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🎥 | Tesla's Elon Musk announces Asperger's Syndrome


Photo Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla, Inc., which hosted the popular NBC program "Saturday Night Live" broadcast on the 8th, announced that he had Asperger's syndrome. Surprised the viewer.Taken in Berlin in November 2019 – (11 Reuters / HANNIBAL HANSCHKE)

Tesla's Elon Musk announces Asperger's Syndrome

 
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Asperger's syndrome is one of the autism spectrum disorders and is a symptomatology that makes it difficult to build social relationships.
 

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Asperger's syndrome

ICD-10InAsperger's syndrome(Asperger's Syndrome,Asperger's Syndrome),DSM-IVInAsperger's disorderWhat is (Asperger disorder)?communicationCongenital humans with good language development, although there is specificity in their interests and interestsDevelopmental disorders[1][2][3].. In 2013 DSM-5 and later ICD-11, there is no main examination nameAutism spectrum disorderPositioned in.in JapanAsperger'sMay be abbreviated as[4](However, it may have derogatory implications).

They show a strong commitment to a particular field and may have mild impairment of motor function.Autism spectrum disorderOut ofIntellectual disabilityandLanguage disorderSay a group without[5][3].. The addition of a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder to DSM-IV has led to an over-diagnosis epidemic.[6].

The cause is unknown[1]..This is only the case where the person who was anxious because he noticed that there were many parts corresponding to the specificity and characteristics, accepted that he was diagnosed when he consulted with a medical institution.There is no widely supported treatment that has been shown to be effective.If you leave it alonedepression,Obsessive-compulsive disorderIt is also pointed out that it may become a secondary obstacle such as[7].

Definition

It is a type of psychiatric disorder.

Sort

The ICD by the World Health Organization and the DSM by the American Psychiatric Association have been revised in collaboration as shown in the preface to DSM-IV and DSM-5, with ICD-10 and DSM-IV complementing each other. is there.Under such circumstances, DSM-2013 was published earlier in 5.

On the other handICD-10DSM-5It should be noted that the classification systems do not match.[5].. Asperger's Disorder (AD) in ICD-10Pervasive developmental disorderClassified in (PDD)Autism spectrum disorderClassified as a type of (ASD)[5].

On the other handAmerican Psychiatric AssociationIt is,NeurodevelopmentIt is said that it is one of the continuous models[5]..Therefore it was revisedDSM-5In, the diagnosis name of AS was deleted, and instead it was described by the severity of autism spectrum disorder.[5][9].. AS is considered to be a type of autism spectrum disorder[5].

Official documents such as the World Health Organization, the United States, and Japan treat it differently from (classical) autism.

In addition,High-functioning autismIt is unclear to what extent (HFA, autism without intellectual disability) and AS overlap.[10][11].

Features

The features are as follows.

What classical autism and AS have in common[3]
Differences from classical autism[3]
  • In AS, IQ is at least 70 and there is no delay in intelligence
  • In classical autism, there is a delay in intelligence

Difficulty in social communication

Aspergers have the same or even stronger emotional response than many non-Aspergers, but what they respond to is always different.What they are not good at is "understanding the emotions of others" and "understanding the meaning hidden behind words and gestures ("Non-verbal communication) ”.However, since it is possible to visually understand it like sign language, it is possible to make an instant judgment by understanding and memorizing the detailed meaning of physical movements.

As an example, when a teacher asks a child with Asperger's (in the sense of asking him that he has forgotten his homework), "Did the dog eat your homework?", The child is silent.At this time, think about whether it is necessary to explain to the teacher that he does not have a dog and that ordinary dogs do not eat paper, and understand that it implies from the teacher's facial expression and voice tone. You can't.Teachers may think that the child is reluctant to do his homework and is rebellious.

As in the example above, children with Asperger's often truly receive what they are told at face value.This is because there are many cases where you do not know the "name of a word" or "meaning expression method", you have a habit of listening back in the same way as the word you said, or you have a personality that you cannot understand with an abstract way of saying it. Due to the cause, it may be objectively considered that the person is truly receiving it at face value, so a long-term relationship is required to make a decision.The problem with growth is that parents and teachers intend to encourage them and say "test scores are not so important" or, on the contrary, "if you can't get a score on the test, buy nothing". It is to say only realistic things such as "I can't give it", that is, to give extreme education.As a result, there is a risk of acting with an idea that is far from the level that one should have.However, when a child learns that he or she has set goals that are unlikely to be achieved with ordinary efforts, it can be a process of thinking far from the standard to not cooperate with little affirmation.

