Photo Performer performing a brass quintet at the main hall of Shokoji Temple = Fushiki Furukokufu, Takaoka City
Quintet set in an ancient temple "Bright brass" at Shokoji Temple 8th performance under the theme of Southern Europe
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Between the performances, the trombone player Daigo Hirose (from Namerikawa City) acted as the facilitator, playing while sharing the knowledge that "the trumpet was once a symbol of power and only selected people could play it." We introduced the features of the members and brass instruments.
"Wind and Green Music Festival 2021 TAKAOKA Spring Music Festival (Gargantua)" (co-sponsored by Toyama Shimbun) "Wind and ... → Continue reading
Northern country, Toyama newspaper
Wikipedia related words
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Origin of the name
Mainly the tubeBrass(brass), But in a broad sense it is used in the same meaning, regardless of whether it is made of "metal" or not.For exampleCornett,Serpent,YamabushiBlowconchAll of these instruments are made of non-metal materials, and are made of non-metal materials for reasons such as weight reduction and cost reduction.Sousaphone,VuvuzelaEtc.), but bothlipIt is classified as a brass instrument because it produces sound by the vibration of.vice versasaxophone,fluteIs generally made of metal, but because it does not use the vibration of the lips for pronunciation,Woodwind instrumentare categorized.
Structure of brass instruments
The structure of brass instruments is very simple and breathes inSinging mouth(Mouthpiece) And to increase the volumemorning gloryIt has (bells) and they are connected by a cylindrical or conical tube.In this state, there is no mechanism for changing the pitch of the sound, but depending on the condition of the lips and the speed of breathing,Fundamental and overtonesTo switch,PitchCan be changed.However, the tube depends on its length (and whether it is open or closed) and the rate of sound propagation.共鳴Since the pitch of the sound to be played is fixed, it is not possible to produce a sound sandwiched between other harmonic series.Therefore, in general, wind instruments resonate by changing the length of the resonance tube.PitchTo get sounds of various pitches.Even brass instruments used to be opened in the middle of the tube, like the current woodwind instruments.Tone holeBy shortening the length of the acoustic tube, higher various sounds were obtained.Nowadays, double tube expansion and contraction called slides and valves (valveBy providing a mechanism for changing the length of the tube, such as), it is possible to finely adjust the pitch of the sound than the unit of overtones.
It can be said that brass instruments are not complete as musical instruments by themselves in that the source of vibration is the lips of the player and not the musical instrument.Woodwind instruments are complete as musical instruments, so if you create an air flow with a pump or the like and hit it against the musical instrument, the sound of the musical instrument will come out.On the other hand, a brass instrument is completed as an instrument only when it is combined with the player's lips.Since the source of sound is human lips, the tone color and range (especially the upper limit) often depend on the player's proficiency level and physical characteristics (lip thickness, facial skeleton, dentition, etc.). There is a view..On the other hand, there is also the view that lip thickness is irrelevant...The lower limit of the range is determined by the size (tube length) of the instrument.Even for one sound, the pitch has a certain range, and it cannot be said that it is fixed like the keyboard of a keyboard instrument.Depending on the player's intention, a short instrument can change the pitch by more than a semitone.
Bending the tube changes the physical characteristics of the air column, so various forms and tones have been tried and are still ongoing.In the horn, it is common to push two tubes with different tones into one instrument (double horn).
Cylindrical tube and conical tube
The shape of the tube connecting the conical mouse pipe and bell connected to the mouthpiece of the brass instrument is a cylindrical (straight) tube and conical (Taper) There is a tube, the former has the same inner diameter at both ends, but the latter has an inner diameter that gradually expands from the side of the singing mouth to the side of the morning glory.
Theoretically, there can be musical instruments that are all made up of cylindrical tubes, and conversely, musical instruments that are made up of conical tubes. The one closer to is a conical tube, and both are combined.BecausePitchThis is because the slide and valve parts for changing the shape cannot be changed in thickness on the way, so they are all made of cylindrical tubes, and the bell part is a conical tube.
