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📺 | Is "Entourage ★ Our Hollywood" a predictive drama?The projects in the play are realized one after another !?


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Is "Entourage ★ Our Hollywood" a predictive drama?The projects in the play are realized one after another !?

 
If you write the contents roughly
Although the purpose is different, it is the same that it is made into a movie about the same coal mine accident.
 

"Entourage ★ Our Hollywood" was a big hit that was broadcast from 2004 to 2011 and a movie version was also produced ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Coal mine

Coal mine(Tankou,English: Coal mine)coalorligniteTo dig outmineThat.

In addition, for the above meaning, it is often read the same as a coal mine.CharcoalThe notation of is applied.The reason is coal金属Instead, the mining site cannot be called a metal mine, so the kanjisideBut"Gold bias"not"Stone biasIt is also claimed that it is correct.Also, of coal miningtunnelUsually used in the sense ofCoal mineIs often used to refer to coal mines.In this item, the term indicated by the above definition is unified and described as "coal mine".

History

The history of coal mining is said to be after about 3490 BC from archaeological evidence in China.[1]..Initially mined along the vein(English edition,(English edition[Translation question]After digging a vertical hole called (bellThe method of mining (in the shape of) was taken.

Demand for the 18th Century Steel and Industrial Revolution

Full-scale coal mine development began worldwide18st centuryIt was after I entered.In the background at that timeSteelmakingAnd the rapid increase in fuel demand can be raised.

  • SteelmakingThesmeltingUntil the early modern periodcharcoalWas using.However, charcoal is not suitable for large-scale equipment, and the consumption of wood is excessive to meet the expected demand with charcoal, and the consumption of wood in the area where iron is actually made has reached the limit.As a result, fuel costs soared and could not keep up with the sharp increase in demand.
1612To become and,The United KingdomStard Bunt made from coalCokeInvented the ironmaking method using(English edition,(English editionThese improvements will increase the iron production capacity, and along with this, coal mine development will also develop.
  • Demand as fuel later, especially in the United KingdomIndustrial revolutionBecame the driving force ofSteam engineIt was in step with the development of.When steam engines were used to power spinning mills, coal became a useful heat source.
Subsequent demand
Japanese history

JapanThen,Edo PeriodFrom the endChikuho,KaratsuCoal mined in rural areas was consumed by individuals and was used as a substitute for firewood.

Japan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityAfter the conclusion, the need to supply fuel to ships increased due to the opening of ports such as Hakodate.1857(Ansei4 years)Ezo(Hokkaido)Shiranuka TownJapan's first Western-style underground coal mine was developed in Japan[4]..Furthermore, the feudal lords, whose finances were tight, will take the lead in developing coal mines.Initially, it didn't get off to a good start, but when it found a sales channel for salt makers in the Setouchi region, it made great progress.In salt production at that time, it was used as a fuel to evaporate seawater salt.MatsuyaniHowever, the price of the pine tree soared, and the low-priced coal was welcomed.

In this way, it can be said that the history of coal mines has been in step with the growing demand for coal.The same applies to the development of mining methods and the development of cities described below.

France

FrenchNord,LorraineIt was produced from such.A major coal mining company in World War I(French versionThe facility was destroyed and production was reduced, and it was imported from England and other countries before World War II.After the war, domestic production also declined, resulting in a serious coal shortage due to a shortage of foreign currency and turmoil in neighboring countries.Due to other shortages of supplies, many industries were nationalized in France, and the coal industry began in 1946.(French versionReconstructed in the form of[5].

Even after nationalization, it was unable to overcome the rough waves of international competition and was forced to close the mine and reduce production.The closed coal mine has followed the path of becoming a tourist destination.

Europe

Post-WWII European countries coordinate coal industry across Europe (international)cartel) To doEuropean Coal and Steel CommunityTo createParis Convention (1951)Was signed and implemented in 1952.Cartels were banned in many countries and there was political opposition, but they were established by exception rules.The significance of this is that coal and steel are the resources that cause war, and we will work peacefully by jointly managing them. The Paris Treaty expired on July 2002, 7,European CommunityWas taken over by, and further developed and expandedEuropean UnionIs taken over by.

analysis

There are not many statistics that can make an international comparison of coal production, but countries with particularly high coal productionChugoku,America, India, Australia, Russia, South Africa, Germany, Poland, Indonesia, Ukraine[7].