They say that "adult remarks are worth the price"DoubtIt is difficult to hold, and even if you do, it is difficult to consider how much the bid price is, so if you put the wishes of the speaker and exaggerate things, the intended effect will be too effective.However, even when it is not a legitimate and excessive expression according to the situation of the place, when there is no excuse for the listener, it may be replaced with a speaker by answering as pointed out that "it is an overstatement". , It may be necessary to maintain a neutral way of distinguishing.When giving a message in the workplace where "reporting, contacting, and counseling" is necessary, "I will not make a live broadcast report that just imitates the voice color, voice quality, and language used when I heard it." They criticized, and there are many unrealistic ways of communicating even by slightly changing the language when telling how they interpreted it in their subjective way when telling the point.Delusion is terribleMay be interpreted as.

  • If you promise 120% certainty
  • Things that have passed a long time ago

People with Asperger's SyndromePsychosocial moratoriumIt is said that you can get it viaIdentityIs difficult to obtain[12]..I couldn't recognize that I was a continuous existence from the past[12],Zhong yongBecause they do not have the idea of, they tend to run into extreme and ideological thinking.[13].Persecutory delusion,Interpersonal fearMay cause[14],schizophreniaIt may lead to a morbid mental state that may be misunderstood as[14]..Shows a tendency to confuse the mind, withdraw into one's world, replace the turmoil with anger towards others, etc.[14].

A non-autistic person (NT: neurotypical, a person with a typical spirit) can collect a lot of information from the behavior and atmosphere of another person and read the emotional and cognitive state of the other person.This ability is lacking in people with autism, making it difficult to read the minds of others (Theory of mindlack of).Those who cannot read such gestures and situations can see others smiling, but cannot understand what that smile means.In many cases, "reading between lines" is difficult or impossible for them.In the worst case, facial expressions cannot be read in interpersonal communication.In other words, one cannot understand what is intended unless one speaks and says it in words.However, they can tell the other person through body language and so on.However, this kind of ability difference ranges from healthy people to cases with serious disabilities.spectrumIt is distributed in a (continuum) shape.Therefore, even in cases classified as Asperger's syndrome, some people have no inconvenience in reading facial expressions and the intentions of others.Also, they are ofteneye contactIs difficult.I rarely make eye contact and often feel that it's a slapstick.On the other hand, there are also types that stare at the eyes of others so much that they feel uncomfortable.Even if you try to understand the message sent from the other party in eye contact etc., you often fail to decipher the other party's mind due to this obstacle.For example, when greeting a person you meet for the first time, you may continue to talk about your area of ​​interest for a long time, rather than introducing yourself in the usual socially accepted procedure.

Some people are strongly disgusted by the denial of their claims by others.This is a major obstacle to learning at schools.For example, the teacher suddenly asks the student to answer, and the student: "I think this is XX", the teacher: "No, this is XX", and so on. The method can be quite painful and stressful for Aspergers.However, many adults overcome their lack of patience and lack of motivation and develop tolerance to new activities and meeting new people.

These things pose many problems in childhood and even as adults.Asperger's children are often at schoolBullyingIt is pointed out that it is easy to be the target of.The main reasons for this are their unique behavior, language, interests, appearance, and their inability to receive nonverbal messages.It is said that there are many people who do not understand the above-mentioned behavior and the disease itself called Asperger's syndrome and have a dislike for Asperger's syndrome patients.For this reason, it has been pointed out that schools, which are places of education, will need comprehensive support measures such as establishing a support system, supporting independence, and deepening understanding of other children.

Even in one category, "Asperger's syndrome," the degree of disability varies from person to person.For example, it can be very mild, such as being able to talk well with friends at school or being able to organize the story well.Also, autism can be moderate-severe, such as desperately enduring because you couldn't speak well and still met good friends.Unlike Kanner-type autism, this disorder looks like a "neurotypical person" at first glance, so there is a problem that support from the surroundings tends to be delayed.

Pros and cons of narrow interests and repetitive behavior

Asperger's syndrome can be accompanied by a very strong, paranoid level of concentration on the subject of interest.For example, there are cases of wrestling in the 1950s, the national anthem of the African dictatorship, making models with matchsticks, etc.However, the interest in these subjects is also that of ordinary children.The difference between the two lies in their extraordinary strength of interest.Asperger's children may memorize large amounts of information about their interests.

Also, in general, ordered and regular ones attract Aspergers.If these interests are combined with material or socially useful work, it can lead to a fruitful life.For example, a child who is obsessed with a keen interest in computers may grow up to be a great programmer.On the contrary, unpredictable and irrational things are something that Aspergers avoid.Examples include sudden accidents and emotional humans who cannot logically discuss.