Cylindrical tubes generally produce sharp and gorgeous sound quality, and conical tubes are said to produce softer and more rounded sound quality, but it is the thickness and length of the conical tube that actually have a significant effect on the tone. , The shape and the thickness of the cylindrical tube, and the length of the cylindrical tube does not have a great influence on the tone.It is this property that does not lose the tone even if the pipe length is changed by slides or valves.
How to get a note with a pitch other than the harmonic series
The mechanism for obtaining sounds with pitches other than the harmonic series in modern brass instruments isslideas well as the valveThere is a method by.
The slide isPitchOne of the oldest mechanisms for adjusting the stool, which stretches and contracts a doubled tube, many of which are folded back in parallel.generaltromboneUses this mechanism, which results in 3 tritones (6)Semitone) You can get any pitch up to the bottom.Also, other brass instruments are often provided for fine adjustment of pitch.
Heinrich Sterzel (1814)Heinrich Stölzel) Invented a valve for brass instruments..After that, various types of valves were proposed., Became popular.Nowadays, many brass instruments have some kind of valve, and only a few have no valve.
The number of valves that can be installed varies, but many brass instruments are based on three and may add some.Normally, it is operated only with the right hand, but the horn and Wagner tuba are operated with the left hand.In addition, some euphoniums operate only the 3th (4th) valve with the left hand, and some tuba also have many valves and use the left hand.
Each valve is installed in the middle of the main pipe, and a detour pipe is connected to the valve container.The choice of detour tube increases the length of the tube through which the air flows and lowers the pitch.In most cases, when the valve is not activated, the air flow is not diverted and goes straight through, but with a "rising valve" installed in special cases, the operation is the opposite.
Many instruments with three or more valves are set up as follows:
- The first valve isWhole tone(2 semitones, XNUMX note) Go down.
- The second (second) valve isSemitoneGo down.
- The 3rd (third) valve goes down by a whole semitone (3 semitones, XNUMX semitone and a half).
From the younger numberindex finger,Middle finger,ring fingerBy combining these, it is possible to reduce a maximum of about 3 whole tones (6 semitones), but the length of the tube produced by multiple combinations is slightly shorter than it should be. Most of the 4th (fourth) valves are set to lower two whole tones (five semitones, two and a half tones), but in horns, it is common to change the tone of the entire instrument from the F tube to the B ♭ tube. ..This is also an important function to reduce the error caused by the combination of multiple valves.In many cases, the additional valve on the trombone has the same function as this No. 2 valve.
- Piston valve
- The piston valve is implanted with a tube that reciprocates in a cylindrical container.pistonSelect a tube by.
- Rotary valve
- A rotary valve selects a tube by a piece that rotates in a cylindrical container.There are "three-pronged valve" and "Sayer valve" which are the development of this, but they are the inventor'sPatentOften a thing.In a normal rotary valve, a piece with two U-shaped grooves facing each other to connect two adjacent holes rotates 4 degrees in a container with four holes at equal intervals. To do.There are two types of mechanisms for transmitting the movement of the lever for operation to the piece: using a string and mechanical connection.
- Winner valve
- Winner valve (or double piston valve)) Consists of a pair of parallel pistons, and a tube is selected by a piece moving in the pistons.One of the early proposed methods for brass instrument valvesAnd nowViennese hornIt is used only for.
- Other special valves
- In addition to these traditional valve devices, special valve devices such as Sayre valves and Hugman valves are used, especially for trombone.As a background to the use of such special valves in the trombone, the trombone instrument originally has a simple tube shape and low resistance during performance, and changes in resistance due to valve operation affect playability and timbre. In addition to the tendency, the trombone has a small number of valve devices, so it is considered that the size and weight of the valve devices were relatively unconcerned.
Compensating system (automatic correction device)
Instruments with four valves are usually set up as follows:
- No. 1: All notes go down
- No. 2: Go down a semitone
- No. 3: All notes go down by half
- No. 4: Two and a half notes (perfect fourth) down
However, with the combination of No. 4 and other valves,FingeringThe pitch will be higher than the sound considered above.This is because the length of the pipe required to lower the sound gradually increases in proportion to the lower the sound.
