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Eiichi, in the turbulent Kyoto ... "Seiten wo Tsuketsu" 13th Synopsis Eiichi, to the capital of Kyoto
If you write the contents roughly
In the turbulent Kyoto, the imperial court holds a council meeting.
The 13th "Eiichi, to the capital of Kyoto" of the taiga drama "Seiten wo Tsuketsu" will be broadcast on NHK from 9 o'clock on the 8th.Introducing the synopsis ... → Continue reading
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Attendance meeting(Sanyokaigi, notation isSan'yo meeting/Participation meetingTomo)Edo PeriodTerminal stage (Bakumatsu)ofBunkyu3 years(1863) From the end to the next year3Until京都Existed inImperial courtSome influential people by appointment ofDamingExperienced personIt is a collegial meeting composed of, and its system.It was popular at that timePublic military coalitionTheory andPublic politicsIt was one of the consequences of this, but it collapsed in just a few months due to disagreements among the lords of the depository.
Kobu Gattai theory and public discussion
Political affairs at the end of the Edo period
At the end of the Edo periodPolitical situationAtThe elder-Naosuke Ii(Hikone clanForcible by the Lord)US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyFrom repulsion to fasteningReverenceAs the movement increased, IiAnsei no HellSuppress these with, but on the contraryOutside of SakuradamonAssassinated inEdo ShogunateAuthority was declining rapidly.Therefore, the shogunate tries to restore authority by connecting with the imperial court.
Traditionally, the imperial court was regulated in relation to politics, but in the latter half of the Edo periodSinology-Mito ManabuRise ofLarge government delegation theoryWith the advent of such products, the potential position has gradually increased, and in the controversy and political work over the Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Commerce.Old age-Hotta Masayoshi(Sakura clanTo suppress the oppositionEmperor TakaakiBecause I tried to get the edict ofEmperorAnd the authority of the imperial court was rising rapidly.
Public military coalition
Under these circumstances, the theory of Kobu Gattai, which attempts to prevent the decline in authority of the Shogunate by uniting with the imperial court, emerges.RōjūKuze Hirochika(Sekijuku Clanmain),Ando Nobumasa(Iwadaira clanLord) et al.General-Tokugawa Igemo OfRoomEmperor Komei's younger sisterKamiya parent and childTo surrender.
On the other hand, due to the decline in authority of the Shogunate, it has been kept away from the Shogunate government.Relative-Outside DaimyoThe political power of the nation has increased relatively, and the theory of public politics that the influential lords who have advanced ideas and bear the desire should participate in the national affairs to survive the national crisis has emerged.
Bunkyu 2rd year (1862)summer,Satsuma Domainmain·Shigehisa ShimazuIs the father ofHisamitsu ShimazuLeads a soldier to Tokyo and goes from the imperial court to the shogunateShigenori OharaLet me downShogunate reformApproaching (Bunkyu's reform).
As a result, he had been ousted since Ansei Purge.Matsudaira Shungo(PreviousEchizen clanLord)Political governorship,Yoshiki Tokugawa(Hitotsubashi Tokugawa familyThe head.Later 15th Shogun)General guardianshipReturned as.
Political change on August XNUMXth and subsequent political affairs
In the 3rd year of Bunkyu (1863), the political affairs became a fierce group of sonno jōi.Choshu clanAnd backed itMimi Sanjo-Anekoji publicly knownExtremeLordAlthough they are enthusiastic scholars, they are in the lead of the morning affairs, but they are far against the will of Emperor Komei, who aims to cooperate with the Shogunate.Received the intention of the emperorPrince Kuni Asahiko NakagawaIt is,Kyoto guardian-Matsudaira YohoLeadAizu DomainWhen,Satsuma DomainTo eliminate the Choshu clan and the honorable lord (August XNUMX political change).The Choshu clan forces were expelled from Kyoto, and seven people, including the Honorable Lord Sanjo, followed suit (Seven Lords).In this way, the imperial court succeeded in clearing out the revered faction, but Nakagawamiya andKanpaku-Takatsukasa SukeThey (who were appeasement to the Choshu clan) did not have the ability to lead the political affairs, and the imperial court was extremely lacking in human resources.