Their interests can be lifelong, but they can change suddenly.In either case, there is usually a strong interest in one or two subjects at some point.In the process of pursuing these interests, they often have very sophisticated intelligence, almost stubborn concentration, and a tremendous amount of seemingly trivial facts (sometimes in detail as if they were looking at a photograph). ) Shows memory, etc.Hans AspergerCalled his young patient a "little professor."The 13-year-old patient had comprehensive and detailed knowledge like a university professor in his field of interest.

Some clinicians do not totally agree that Aspergers have these characteristics.Wing and Gillberg, for example, argue that Aspergers often have more superficial knowledge than understanding-based knowledge.However, such limitations are not diagnostic, even when using Gillberg's diagnostic criteria.

Asperger's children and adults often have poor patience for areas of their own interest.Many people were recognized as "very good inferior students" when they were students.This is because it is clear to everyone that they are far superior to others in their area of ​​interest, but they are not motivated to do their daily homework (sometimes, "the area of ​​interest". I didn't show any motivation, "but I think it's because what others think is in the same field is different for him. For example, I'm interested in mathematics, but the answer is at the end of the book. My interest in solving the mathematics for entrance exams has changed relatively, and I am interested in the old Japanese font, but not in the reading comprehension problem of pseudo-old sentences in Japanese, etc.).Some children are happy to handwrite on notebooks and test papers, while others are not.On the other hand, some people perform well because they are interested in beating others in their studies, which adds to the difficulty of diagnosis.

Social adaptation

Adults with Asperger's Syndrome, who have above average intelligence and good school performance, often have adjustment disorders at work.[15]..This is the peculiarity of communication (cannot read the air, tends to be one-way conversation, cannot understand ambiguous instructions, wants to be black and white clearly, does not have common sense that ordinary people have, multiple at the same time The reason is that I can't handle the work, I can't respond well to sudden changes, and I'm not good at grasping the whole picture because I concentrate on the details.

Hyperesthesia

People with Asperger's may also exhibit a variety of other sensory, developmental, or physiological abnormalities.In his childhood, he often lags behind in his fine motor skills.Impulsive finger / hand / arm movements are often observed, such as characteristic swaying and wiggle walking, and waving hands (stereotyped behavior).Tic disorderIn many cases,

Asperger's people can be sensuously overloaded.Sensitive to sounds and odors, or dislikes being touched.Some people don't like being suddenly snarled, touching their heads, or touching their hair.Many people are too nervous about the sound and complain of insomnia.If this is a child, it can further complicate problems at school, such as when the classroom noise is unbearable to them.Another characteristic of behavior is the echo language that repeats words and parts of them, like Yamabiko.Echolalia) May show symptoms.

Masutomo Miyao said that the sensory feature of Asperger's syndrome was that "a little attitude or words hurt me significantly, and that was it.trauma"It's easy to become" "It tends to show hallucinations and delusional feelings" "From the trauma of the past, even a little thing for a third partyFlashback"Make a fuss and make a fuss." "It's very serious and therefore fragile."[16].

Internet addiction

People with Asperger's SyndromeInternet addictionIt is easy to become. According to a Japanese study published in 2019, when the YIAT (Young's Internet Addiction Test), which tests Internet addiction, gave an Internet addiction of 70 points or more, it was about 3.72 for Asperger's syndrome compared to the general population. Double, in addition to Asperger's syndromeADHDThe ratio was about 6.89 times higher in those diagnosed with[17].. In addition,ADHDIn the case of only, it was about 4.31 times[17].

Cause

Prenatal factors

Microglia hypothesis

Physiological features

2012 yearsKyoto UniversityAccording to the announcement by the Neurochemistry Research Team, people with Asperger's syndrome usually account for the superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, etc., which are strongly related to interpersonal interactions. It turned out to be relatively low compared to humans[25].

Diagnosis

As a differential diseaseSocial anxiety,Obsessive-compulsive disorder,Schizoid personality disorderCan be mentioned[5].

There are opinions and reports that it may be misdiagnosed as another mental illness.[26]..As something that is easily misdiagnosedschizophrenia,Schizoid personality disorder,Schizophrenic personality disorder,Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder,ADHD,Narcolepsy,Surprise diseaseAre listed[27].

DSM-IV Compilation Committee ChairAllen FrancesAccording to the report, DSM-IV included people with Asperger's disorder who were not as serious as conventional autism, but when social support was promoted, those who were diagnosed sought support again and unexpectedly diagnosed. increased[6]..It has increased significantly in the United States and South Korea, and about half of those diagnosed do not meet the diagnostic criteria.[28].