As a solution to this, Blakely in 1874EuphoniumIntroduced a "compensating system".This is to secure the shortage distance by adding a correction tube linked to the 4th piston to each piston.As a result, the fingering that includes the 4th piston has a structure in which air automatically passes through the correction tube, so it was difficult to play with an accurate pitch in the past.Pedal toneIt is now possible to put out the range just above with normal fingering.With this system, the euphonium became a brass instrument with the characteristics of being able to cover a wide range of practical sounds, in addition to the high mobility of a piston instrument.
It has the same structure as this compensating system.French hornIs called a "semi-double horn".Euphoniumチ ュ ー バIn the catalog of, there is an example in which both names are written together as "compensating (B ♭ / F semi-double)".
Advantages and disadvantages of slides and valves
The slide can be steplessly obtained in any length and can be adjusted to a length that allows the correct pitch to be played.If necessaryEqual temperament,Just intonationOther thantemperamentIt is also possible to play in, and it is said that better sound quality can be obtained because the structure is simpler than the valve, and the tube bends less than the valve, so it is easy to breathe.On the other hand, since the slide is expanded and contracted by bending and stretching the arm (elbow), the movement becomes large, it does not reach the valve with quick movement, and the distance of expansion and contraction is limited, so it is not suitable for musical instruments with long tubes. Is.In addition, this part needs to be cylindrical, and even when it is most contracted, its length is 4% of the total length of the pipe.For this reason, the use of musical instruments, which are dominated by conical tubes, is limited to fine adjustment of pitch.In addition, especially for those long ones, processing and adjustment with relatively high accuracy are required in order to achieve both smooth operation and prevention of breath leakage.
When the valve is pushed alone, an accurate pitch can be obtained, but when the valves are combined as described above, the sound is noisy.Some kind of correction is necessary for that. (Tube insertion / removal, lip technique, andFrench hornIn that case, it is corrected by the technique of inserting the right hand)
Tube material and surface finish
The main body of brass instruments is brass (brass, Brass) andNickel silver Materials such as (Nickel Silver) are used, often with lacquer coating on the surface.platingIs given.There are several types of brass with different compositions such as yellow brass and red brass, and the hardness and specific gravity affect the tone and the feeling of blowing.It is common to adjust the tone by changing the material of the morning glory part that does not affect the mechanical part or changing the surface treatment.It is also important to make the material itself the same composition for restoration of old musical instruments, etc.berylliumBrass containing brass may be specially prepared.The lacquer is usually a transparent clear lacquer, but yellow or reddyeMay be added to produce a more beautiful shade.The most common type of platingSilverIt is plated.For low-priced instrumentsnickelPlating is also used.RarelyFriPlating is also used, but it is due to the demand for timbre, and although gold-plated musical instruments are certainly "expensive", they are not particularly "luxury" as musical instruments compared to silver-plated instruments.It is said that silver-plated musical instruments are characterized by a warm and mellow tone, lacquer is characterized by a clear-defined tone, and gold-plated is characterized by a bright and gorgeous tone, but more than that, the tube material (composition and thickness), lacquer and plating thickness. Is a very important factor and cannot be ignored and discussed unconditionally.
Major brass instruments
- ^ China Gakuen UniversityBulletin "About aptitude in brass instrument playing-Relationship between physical characteristics and embouchure-(2010, Toshiyuki Mori, Miyuki Mikawa)
- ^ "Principle of Brass Performance-Natural Science Elucidation by Cloud Gordon" (Author: Cloud Gordon, Translated by:Masashi Sugiyama, Anglican Publishing, 2001,ISBN-978 4882741121 ) p.22
- ^ "Why Was the Valve Invented?”. John Ericson. 2014th of February 9Browse.
- ^ a b c "Early Valve Designs”. John Ericson. 2014th of February 9Browse.
- Walter Piston, translated by Kunio Toda, "Orchestra" Ongaku no Tomosha, 1967,ISBN-4 276-10690-7
- Yoshinori Ando, "New Edition of Instrumental Acoustics," Ongaku no Tomosha, 1996,ISBN-4 276-12311-9
- Whirlwind for Another Style --A database of signals from the former Imperial Army and Navy and the Self-Defense Forces by former Self-Defense Forces bugles