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🤖 | TV anime "Odd Taxi", Satoshi Nagashima is Mahiro Takasugi!Comment video is also released


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In the TV anime "Odd Taxi", the role of Satoshi Nagashima is Mahiro Takasugi!Comment video is also released

 
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Encounter with the comedy duo Homo sapiens played by Diane.
 

Mahiro Takasugi The cast of Satoshi Nagashima, who appears in the original TV anime "Odd Taxi" currently being broadcast, is Mahiro Takasugi ... → Continue reading

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens(Homo sapiens,Latin"WiseA humanMeaning,) is the present life(I.e.Belongs to種 Ofscientific nameIs[2].HomoThe only extant species in.

SubspeciesSubspeciesIn the classification of modern human beingsHomo sapiens sapiensHas been claimed to be their ancestorsHomo sapiens idartuIs distinguished from.Homo sapiens, who is good at ingenuity and highly adaptable, has so far地球It has prospered as the most dominant species above.International Union for Conservation of NatureCreates an endangered speciesRed listIs "Mild concern"[1].

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Of "Homo sapiens"scientific nameIt is,1758ToKarl von LinneDevised by[3].Latin OfnounAnd "homō" is "PeopleMeans. "Sapiens" is the present participle of the verb sapiō "understand, know" and includes "wisdom".

Homo sapiensSubspeciesIt is,Homo sapiens idartuAnd only extantHomo sapiens sapiens.NeanderthalsThere is also a theory that classifies it as a subspecies of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.[4][5],Also種 OfSpecimenWas discoveredHomo rhodesiensisHowever, there is also a theory that classifies it as a subspecies of Homo sapiens rhodesiensis.Found in AltayDenisova peopleThere is also a theory that it is a subspecies, and it is named Homo sapiens altai.By the wayNeanderthals,Denisova peopleGene is contaminated in modern humans.

起源

PaleoanthropologySo, in the origin of Homo sapiensAfrican single origin theoryと(English edition)The two hypotheses have been in fierce conflict for many years, but now the African origin theory is the mainstream.PleistoceneThe multi-regional evolution theory that human beings have evolved independently in each region of the world from 250 million years before the beginning to the present is(English edition)[6]To explain the evolution of mankind1988[7]Advocated to.

The hypothesis that humanity has a common ancestor is1871ToCharles DarwinWritten by(English edition)Was announced in.This theory is oldSpecimenBased onNatural anthropologyEvidence above and recentMitochondrial DNADue to the progress of research in1980 eraIt has been proved since then.According to genetic and fossil evidence, non-modern human Homo sapiens was predominantly 20 to 10 years old.AfricaTo modern human beings進化After that, he left Africa 6 years ago and spread all over the world after a long time, and the indigenous NeanderthalsHomo erectusA replacement drama with an early human group such as was unfolded.

The origin of all modern humansEast AfricaThe theory that there is is almost agreed in the scientific community[8][9][10][11][12]Has been done.

NeanderthalAnalyzing the genomeThe research team presented that there is some overlap in the DNA of humans and Neanderthals, and when humans are grouped into non-Africans and Africans, the former is closer to Neanderthals than the latter.From this, it is said that it is effective to see that there was a genetic flow (crossbreeding) from Neanderthals at the time when humans were scattered from Africa to various places, but other possibilities cannot be ruled out.[13].Cambridge UniversityAnders Eriksson and Andrea Manica question the theory of mating between Neanderthals and humans, and the hypothesis is based on a hypothesis that DNA duplication is a remnant of a common ancestor of both Neanderthals and modern humans. Research results that explain DNA duplication2012Announced in August[14][15]did.

進化

HomoとChimpanzeeIt is estimated that the common ancestor of Homo sapiens and Homo erectus diverged about 200-1,000 million years ago, and the common ancestor of Homo sapiens and Homo erectus diverged about 20-180 million years ago.

Modern humans are a Homo sapiens species.And the only extant subspecies of them is known as Homo sapiens sapiens.Another known subspecies, Homo sapiens idaltu, is already extinct[16]..The Neanderthals, once classified as a subspecies called Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, were extinct 3 years ago.Genetic studies suggest that the common ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals diverged approximately 50 years ago[17].

The oldest fossils of modern humans areエチオピア Of(English edition)Found about 19 years ago, the skull and several stone tools of its age, found in the Jebel Irhoud formation in Morocco in 5,000, are about 2004 years old. It was concluded that it was, and was announced in Nature in June 30.Molecular biologyAll modern humans are about 20 years oldAfricanEvidence is shown that it comes from an ancestral population[18][19][20][21][22]However, with the discovery of fossils that are about 10 years older than that, further research is awaited.AfricanGenetic diversityOf the 14 different populations sampled from 113 "ancestral population clusters" from extensive research onSan peopleHas been found to have the highest genetic diversity.In addition, this research report is from South West Africa.NamibiaとアンゴラNear the coastal border of modern humansstarting pointIs saying[23][24].