Diseases that can occur together

Sleeping disorder

In recent years, including Asperger's SyndromeDevelopmental disordersSleeping disorderHas been discovered to be related to[29]..Even if you say sleep disorderNarcolepsy,Sleep apneaNot a congenital disorder such asDelayed sleep phase syndrome,Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndromeSuch asCircadian rhythm sleep disorder,insomnia,HypersomniaIt is an acquired disorder such as.Daily sleep has the function of organizing and forming the brain, and in the case of Asperger's syndrome, in which the function of the brain and the thinking mechanism are different from those of the typical developing person, sleep disorder is a secondary disorder that is very likely to occur.Sleep disorders tend to get worse and worse once, and because they are intractable, it is important to live regularly during bedtime and wake-up time so as not to cause sleep disorders, and symptoms have been observed. If so, immediate treatment is needed ("Sleep Disorders #Diagnosis and Treatment PrinciplesSee also).When visiting a sleep outpatient clinic, it is advisable to declare that you have a developmental disorder such as Asperger's.

In addition, Dr. Teruhisa Miike of Hyogo Prefectural Rehabilitation Central Hospital, which has the only "Children's Sleep and Developmental Medical Center" in Japan, said, "Sleep in early childhood is the cause of the onset of latent developmental disorders. It is also announcing the completely opposite development.

Mental illness

Some people with Asperger's Syndrome are often frustrated and discouraged because of their peculiarities and poor communication with others (those who are not good at it).As this situation continues for many years, it becomes a secondary obstacle.depressionIt has been confirmed that it causes mental disorders such as.

To prevent such secondary disorders, to prevent Asperger's syndromeNeurotypicalIt is important not to want the same communication method as or to force the target of interest.Most people with Asperger's Syndrome are strongly aware that their actions are their own will, and denial of them often puts a great deal of stress on them.

Physical illness

Treatment / management

There is no cure.In Japan, Asperger's Syndrome, Autism, Learning Disabilities,ADHDWe have a system to support children with developmental disabilities according to their individual needs.Special support education(Special support class)[30].

In addition, "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)", "Treatment and Education for Children with Autism and Related Communication Disorders (TEACCH)", "Denver Treatment Model", "Greenspan Model (DIR)", etc. The effectiveness of the treatment program has also been confirmed[31]..If anxiety or depressive symptoms are seen as secondary symptoms, add psychotherapy that is effective for those symptoms to support the person (""Anxiety Disorder #Treatment"Depression # treatment"Obsessive-compulsive disorder #treatmentSee also)[32].

However, if they happen to be convinced when they receive advice from a person who has shown interest in a narrow interest by using ingenuity such as expressions that allow them to improve, that is the case. Sometimes they are obsessed with taking in information and changing themselves.Although this is not a cure, some people may find that "this is a bad part of themselves" in their relationships and tend to be obsessed with curing it.

Remedy

As of 2019, there are no officially approved drugs for treatment or symptomatology relief.As a drug to reduce symptoms including secondary disorders such as depression and anxiety disordersAntidepressant,Anxiolytic,Antipsychotic,Mood stabilizerEtc. may be prescribed.

As a research stage,OxytocinStudies have shown that administration is effective, but not yet clinically recognized[33]..Although a very difficult drug prescribed for bipolar disorder (close to optimal treatment and addiction), lithium carbonate has the effect of improving cognition (being able to see oneself objectively). , It is said that it works for both personality disorder and Asperger's syndrome.Also, as a treatment similar to autismHerbal medicineTreatment with[34]And treatment by acupuncture[35]There is also.African sleeping sicknessSuramin, which was developed as a remedy for autism, is also being researched for autism.[36].

Assistance policy

Asperger's Syndrome has a tremendous amount of concentration and knowledge in certain areas.Read the airIt has the characteristics that it is not good at acting, it is particular about details, and it is difficult to express emotions.It may show amazing memory, such as remembering the batting average of a baseball player in the sports section of the newspaper every day.[37]There may be obstacles that ordinary people cannot do, such as "I can't take notes while making a phone call" or "I can't buy a ticket at a ticket vending machine".Communication peculiarities (cannot read the air, tend to be one-way conversations, do not understand ambiguous instructions, want to be black and white clearly, do not have common sense that ordinary people have), multiple tasks in parallel This is because they cannot handle sudden changes, they cannot respond well to sudden changes, they concentrate their attention on details and are not good at grasping the whole picture.Due to the above properties, adults with Asperger's syndrome are not originally suitable for jobs that require customer service or teamwork.According to most American studies, 75-80% of adults with Asperger's Syndrome do not have a full-time job[38]..Workplace support needed for adults with Asperger's syndrome includes specifying schedules and procedures, not using demonstrative pronouns, not asking for more than one thing at a time, and having a job coach.