Large-scale coal mines are also called coalfields, and large-scale ones are from China.Datong coalfield,HagigoIn addition to coal fields, AmericanAppalachia coalfield, Rocky Coalfield, Kazakhstan,Kuznetsk Basin,ウクライナ OfDonetsu CoalfieldAnd so on,IndiaCoalfield,ポーランド OfSilesianCoal fields, many imports in JapanAustralia OfMouraCoal fields are famous.

Since ancient times(English editionHowever, for those that are shrinking in scale due to their small size and aging equipment, the United Kingdom, which has developed along with the Industrial Revolution,Lancashire,YorkshireRegion,WalesRegion.Germany OfRulesRegion,SaarRegion,チ ェ コ OfBohemiaYou can raise the region.Many of these have been forced to close.On the other hand, as a coalfield that continues to operate by producing high-quality coal, albeit small and medium-sized.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere is also something like a coalfield.

Japan

Currently in Japan, in mine diggingPacific charcoalTook overKushiro Call MineIs alive.Open pit diggingThen, in addition to the Mikasa open-air mine (Ponbetsutoriisawa Town, Mikasa City), several companies from Mitsui and Mitsubishi have mined.Hokkaido Electric PowerHas been delivered to.

The coal industry flourished with the rise of the steel and coal chemical industries, or steam locomotives.At its peak, there are more than 800 coal mines,Ishikari coalfield,Kushiro coalfield,Joban Coalfield,Miike coalfield,Chikuho coalfieldFocusing on large-scale coal fields such asRumoi coalfield,Tenboku coalfield,Nishisonogi Coalfield,Karatsu Coalfield,Omine Coalfield,Amakusa coalfield,Kitamatsu coalfield,Kasuya CoalfieldHowever, it was later pushed by cheap imports, and in addition to oil.Energy revolutionAt the turning point, many small and medium-sized coal mines stood at a crossroads and disappeared.

The Chikuho coalfield was large, but the quality deteriorated due to the depletion of high-quality coal and the facilities deteriorated rapidly.1975(ShowaBy 50), nearly 500 coal mines had all disappeared.

Ishikari coalfieldScrap and buildHowever, the slump in sales of skeleton coal due to the steel recession and the coal mine accident (described later), which did not decrease at all, stabbed the end.1995(HeiseiHokutan Sorachi (7 years)Utashinai City) Was closed, and finally everything was closed.

Miike coalfieldIs centered on high-quality bituminous coal, and although it has operated longer than the above two coal fields due to the use of state-of-the-art technology, it is still more expensive than imported products, and when the country discontinues purchases as fuel for thermal power plants,1997It was forced to close the mine in (9).Also,KyusyuOnly left inIkeshima coal mineAlso2001The curtain was closed in (13).

In all open-pit coal fields, there were many small-scale coal mines compared to underground mining in the peak period, but around the 2010scrudeIn addition to soaring prices2011Occurred inFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentHowever, the current situation has not changed significantly, and the Japanese government is moving to reduce inefficient coal-fired power generation by turning to coal removal.[8].

Unlike underground digging, which requires a large number of personnel, open pit mining can be easily and safely mechanized thanks to the sophistication of Japanese construction machinery technology, and it is possible to excavate the upper part of the unexposed coal layer for mining. It was.In addition, the possibility of a large-scale explosion caused by coal dust and methane is low, and even if it does occur, the difficulty of dealing with it is extremely low, so even in Japan, where labor costs are high, there is little price disadvantage to imported coal.

Chugoku

China's coal mines are classified into three categories: state-owned priority coal mines, state-owned regional coal mines, and township and village coal mines.[7].

State-owned priority coal mine
State-owned priority coal mines were previously under the jurisdiction of the central government, and were transferred to the jurisdiction of the provincial government following the downgrade of the coal department (province) of the central government to the Coal Industry Bureau in 1998.[7].
State-owned local coal mine
State-owned local coal mines are state-owned coal mines other than state-owned priority coal mines that are under the jurisdiction of provinces and prefectures.[7].
Township and Village Coal Mine
Township and Village Coal Mine refers to coal mines under the jurisdiction of towns and villages and coal mines run by private companies among local governments.[7]..Since 1983, the Chinese government has taken a policy to encourage the development of the Township and Village Coal Mine.[7]..Township coal mines range in size from thousands to several, but coal mines run by sole proprietorships are usually run by less than 10 workers.[7].

Mining method in coal mine

In coal fields where there are deposits near the surface of the earth, open pit mining is carried out, but if it is not suitable for this, a mine shaft is dug from the surface of the earth to the coal seam, and a work site called a face is created in the coal seam to mine coal.