Therefore, the imperial court expected volunteer daimyo, Hisamitsu Shimazu, Harutake Matsudaira, Yoshinobu Ichihashi,Uwajima DomainFormer feudal lordDate Sojo,Tosa DomainFormer feudal lordMountain contents hallIn order to stabilize the political situation, which is extremely confused, he sought future measures, including the reform of the morning politics.In response to thisMay 10Hisamitsu,May 10To Harutake,May 11Sojo,May 11Yoshinobu enters Tokyo.A little lateMay 12Toyoshige entered Tokyo.During this time, the emperor kept secretShinkanHisamitsu who received it shows a positive movement.After the Emperor wiped out the Sonno Jōi radicals by reforming the morning affairs, he delegated the great government to the Shogunate as before and showed a policy of uniting the Kobu Gattai, but the Satsuma domain rather sent the shogun to Tokyo and then the influential lords. He sought the cooperation of the princes, thinking that it was the Kobu Gattai to establish a council advisory body and create a public politics.May 12The Satsuma domain suggested that wise princes should be called to the imperial court for a performance.Harutake, Sojo, and Matsudaira Katamori, who gathered at Yoshinobu's inn, agreed with this and became a decision...This is the basic policy of the depository meeting.
Establishment of depository meeting
In this way, based on the above table of the Satsuma DomainNew Year's EveIn addition, the above four people except Hisamitsu and Katamori are appointed as "courtesy of the imperial court" (only Hisamitsu is the next Bunkyu 4 years (4 years after Hisamitsu)1864）New year 13thAppointed to).The duty of this deposit isNijo CastleThe meeting place was to visit every two days and participate in the morning meeting in front of the emperor's blinds.
New year 15th, Shogun Iemochi Tokugawa reappears.Emperor Komei urged Iemochi to discuss strategies for conquering the ugliness, to participate in the politics of the lords of the depository, and to clarify the Kobu Gattai policy.In response to thisMay 2The lords of the depository were allowed to enter and leave the Rōjū room, and were officially ordered to participate in the shogunate government.
Member of the depository meeting
- Yoshiki Tokugawa(Hitotsubashi Tokugawa family head, general guardianship)
- Matsudaira Shungo(Former feudal lord of the Echizen feudal clan, former president of the political affairs)
- Mountain contents hall(Former feudal lord of the Tosa domain)
- Date Sojo(Former feudal lord of the Uwajima domain)
- Matsudaira Yoho(Aizu feudal lord, Kyoto Shugoshoku)
- Hisamitsu Shimazu(Satsuma feudal lordShigehisa ShimazuFather of)
Agenda at the depositary meeting
The immediate agenda at the depository meeting, which was established as a council for national affairs, was the disposition of the Choshu clan, which was a pending issue at the time.YokohamaChain port) It was a problem.
Disposal problem of Choshu clan
The Choshu clan, which was exiled from Kyoto due to the political change on August XNUMX, continued its political work with the aim of recovering from the lost land.In fact, there were many sympathies for the Choshu clan in Kyoto at that time, and Nakagawamiya, who led the political change, said, "Maybe it's because of the Demon King.It was so badly received.However, Emperor Komei against ChoshuReverse scaleCan't be solved, Choshu schoolIkeda Mochimasa(Bizen Domainmain),Uesugi Masanori(Yonezawa Domainmain),Yoshinori Ikeda(Tottori Domainmain),Shigenaga Asano(Geshu Domainmain),Takayoshi Todo(TsuhanLord) and others were retreating from Kyoto one after another.The Choshu clan is a chief retainerNegoro Kazusa, IharaOsakaHe was sent to Tokyo and often tried to submit a petition to plead for innocence in Choshu, but he was not allowed to enter Tokyo.
