "" Kazuyoshi Okuyama
- 2003 『Harmoni" Mipo O
- 2004 ""
- 2004 "" Hitomi Kamanaka
- 2005 "" Takeharu Watai
- 2005 ""
- 2006 『Dear Pyongyang" Yang Yonghi
- 2006 『Ant soldiers" Kaoru Ikeya
- 2007 『Himeyuri" Shohei Shibata
- 2007 『election" Kazuhiro Soda
- 2007 ""
- 2009 『Nanjing torn memory"
- 2009 ""
- 2010 "" Kazuhiro Soda
- 2010 "Being Born" Tomo Goda
- 2011 『Shoji and Takao" Yoko Ide
- 2011 『Ending note" Asami Sunada
- 2012 "" Toshikuni Doi
- 2012 『Japanese archipelago story of living things"
- 2012 『51 The smallest panda in the world"
- 2014 "Let's stay together. 』\ Tomo Goda
- 2015 『Behind the Cove-Approaching the mystery of the whaling problem-" Keiko Yagi
- 2016 ""
- 2016 『FAKE』Tatsuya Mori
- tv set
- 1957 『Real face of Japan(NHK, ~ 1964)
- 1959 『Kaoru Kaoru's World Trip(TBS, ~ 1990) Kaoru Kanetaka
- 1962 "" Junichi Ushiyama
- 1962 『Modern record(NHK, ~ 1964)
- 1963 "" Oshima Nagisa
- 1963 『New Japan travelogue(NHK, ~ 1982)
- 1965 "" Junichi Ushiyama
- 1966 『Great world trip(NTV, ~ 1990) Junichi Ushiyama
- 1970 『I want to go far(Yomiuri TV, ~ now) Other
- 1975 『Unknown world(NTV, ~ 1986) Junichi Ushiyama
- 1980 『Music Journey Haruka(TBS, ~ 1984) 團Ikuma
- 1994 『Everyone is alive(NHK Educational TV, ~ 2009)
- 1995 『The Nonfiction(Fuji TV, irregular broadcast)
- 2000 『Project X Challengers(NHK, ~ 2005)
- 2000 『Green Document(NHK, ~ 2007)
- 2002 『Nikkei Special Gaia Dawn(TV TOKYO)
- 2006 『Professional work style(NHK)
- 2006 『Nikkei Special Cumbria Palace(TV TOKYO)
- 2007 『Luson's jar(NHK)
- 2009 『Door to tomorrow(Discovery Channel)
- 2011 『New Japanese climate(NHK BS Premium)
- 2012 『To tomorrow(NHK)
- 2013 『Document 72 hours(NHK)
- 2017 『Witness! Japan(NHK)
Film festivals, film festivals, and awards that also target documentaries
(Including TV and documentaries)
- Academy awards(America)
- (International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam,Netherlands)
- (Asian Television Awards, Singapore)
- Oberhausen International Short Film Festival Oberhausen (Germany)
- Munich International Documentary Film Festival (Germany)
- Creteil International Women's Film Festival (France)
- Sheffield International Documentary Festival (UK)
- Wildscreen (UK)
- Thessaloniki Documentary Film Festival (Thessaloniki Documentary Film Festival, Greece)
- Athens International Film Festival (Greece)
- Troia International Film Festival (Portugal)
- Bilbao International Festival of Documentary and Short Films (Spain)
- Kiev International Film Festival (Molodist Kyiv International Film Festival, Ukraine)
- Krakow Short Film Festival (Poland)
- Ankara International Film Festival (Turkey)
- Tel Aviv International Documentary Film Festival (Israel)
- The New York International Documentary Festival (USA)
- WorldFest Houston International Film Festival (USA)
- Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival (USA)
- Santa Fe Film Festival (USA)
- Cinema du Rille (Cinéma du réel, France)
- DC Independent Film Festival (USA)
- New Latin American International Film Festival (Festival Internacional del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano, Cuba)
- South African International Documentary Festival (South Africa)
- Beijing International Science Film Festival (China)
- Taiwan International Documentary Festival (Taiwan)
- Seoul Independent Documentary Festival (Korea)
- Mumbai International Film Festival (India)
- Earth Vision Global Environment Video Festival (Tokyo)
- ATP Award (Tokyo)
- Science and Technology Video Festival (for science programs in Tokyo)
- Kadoma International Film Festival
- Educational Video Festival (for educational films in Tokyo)
- Galaxy award(For Tokyo and TV programs)
- World Natural Wildlife Video Festival (Toyama)
- Local Age Video Festival (Kawagoe City)
- Japan Prize(For Tokyo / educational programs / for TV programs)
- Hida Takayama Documentary Video Festival (Gifu)
- Hosou Bunka Foundation Award (for Tokyo and TV programs)
- Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival(Yamagata City)
- (Abeno Ward, Osaka City)
- Masataka Kawamura "What is a documentary--the work of a television director" Bronze new company, February 1995.ISBN 4893091026
- Makoto Sato, "The Horizon of Documentary Films: To Take the World Critically, Above", January 2001.ISBN 4773625058
- Makoto Sato, "The Horizon of Documentary Movies: To Take the World Critically <below>" Kaifusha, January 2001.ISBN 4773625066
- Tsutomu Konno "Detecting the lies on TV" Shinchosha Co., Ltd., February 2004.ISBN 4106100886
- Tatsuya Mori "Documentary Tells a Lie" Soshisha, March 2005, 3.ISBN 4794213891
- Norio Takebayashi, "Japanese Film History Series 5 Movies Record the World" (edited by Koichiro Murayama), Chapter 10, "A New Face of Television Documentaries," Moriwasha, September 2006, 9.ISBN 4916087674
- "Contemporary Thought October 2007 Special Issue General Feature = Documentary" Seitosha, February 2007.ISBN 479171170X
- ^ Lexico, documentary, NOUN
- ^ A piece of written, printed, or electronic matter that provides information or evidence or that serves as an official record.
- ^ "Tomomi Maruyama Radio documentary "Recording composition" established”. As of May 2019, 12オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/4/16Browse.
- ^ 
- ^ a b Tatsuya Mori, "Documentary Tells a Lie," Soshisha, March 2005, 3, pp. 22-85, 95.ISBN 4794213891
- ^ It is the first time in the history of a movie that the crowd that was the subject includes the people involved by Lumiere and others.ShowAlso known as.
- ^ In such films, reality is not always recorded as it is, and there is a strong tendency for reality to be distorted in line with the ideas of the creator and system.
- ^ Tatsuya Mori,Kunio Suzuki,Shinji Miyadai,Soichiro Tahara"Great Discussion on Cancellation of Film Yasukuni" Hiroyuki Shinoda, Co., Ltd. Creation Edition, Tokyo, June 2008, 6 (Original work April 23, 2008), First Edition, pp. 4-14 (Japanese).ISBN 9784924718883.2017/6/16Browse. "Twisting of the issue of" Yasukuni "screening cancellation" April 4 Lecture at a rally hosted by MIC / JCJ
- ^ As of 2014 year 4 month