Open pit digging

Open pit diggingSee.

Underground digging

Classification by development method

There are two types of mining methods depending on the development method of the mining area.

Pillar-type mining method ((English edition
A method of dividing the coal layer in the mining area into face and charcoal pillars every 7-8 m in width and leaving the charcoal pillars in a grid pattern for mining.[9]..Since the charcoal pillar part supports the top plate, it is often left without mining.[9]..Technically relatively low difficulty and low cost[9]..Many coalfields with thick coal seams and large reserves continued to use this method, and developed on a large scale in American coal mines.There is a drawback that the actual yield is low because the coal columns are left, and the coal mines in Europe and Japan including Germany have shifted to the long-walled mining method described later.
Long wall mining method
A method in which two parallel tunnels (shoulder tunnel and deep tunnel) are provided in the mining area at intervals of about 20-200 m, and the long charcoal wall between them is used as a face to mine at once.[9]..The mining trace becomes a vast cavity, and if it is left as it is, earth pressure will be applied to the face and it will be dangerous. Measures will be taken to reduce earth pressure.Since the actual yield is high without leaving any coal columns, it has been widely adopted in coal mines in Europe and Japan.[9].

Classification by coal collection method

The method of coal extraction at the face has been improved due to the development of technology.The main coal extraction methods are shown below.

Hand digging
mainlyPickaxeA method of manually mining coal using.Since the pickaxe is heavily worn and needs to be replaced frequently, an improved pickaxe was used for coal extraction so that only the tip was replaced.
Pick coal extraction method
Compressed airA method of mining coal with a coal pick (a type of small rock drill improved for coal mining) that operates in.
Blasting coal extraction method
A method of collecting coal by drilling a hole in the coal wall, loading it with explosives, and blasting it to break it.
Hobel coal mining method
A method of continuously breaking the coal wall with a coal wall cutting blade (hobel) that operates along the face to collect coal.[10]..Developed in Germany and introduced to Japanese coal mines from the late 1950s[10]..A conveyor trough is laid that doubles as an operation guide for the hobel, and the hobel reciprocates on this guide in parallel with the face.The conveyor trough is pressed against the face by a shifter (pneumatic or hydraulic piston) from behind so that the cutting blade of the hobel is in close contact with the coal layer, and when the face surface advances by cutting, the entire equipment also advances accordingly.Developed as equipment for coal collection and unloading with a series of systems[10]Later, it developed into a cutter coal extraction method.Hobel itself continues to be used for coal mines in environments that are not suitable for cutter coal mining (many hard petrified wood in the coal seam, etc.).[10], Self-propelled frame[11]Improvements such as combination with and were also made.
Cutter coal extraction method
A method of collecting coal with a heavy machine (coal cutter) that mechanically crushes the coal wall.Cole cutter originally planted a cutting bladeChainsawIt was a style machine, and it was a coal extraction auxiliary equipment that made it easier to break the coal wall by carving a cutting groove (called "watermark") in the coal wall as a pre-process of blasting.[10]..The cutting part has a drum cutter style in which a cutting blade is planted in a spiral shape on a cylindrical rotating body, and an improved version has been developed so that the cutter itself can continuously mine coal. The cutting part was replaced with this drum cutter, and it was developed into a coal extraction and unloading system combined with a conveyor trough.Compared to the case of Hobel, the width of scraping at one time is large and it is more efficient.[10]..After that, a self-propelled frame that integrates iron pillars and beams (“Kappe”) that protect the coal mining site.[11]Developed into a mechanized coal mining system by combining with the system[12], Many of Japan's major coal mines adopted this development type around the 1980s.Depending on the coal mineSD coal miningLawAlso called.
Hydrocoal extraction method
A method of crushing a coal wall with high-pressure water discharged from a nozzle (called a "monitor") to collect coal, and then pumping the crushed coal together with water to carry it out of the mine.[13].. OldUSSRIt was developed and put into practical use at.Coal mines with strict mining conditions such as steep slopes of coal mines with technology introduced in JapanMitsui Sunagawa Coal MineEtc.) was adopted.


Coal mine structure (in the case of underground digging)

Coal mines are built in coal mines, but the distribution of coal, that is, the coal seams, are layered.Therefore, according to the coal mining conditions, the location of the face, which is the coal mining area, will be deepened.Therefore, it is necessary to open a path for personnel, mining equipment, drainage and ventilation, and dig at least two main tunnels.A man-car for carrying personnel and a charcoal car for carrying mined coal will run in this tunnel.