People with Asperger's Syndrome have very difficult adaptations to modern society.Collisions happened here and thereSocial withdrawalIt is often the case.Have a strong complex with yourself and with a secondary disabilitydepressionThere are many people who get sick or have a desire to commit suicide.There is an urgent need to help those with Asperger's Syndrome.To make it easier for people with Asperger's syndrome to live in society, including support centers for people with developmental disabilitiesCommunity activity support center,Day careThere is an urgent need to prepare such equipment.The most important thing is to create an environmental foundation to understand and accept this obstacle.

As of 2019, many related books have been released, and programs and special features on Asperger's syndrome have been organized mainly on NHK, so it can be said that social recognition has advanced to some extent.However, with disabilitiesDown syndromeIt is not a visible disorder, and even if you actually talk to a person with Asperger's syndrome, you often do not know that you have a disability, and in most cases the appearance is very normal, so do not come out by yourself. As far as the limit is concerned, there are many cases in which only the recognition of "strange person" is given, which is a pain for the person with a disability.Due to impaired communication skills with others, many conflicts and feuds in interpersonal relationships may occur, which is also a major factor that causes disability to the person with a disability.Unless the other person understands it, it can be seen as a "strange guy" and can be the target of bullying, hated by others, or seemed to be a stumbling block at work. It can be said that it is a difficult obstacle.In some cases, the person may have a great complex with the disability itself.Therefore, like a neurotypical person, he may try to get out of the house.Of course, this also physically and mentally hunts down oneself, which in some cases can lead to secondary disorders such as depression.

The big problem is that the welfare system for this disability is still immature. In 2005Developmental disability support lawWas enacted,Disability Independence Support ActIt was decided in the 2010s that developmental disabilities would also fall into the category.Also, some people with Asperger's syndromeMental disability certificateAlthough it is supposed to be possible (sometimes it is not possible at the discretion of the local government. Issuance standards are not unified), many people have difficulty in working or interacting with others.However, the government is also making efforts such as providing subsidies to companies that hire people with developmental disabilities.However, it is not yet the time when people with Asperger's syndrome who are willing to work can work after clearing interpersonal relationships and mental hygiene problems.

The success or failure of support for people with Asperger's syndrome varies from person to person.For example, even if there is a case that "this person has helped this person to improve his life", that does not necessarily apply to other Asperger's people.This is because there are many different places where there is a handicap depending on the person.[39].. If we try to support everyone with welfare because of "disability", we may deprive them of their motivation to work, good relationships with others in work, income, and other possibilities of a fruitful life. obtain.Many people with developmental disabilities work in general companies with the support of those around them.[40]..However, there are many people who want to work but cannot work, and who are afraid of tripping and cannot go out into society.It is required to provide a detailed response that suits the person and to secure a place in society.[41].

Occupations that are not good at Asperger's syndrome are dexterous and efficient, understanding people's hearts, such as hospitality, tasks that require immediate response, clerical work in charge of various tasks, and tasks where communication is important. It is said that he is not good at reading the atmosphere of the place, using his imagination, and responding flexibly.[42].

Developmental disorders corresponding to F10 to F80 and F89 to F90 of ICD-98 are systematically listed as part of mental disorders, and after submitting a medical certificate from a specialist at a municipal health center, symptoms and other developmental disorders In recent years, the number of cases in which a mental health and welfare notebook is issued in consideration of the overall condition such as complications with illness has increased, but by submitting a medical certificate in the prescribed format at the health center, a disability service beneficiary certificate or independence support A medical beneficiary certificate is also issued, which allows you to receive general welfare services for persons with disabilities (household affairs assistance, behavioral assistance, etc.).Welfare services for persons with disabilities include the use of employment transition support, and in principle, vocational training can be received for up to two years by using the employment transition support training center.To use it, you need one of the disability service beneficiary certificate, independence support medical beneficiary certificate, and mental health and welfare notebook.

In addition, if financial management is extremely difficult and it interferes with social life, the social welfare councils in each region in the daily life independence support project for people with insufficient judgment ability to lead an independent life in the area. There is "protection of rights" in the assistance business service to be provided, and each user concludes a contract with the council to receive the following necessary assistance.Daily money management (refund / cancellation of deposits) such as assistance in using welfare services, assistance in using complaint resolution systems, housing remodeling, leasing of housing, notification of consumption contracts and resident's cards in daily life, and assistance in administrative procedures.・ In some cases, a system of advocacy such as money management (deposit, etc.) is used.It is the same that these welfare services can be used even for other developmental disorders if they are diagnosed and applied to the relevant organizations and certified.