But,May 12ToKanmon StraitThe Satsuma domain steamship Nagasaki Maru (borrowed from the Shogunate) was occupied by the Choshu domain.BuzenTanoura (OriginallyOgura domainTerritory) An incident occurred in which the battery was bombarded and sank.When this was reported to Kyo, Hisamitsu was furious and insisted on a hard-line punishment such as the immediate execution of the conquest to Choshu or the summoning of the feudal lord and son Osaka.On the other hand, Yodo argued that it would be better to call him to Edo after returning to Shogun Edo, and he had a difficult time.In the end, the policy is to summon the Choshu elder to Osaka and order the delivery of the Seven Lords, and if he does not obey, he will conquer him.
Yokohama Chain Port Problem
Emperor Komei is an enthusiastic debater, and even at the depositary council, which is an advisory to national affairs, the agenda was the abolition of trade treaties (cancellation) and the closure of ports that allowed foreign trade (closed ports).However, since the lords of the depository originally had an idea of opening the country and recognized that it was impossible to remove them, they were against the chain port and instead bought the emperor's disappointment.During this period, with the exception of some Joi factions, the abolition of treaties with other countries was already considered unrealistic, and the specific measures for "Joi" wereHyogo (Kobe) PortBlocking the opening of the port, andYokohama portIt came to mean the chain port of.
On the other hand, the shogunate, which was the party that originally concluded treaties with other countries and opened the country, was also opposed to Jōi, but at the time of Iemochi Joraku the previous year, Emperor Komei promised to carry out Jōi, and Bunkyu has already done so. 3 years (1863)12To negotiate the Yokohama Chain Port, knowing that it is impossibleFranceへForeign magistrate-From Ikeda NagaokiNegotiation team with full authority (Yokohama Chain Port Interpretation Mission) Was dispatched.At the depositary meeting, Yoshinobu, who should have been reluctant to go to Yokohama Chain Port at first, was wary of the Satsuma Domain's head and insisted on the execution of Yokohama Chain Port, saying that he could not agree with Hisamitsu's claim. ..May 2Hisamitsu and Yoshinobu clashed violently on this issue at the depositary meeting held in Tokyo..
Collapse of the depository meeting system
The Choshu issue did not produce ridiculous results, and the Yokohama Chain Port issue intensified the conflict between Yoshinobu and Hisamitsu, so the depository council system was already stalled.Nakagawamiya, who was worried about this situation,May 2Invited the lords of the lords to his own residence and set up a liquor table, but Yoshinobu, who was drunk, pointed to Hisamitsu, Harutake, and Sojo to Nakagawamiya. I don't want you to be with me. "As a result, Hisamitsu, who was in a bad mood, completely gave up on the depositary meeting and gave up his cooperative attitude toward the shogunate.HarutakeKomatsu Belt Sword(Satsuma DomainElder) Is the arbitration, but Yoshinobu started a conflict with the Shogunate Rōjū and others, and RōjūMizuno Tadaki(Yamagata DomainThe Lord) even said, "The San'yo meeting is a harmful thing in the world, rather it must be abolished.".
In this way, the depository meeting collapsed with almost no achievements.May 2Yodo was the first to leave KyotoMay 3Yoshinobu resigned from the deposit.Subsequently, other depositors also resigned one after another.
Subsequent political impact
YoshinobuMay 3Resigned from the general guardianship and was newly established from the imperial courtForbidden Guardian GovernorHe was appointed (concurrently commanding the defense of the sea), and at Nijo Castle, he moved away from the Edo shogunate and began to take his own actions.After this, Yoshinobu, Matsudaira Katamori andKyoto officeBecameMatsudaira Sadataka(Kuwana DomainTogether with the Lord, he will build a force that is semi-independent of the central shogunate (the Lord).One meeting mulberry administration).As expected, the Bakufu envoy dispatched to France returned to Japan due to poor negotiations, and decided to do so.Paris AgreementFrom Ikeda NagaokiTaichi TanabeThe delegation was punished, but neither the Shogunate nor Ichikai Kuwa actively promoted the Yokohama Chain Port.
On the other hand, the Satsuma domain's reform route to the shogunate led by Hisamitsu was also disrupted by the collapse of the depository council, and the domain has since been inclined to support the imperial court from the shogunate.Same yearForbiddenAfterRetreatIn an attempt to weaken the shogunate with an eye onMale clanIt was decided to carry out a political movement on the coalition route.