Depending on how they are dug, they are called vertical shafts, inclined shafts, horizontal shafts, etc., but in Japan there are many inclined shafts, which were spliced ​​together and stacked.1961The average face depth at a Japanese coal mine in (Showa 36) is 250 m underground.However, in England and Germany, where coal mining proceeded earlier than in Japan, it reached 750 m.This is related to the development of the long-walled mining method mentioned above, and is the result of consolidating labor and improving the efficiency of coal production, and a particularly excellent rationalization system was established in the Ruhr coalfield.However, in Japan, he later felt the limits of the inclined shaft and shifted to the vertical shaft.This is because Japanese coal mines are relatively young in strata, which makes the terrain fold and difficult to mine, and also contains a lot of gas and water, resulting in deterioration of quality or deterioration of quality. This is because I have experienced many large-scale accidents.

History of coal mine structure development

Spring water and flammable gases became a problem as we moved from outcrop coal mining to underground coal mining along the layers.These were the most important factors in determining the life of the mine in the early technical capabilities.Therefore, the mechanization of wastewater and the establishment of a ventilation system were prerequisites for deep coal extraction.[14].

Spring water problem
  • From natural drainage to drainage equipment
In the coal mine in the hilly area where the coal seam has been on the standard since the middle of the 14th century, a horizontal mine coal mining that digs a drainage canal that also serves as an export route on the hillside and drains naturally[15], Carrying out is a horizontal cave type shallow coal mining by digging a dedicated drainage tunnel in the shaft[16]Was adopted and became common in the 1600s.However, this method has difficulties such as a structure in which plains and horizontal holes cannot be dug, and drainage tools were introduced as a general method in the early 17th century with the spread of drainage canals.
Powered by people and horsesFishing bottleType drainer (windlass) And manual pumps were introduced, and these became the prototypes that determined the British-style mining method of sloping coal mining centering on the vertical shaft structure, as opposed to the conventional horizontal shaft type coal mine structure.However, even with their introduction, the maximum pumping capacity was about 15 m underground, and even if a reservoir was created during the general practice and pumped in stages, the depth of the coal mine rarely exceeded 72 m.At that time, when the limit was reached, the coal mine was usually mined at the next location, so the life of the coal mine was usually about one year.
  • Appearance of drainage engine
In the latter half of the 17th century, the number of veins near the surface of the earth decreased, and I grew up in the suburbs of the coal mining town where I knew it.Thomas SaveryInvented the steam engine-based suction pump "The Miner's Friend" in 1698 and introduced it to the coal mine.However, there was a large loss of pumping capacity, and there were problems with reliability and operability.They were Dartmouth Blacksmiths in 1705Thomas NewcomenWas improved by the atmospheric pressure engine invented by.These inventions were introduced in a number of coal mines, but due to patent fees, they had to wait until 1733, when the patent expired, for general dissemination.
Establishment of ventilation system
  • Fire basket
After solving the problem of spring water, the scale of the coal mine became complicated in the vertical and horizontal directions.As a result, in the latter half of the 17th century, the flammable gas accumulated in the coal mine was not discharged to the outside, and coal mine fires occurred frequently, and if there was no oxygen supply, the working environment deteriorated such as suffocation.As a countermeasure, from the natural convection that used the temperature difference between the outside and the inside until the 17th century, a fire was lit at the bottom of the exhaust port, and fire cages were hung in various places to promote air convection.However, these measures promoted the mixing of flammable gas and air, which changed the air into a flammable one and caused a fire.
  • Closure and Fireman
Until the first half of the 1677th century, a special coal miner named Fireman, which was implemented in 19, took measures to artificially burn gas against the gas accumulated in the coal mine, especially in dense places. Taken in a small coal mine.
  • Maintenance of ventilation system
The above method was difficult in large-scale coal mines, and it was necessary to systematize the ventilation system. At the beginning of the 18th century, a system of Face Airing was devised to install a wooden barrier (temporary cloth was called a curtain) in the tunnel, and in 1760 Spending devised a wooden or brick barrier. It has developed into a coursing the air system that separates the airway and the airway and installs trap doors for communication in various places.That's not enough, in 1810,(English editionHas further developed and built an Air Splitting system that divides and controls the ventilation area in the mine.
  • Two shafts
In 1862(English editionThere has occurred.This accident(English editionOne side of the beam (the rod of the balance) fell and came into contact during the fall.(English editionMost of the wooden pipes for ventilation called were damaged.As a result, all the miners at the bottom of the mineCarbon monoxideHe died of suffocation due to poisoning.A single shaft was considered to have ventilation problems, so a legislative legislation was passed on August 1862, 8, requiring all new mines to have two shafts, one for exhaust and one for ventilation. By the end of 7, mining ordinances were enacted to require mines as well.
  • Installation of ventilation fan
In 1849, a ventilation fan was introduced.