Epidemiology

Asperger's syndrome is correlated with gender and is about four times more common in men[43]..People with Asperger's syndrome are said to be about 1% of the total population[43], 1.6% of men and 0.4% of women have Asperger's syndrome.High-performance autism without intellectual disabilityautismAnd Asperger's Syndrome has a strong genetic component[44].. GR Terong and JT Dier found that two-thirds of families with high-functioning autism had first-degree or second-degree relatives with Asperger's syndrome.[45].

A clinical cohort study of patients in the United Kingdom by Sarah Cassidy et al. Reported that adults with Asperger's syndrome were more than nine times more common than adults.suicideThere is a risk, and social isolation, exclusion, unemployment, etc. often cause risk factors for secondary depression, and appropriate support is needed to reduce the risk of suicide.[46].

Social situation

Impact on the surroundings

Adults with Asperger's Syndrome can have a significant impact on their surroundings.For exampleCassandra syndromeThis is a physical and mental symptom that occurs in a wife because she cannot establish an emotional relationship with her husband (partner) with Asperger's syndrome.Toshiro Sugiyama mentions that Asperger's bachelor rate (especially for men) is high.[47]..Leo Kanner himself also mentions the high divorce rate of parents of autistic children.[48]

Discussion about making Asperger's syndrome a "disorder"

There is an argument mainly in American academic societies that Asperger's syndrome itself is not a disorder and should not be treated.[49]..There are also claims that Asperger's syndrome should not be a "syndrome" (syndrome) or a "disorder" (disorder) in the first place.[50].

Stigma

January 2001Sony Pictures Entertainment (Japan) Video throughA foreign movie that was planned to be released under the name of "Asperger's Death Group" (original title is ""Absence of the Good, 1999 American movie) was discontinued in response to protests.The word Asperger is not used in the original title (literally translated to "absence of conscience"), and it is thought that there is no character who seems to have Asperger's syndrome.[51].

Also, regarding the fact that doctors have published a series of manuals on Asperger's syndrome since around 2008, one of the motivations for doctors to write is to interpret it as if a person with Asperger's syndrome is prone to crime. There is a coping.The background to this is that the perpetrators of some juvenile delinquency cases were reported to have Asperger's syndrome.However, no data have been confirmed that people with Asperger's syndrome are prone to crime.Discrimination office,Juvenile trainingIt is said that about 2% of the respondents are applicable.Also, in most cases of crimes, minor crimes have been caused by the person in question not understanding the mechanism of the world well due to lack of interpersonal communication skills.[52].

History

This diagnostic name isオーストリア OfPediatrician,Hans AspergerNamed after[5][53].

1944Hans Asperger published a treatise on four children entitled "Autistic Psychopathy in Childhood."The previous year, 4, an American psychiatristLeo KannerPublished a treatise on early childhood autism, Kanner's treatise has since been influential in the English-speaking world for a long time, and Asperger's treatise has been rarely looked after.In Japan, Asperger's treatise was introduced relatively early, but it was often forgotten due to the strong influence of Britain and the United States.

In the English-speaking world1981To a British child psychiatristLorna WingRe-evaluated Asperger's achievements and became widely known.Wings are from many cases, even if they have not been diagnosed with autismSocial,communication,想像力I noticed that there are children with disabilities in three aspects at the same time.At that time, the diagnosis of autism was言语Limited communication with children, only for children with very little interpersonal interest, and not diagnosed with autism if verbal communication is possible or if there is even one-sided interpersonal interest It was.Wing considered the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome appropriate because some children with three-way disabilities who were not diagnosed with autism resembled the cases reported by Asperger's.

Since 1981, it has been attracting worldwide attention and has become an international diagnostic standard.ICD-10,American Psychiatric AssociationDiagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) Also adopted the concept.

Relationship between Asperger's syndrome and crime

The crime rate of mentally ill people including Asperger's syndrome is extremely low, one-third that of healthy people.[Source required]..However, as with the neurotypical, there are also peculiar cases as described below in many cases.Some people think that some people with Asperger's syndrome, like some healthy people, may behave antisocially, but they have not been fully validated and Asperger's syndrome triggers the incident. It is extremely difficult to judge whether it is one of the backgrounds or just the surrounding circumstances.[Source required]..In addition, there are cases where the above-mentioned symptoms disappear as the mind and body grow.[Source required].