Keio 3rd year (1867) Four Hou Conference
Keio2 years(1866) Yoshinobu, who became the 15th Shogun at the end, will work on the imperial court to solve the problems surrounding the opening of Hyogo Port.On the other hand, the following year, led by Satsuma, who promoted the lords' conference route.May 5A four-way conference was set up in which Hisamitsu, Yodo, Sojo, and Yoshinaga gathered to discuss national affairs.So to speak, it is a reproduction of the depositary meeting.However, this time, Hisamitsu insisted on Choshu's Kannori, and Yoshinobu resolutely prioritized the opening of Hyogo, which was the opposite of the depositary meeting.Yoshinobu, who saw Satsuma's intentions, took the Satsuma sect on his side and forcibly took the treaty royalties in the morning meeting all night, so the four princes' meeting also collapsed in a short period of time.After that, Satsuma will steer toward the defeat.
- "National History Dictionary』(Yoshikawa Hirofumikan) "San'yo Conference" (Written by:Inoue Isao）
- "Japanese History System 4 Modern I" (Yamakawa Publishing,1987,ISBN 4634200406) Volume XNUMX "Opening of the country and politics at the end of the Edo period" Chapter XNUMX "Development of politics at the end of the Edo period" Section XNUMX "Kobu gattai and reverence movement" (Written by:Toshiaki Okubo）
- "Why did Hisamitsu Shimazu and Hisamitsu Meiji Restoration decide to debate?" (Norimasa Kanbashi,Yoshikawa Hirofumikan,2002,ISBN 4404029950) 129-138p
- "Tokugawa Yoshinobu" (Eiichi Shibusawa）
- "Sequel Re-Dream Journey" (Yukie NakaneOther)
- "Emperor Takaaki"
Below, in the quoteOld characterIs changed to a new character.
- ^ Only Matsudaira Katamori can be said to be a pure daimyo among the members of the depository council, and the others.Three Lords・ Former feudal lord, relatives of the owner, etc.
- ^ "Continued Re-Yumekiji" December XNUMX, XNUMXrd year of Bunkyu "From the permission of the palace, we will meet at the inn of Hitotsubashi-den, Uwajima-den and Kodo-do. It cannot be said that the lord's merits and demerits have been submitted to the rally from the Satsuma clan on this day. It is not easy to make a decision. After all, the important thing was not done. Therefore, the samurai should offer that the wise princes should be called to the court and added to the performance. It was decided that what should be done if it wasn't the case, and the controversy was still elaborate, and it was decided that he would bear the burden of the circumstance. Is to participate in Nijo Castle, and it is a plan to make a rough decision on matters related to the former Daiki Ryokan. "
- ^ "Koumei Emperor Ki" Vol. XNUMX, December XNUMX, addressed to Hisamitsu Report to Shinkan "Kampaku Remarks ".
- ^ Other members are daimyo or former daimyo in the imperial courtOfficial positionOfficial officeHowever, only Hisamitsu Shimazu was innocent.Hisamitsu was also appointed as a junior fourth rank on January 1th.Major General SakonemonWas entrusted to (on February 2st)Mamoru OsumiAlso serves as).
- ^ "Tokugawa Yoshinobu Koden" Vol. 3, p. 27 "Owari Mae Dainagon enters Tokyo, orders to participate in Hiroshi. If we are weakened and participate in such a great government and create a gap of peace, we should not regret it. "
- ^ Volume 2 of "Tokugawa Yoshinobu", "Date Munenari's Diary in Tokyo", etc.
- ^ "Tokugawa Yoshinobu Koden" Volume 3, pp. 19-22.
- ^ "Tokugawa Yoshinobu Koden" Vol. 3, p. 24 "These three people are the great idiots of the world, the great monsters of the world. Therefore, I have to be obedient, but if I can be more than a certain person from tomorrow, I should obey a certain person. If you trust the three people's speeches, you will be able to draw out the mistakes of today. "
- ^ "Tokugawa Yoshinobu Koden," Vol. 3, p. 26, "Rōjū Mizuno Izumi Mamoru, etc. said," The San'yo meeting is a harmful substance in the world, rather it should be abolished. "