As a result of analyzing the genome of the last 1 years, the human populationNatural selectionIs known to continue to work[25].

Source

  1. ^ a b Global Mammal Assessment Team (2008). "Homo sapiens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature.Retrieved January 2015, 10.
  2. ^ https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/Taxon:9606
  3. ^ Linné, Carl von (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale. (10 ed.). Pp. 18, 20. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/80764#page/28/mode/1up 2015th of February 10Browse. 
  4. ^ Hublin, JJ (2009). “The origin of Neandertals”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (38): 16022–7. bibcode2009 PNAS ..10616022H. two:10.1073 / pnas.0904119106. JSTOR 40485013. PMC: 2752594. PMID 19805257. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752594/. 
  5. ^ Harvati, K .; Frost, SR; McNulty, KP (2004). Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered: implications of 3D primate models of intra- and interspecific differences. PMID 14745010. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14745010/ 2015th of February 10Browse.. 
  6. ^ Wolpoff, MH; Hawks, J; Caspari, R (2000). “Multiregional, not multiple origins”. Am J Phys Anthropol 112 (1): 129–36. two:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<129::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10766948. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/71008905/abstract. 
  7. ^ Wolpoff, MH; JN Spuhler; FH Smith; J Radovcic; G Pope; DW Frayer; R Eckhardt; G Clark (1988). “Modern human origins”. Science 241 (4867): 772–4. two:10.1126 / science.3136545. PMID 3136545. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pdf_extract/241/4867/772. 
  8. ^ Hua Liu, et al. A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, volume 79 (2006), pages 230–237, quote: Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa. However, this is where the near consensus on human settlement history ends, and considerable uncertainty clouds any more detailed aspect of human colonization history.
  9. ^ "Out of Africa Revisited --308 (5724): 921g --Science”. Sciencemag.org (May 2005, 5). two:10.1126 / science.308.5724.921g. 2015th of February 10Browse.
  10. ^ Nature. “Access: Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia”. Nature. 2015th of February 10Browse.
  11. ^ "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?”. Action Bioscience. 2015th of February 10Browse.
  12. ^ "Modern Humans-Single Origin (Out of Africa) vs Multiregional”. Asa3.org. 2015th of February 10Browse.
  13. ^ Green et al., RE; Krause, J; Briggs, AW; Maricic, T; Stenzel, U; Kircher, M; Patterson, N; Li, H et al. (2010). “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome”. Science (Science) 328 (5979): 710–22. two:10.1126 / science.1188021. PMID 20448178. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5979/710. 
  14. ^ Study casts doubt on human-Neanderthal interbreeding theory, The Guardian, August 2012, 8
  15. ^ Anders Eriksson and Andrea Manica Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins PNAS 2012: 1200567109v1-201200567. Retrieved October 2015, 10
  16. ^ Human evolution: the fossil evidence in 3D, by Philip L. Walker and Edward H. Hagen, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. April 2005, 4
  17. ^ Green, RE, Krause, J, Ptak, SE, Briggs, AW, Ronan, MT, Simons, JF (2006). Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature. Pp. 16, 330–336. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7117/abs/nature05336.html 
  18. ^ nsf.gov --National Science Foundation (NSF) News --New Clues Add 40,000 Years to Age of Human Species --US National Science Foundation (NSF)
  19. ^ “Age of ancient humans reassessed”. BBC News(July 2005, 1). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4269299.stm 2015th of February 10Browse. 
  20. ^ The Oldest Homo Sapiens: – Retrieved May 2009, 5
  21. ^ Alemseged, Z., Coppens, Y., Geraads, D. (2002). “Hominid cranium from Homo: Description and taxonomy of Homo-323-1976-896”. Am J Phys Anthropol 117 (2): 103–12. two:10.1002 / ajpa.10032. PMID 11815945. 
  22. ^ Stoneking, Mark; Soodyall, Himla (1996). “Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome”. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 6 (6): 731–6. two:10.1016 / S0959-437X (96) 80028-1. 
  23. ^ Henn, Brenna; Gignoux, Christopher R .; Jobin, Matthew (2011). “Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (National Academy of Sciences) 108 (13): 5154–62. two:10.1073 / pnas.1017511108. 
  24. ^ Gill, Victoria (May 2009, 5). “Africa's genetic secrets unlocked”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8027269.stm The results were published in the online edition of the journal Science.
  25. ^ Wade, N (March 2006, 3). “Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/07/science/07evolve.html 2015th of February 10Browse. 

 

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