On the other hand, research is being conducted on the violence and criminality of Asperger's syndrome.In a study conducted in the United States, adolescents diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome before committing a crime were about twice as likely to have interpersonal crimes as criminals in the general comparison group, and were more likely to have interpersonal violence and sabotage at school. The results show that there were few violence committed by property offenders and disciplinary action.[56]..In the other harmful acts of children studied by child psychiatrist Yasuo Shimizu and others, children with Asperger's syndrome have items such as "tapping", "throwing things", "kicking", and "pushing people" in other harmful acts. Was more frequent than general nursery school children[57]..Of the 9 psychiatrists Toshiro Sugiyama and others who have been continuously involved in the Aichi Children's Health Insurance Center with an average age of 265, 11 were arrested by the police for behavioral disorders and crimes (4.2). %)Met[58]..In addition, psychiatrist Tantam conducted a long-term survey of 60 people with Asperger's syndrome and analyzed 54 subjects with judicial information, and found that nearly half, 24, were at least one offense. It became clear that it was causing an incident[59].

Crime affinity

Sociologist Sohei Ide examined the proportion of juvenile delinquency sent to the family court of former family court investigator Yoko Fujikawa and others with Asperger's syndrome.[60]Based on the prevalence listed in DSM-5, the criminal affinity for Asperger's syndrome was sought.[61]..According to it, the criminal affinity of Asperger's syndrome is 5.6 times higher.ADHDIt was found to be higher than 1.1 times that of and 2.2 times that of intellectual disability.[61]..In addition, Ide was investigated by Seizo Sakihama, a child psychiatrist who was a medical technician in the family court.[62]In the same way, the criminal affinity for Asperger's syndrome was sought.[63]..As a result, the criminal affinity for the confirmed diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome was 12.6 times, and including the suspicion, it was 28.6 times.[63].

In other countries, surveys are being conducted targeting residents of special hospitals.A survey of residents of a special hospital in the United Kingdom by Slug et al.[64]The criminal affinity is derived from 2.8 to 3.6 times, and the British hair survey[65]It becomes almost the same value from[66]..In addition, a survey of residents of special Swedish hospitals[67]But the numbers for Asperger's Syndrome are similar[68]..A Swedish study concludes that at least 13% of Swedish crimes are associated with pervasive developmental disorder.[69], When the criminal affinity was calculated from the data, it was found that the criminal affinity was more than 10 times.[70][71].

Regarding recidivism

According to psychiatrist Hironobu Ichikawa and others, 18 cases of autism spectom disorder (pervasive developmental disorder) who had visited Tokyo Metropolitan Umegaoka Hospital and had a total of 13 tactile acts. , 18 of the 11 tactile acts were performed after consulting a medical institution, and 5 cases were found to be re-offending after 4 tactile acts that resulted in hospitalization after the tactile acts.[72]..Regarding this, there are no reports of valid and effective treatments for the tactile behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders (pervasive developmental disorder), and it is said that the treatment policy is decided by trial and error of each doctor. Technical problems in psychiatric care are attributed to one cause[72]..Psychiatrist Wolff says Asperger's syndrome has criminal properties[73], Pointing out that treatment is unlikely to cause dramatic changes[74]..In addition, according to a research report by psychiatrist Kosuke Yamazaki and others, the tactile act of Asperger's syndrome (pervasive developmental disorder) is not performed in a mental state that lacks practical examination, and Asperger's syndrome (pervasive developmental disorder) is not performed. ) It is thought that tactile behavior is caused by itself or due to low intelligence, and improvement by drug therapy is unlikely to be expected.[75].

Accountability

Asperger's syndrome was first taken up in 2000 (Heisei 12).Toyokawa City Housewife Murder CaseIs. The statement "I wanted to kill people" shook society.Showa UniversityProfessor'sShinmasa Kato"In recent years, Asperger's diagnosis has been a little easier, including the case of leaking records. However, the understanding that Asperger's disorder is directly linked to crime is wrong, and some motives are difficult to understand." It means that it is a "penetrating" crime, and its association with the disability characteristics is noticed. Is pointed out[76].

The following are mainly violent incidents that have had a great impact on society.

Mental assessmentIn the first appraisal, it was said that "schizoid personality disorder or schizoid personality disorder", but "at the time of the crime, Asperger's syndrome was the cause.Weak state of mindWas approved for the second appraisal, which was issued on December 2, 2000.Nagoya Family CourtHas been decided to be protected by the Medical Reform School. For the second appraisal doctorsChild and adolescent psychiatrySpecialist was added as one of the appraisal team.Asperger's syndrome is a congenital developmental disorder and is a type of autism that has no problems with intelligence and language ability.Maladaptation to social life may be seen as a secondary obstacle due to difficulties in building interpersonal relationships.
This caseMinistry of EducationIn a wide range (at that time)High-functioning autismRecognize the need for early educational support for children and laterSpecial support educationIt was decided to be institutionalized as.
A psychiatrist with knowledge of developmental disabilities who performed the first test had determined that he did not have Asperger's syndrome, so he objected to the second test performed by another person.After the decision to dispose, the second expert also admitted that he did not have Asperger's syndrome.
After the perpetrator's guidance, the perpetrator was diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, and the Nishinippon Shimbun reported on the front page that "the perpetrator boy has autism."On the other handJapan Autism Association"May promote prejudice against autism" "There is no causal relationship between autism and the case," issued a protest statement.In particular, there was strong opposition from parents' associations with children with Asperger's syndrome all over the country, and even an event occurred that requested each news agency to "don't use the name Asperger's".On the other hand, there is also the aspect that social interest has spread with the publication of books to deepen the understanding of Asperger's syndrome and the publication of people who call themselves "I am Asperger's syndrome".
The Osaka District Court sentenced the prosecution to 16 years in prison for 20 years in prison, saying that "the effects of Asperger's syndrome should not be considered" and "it helps maintain social order by imprisoning prisons as much as possible." ..In response, some groups of persons with disabilities have accused them of being "incomprehensible and prejudiced."Then on February 2013, 2Osaka High CourtAt the appeal hearing held by (Judge Shoichi Matsuo), he abandoned the first-instance judgment and sentenced him to 14 years in prison.The presiding judge pointed out that "the first instance did not properly evaluate the effects of (developmental) disability and was unreasonably heavy."[80].

Sasebo small 6 girl classmate murder case[81],Uji Cram School Elementary 6 Girl Murder CaseThe criminal is also said to have Asperger's syndrome.

Famous in overseas exampleshackerIsGary McKinnon[82],Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentIs the culpritAdam Lanza[83]Is the culprit ofElliot Rodger[84]Etc. are said to have had Asperger's syndrome.

Celebrities and related works

Celebrity with Asperger's Syndrome

Many celebrities meet some of the diagnostic criteria for the autism spectrum and have helped form the stereotype of "eccentric genius" for researchers and great men.However, the existence of highly functional autism such as Asperger's syndrome has been known for decades, especially since the 1980s, so many of them have been seen from the records left. It is an expert guess, not a formal diagnosis.There is suspicion, but there is constant controversy over the pros and cons of guessing with the records left about those who were not diagnosed.

Celebrities who have announced that they have been diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome (including cases with ADHD and learning disabilities)
A historical person who may be associated with Asperger's syndrome

The following is quoted from Toshiro Sugiyama (2011) "Now of Developmental Disorders" (Kodansha) p.66.It should be noted that these persons were not diagnosed by doctors, but only speculations from posterity.

Works on the characteristics of Asperger's syndrome

It is a notation of works based on the characteristics of Asperger's syndrome, and does not include works in which a person with Asperger's syndrome appears in the work.

Mozart and whale
A movie about the love affair between the main character with Asperger's syndrome and a woman with pervasive developmental disorder.
Musical notes and kelp
A movie about sisterhood with an older sister with Asperger's Syndrome that suddenly appeared in front of the main character who works as a food coordinator while suffering from dysgeusia.
Mary & Max
A 20-year story of a lonely girl who is bullied and a lonely uncle who has Asperger's syndrome.
The universe in love
A movie about a sad love between the main character of Asperger's Syndrome, who knows more about celestial bodies than others, and a woman who wants to be a fairy tale writer.
My Name Is Khan
The protagonist of Asperger's Syndrome marries a woman of a different religion, but that causes her child to be discriminated against and die.A story about a hero who despairs and is blamed by his wife for a journey.
Extremely noisy and impossibly close
American terrorist attacksA story about a boy who lost his father in Japan, who is suspected of having Asperger's syndrome, which has problems with interpersonal relationships, but recovers as he interacts with strangers.
Simple Simon
The story of the main character of Asperger's Syndrome, who loves physics and science fiction and gets stuck in a drum as soon as he doesn't like it, breaks the love of his brother who is the only one who understands it, and makes her a new brother.

Source

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References

  • Simon Baron-Cohen "Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders, Latest Knowledge from Brain / Psychology to Education / Treatment", August 2011.ISBN 978's. 
  • Masutomo Miyao "Adult Asperger Syndrome" Nitto Shoin, June 2010.ISBN 9784528019034. --Miyao is an expert in developmental behavior pediatrics, pediatric neuropsychiatry, and neurophysiology.He is considered to be one of the leading researchers in developmental disability research.

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