Electrification and mechanization in the mine

Transportation
Major coal mines have been mechanized since the mid-19th century.Until then, children, women, adult men and horses were carrying wagons.
Lighting equipment
Coal mines in the early 1900sElectric lightUntil is developedcandleI relied on lighting by.It's a fine powder of coal(English edition,(English editionAs a substitute or because it actually causes an explosion fire such as(English editionWas developed.
  • Substitute, workaround
As a safe substitute, "dry fish skin" that causes bioluminescence[17],fireflyWas used[18].
Also, thinking that a small amount of spark would not ignite, a device was used to bring the rotating metal disc into contact with the gear.Fortunately one person died[19].
When lifting a candle from the floor, if the tip of the flame extends and emits a blue light, it is judged that there is flammable gas.[20].
  • History
    • 1815 safety lightDavy lampInvention (But there is a problem with this safety light and there is a fire)
    • 1859 William Clark patents lamp for the first time
    • 1881 Joseph SwanInvented the incandescent lamp[21]
    • 1900 Installed a lamp in a coal mine
    • 1930 Helmet with battery lamp

Coal mine accident

Accident classification

Gas protrusion
In the coal seam containing coal, as a by-product when coal is producedmethane gasIs often accumulated.It occurs when a part containing a large amount of this is dug out.Methane gas itself is harmless to the human body and is lighter than air, so it usually rises.AnoxiaOr, in the worst case, you will suffocate.Carbon monoxideIf toxic gas such as is accumulated at the same time, it may cause a gas addict.In addition, since flammable methane gas is ejected at once, a gas explosion often occurs immediately afterwards.
Gas explosion
When a large amount of methane gas as described above protrudes, it is easy to induce an explosion accident due to various causes such as static electricity and sparks.Especially in underground digging, which is a work in a closed space, it is necessary to constantly monitor the concentration of methane gas for the purpose of early detection of gas protrusion accidents.In addition, it is important to take measures to remove gas by boring in advance, but if it is not sufficiently done, a large amount of gas will protrude, leading to a large-scale explosion accident. In the early 21st century, no drastic solution to prevent gas explosions has been established even with the latest equipment.Developing countriesAccidents have frequently occurred at the coal mine in Japan.The heat and impact of the explosion, carbon monoxide, etc. endanger a large number of workers, and the impact also causesFallOften, the outbreak of a sickness hinders the early rescue of survivors.
Dust explosion
Coal dust is likely to be generated in the coal mine.It may be ignited by sparks generated during excavation and cause an explosion.In addition, there is an example in which dust adhering to the rail ignites and explodes due to frictional heat with the wheels while the truck is running.Since most of the coal is carbon, it is a dangerous accident that causes more casualties due to carbon monoxide than an explosion caused by methane gas.Usually, the risk can be minimized by watering.
Underground fire
This is one of the most serious coal mine accidents.Gas andCoal dustOften occurs following an explosion.Unlike ordinary fires, there is a large amount of combustible coal in the surroundings, so it usually takes a long time to extinguish the fire.For example, the fire that broke out in 1924 at the Shindori mine at the Hokutan Yubari Coal Mine has not been extinguished even as of 90, more than 2016 years later.[22]..In addition, since the tunnel becomes a chimney and becomes a passage for heat, smoke, and carbon monoxide, once it occurs, it causes many casualties.The method of extinguishing the fire by blocking the entrance of the tunnel and making it oxygen-deficient is common, but as a last resort, a method of injecting water from a nearby river or the like to submerge the tunnel may be adopted.However, in each case, it is necessary to take measures to rescue the workers in advance, which occurred in 1981.Hokutan Yubari New Coal Mine Gas Projection AccidentThen, the company received a lot of criticism because it had to start the water injection work with the workers of unknown safety left behind in the mine.
Seawater inflow
In a coal mine with a mining area on the seabedFallIt is an accident that occurs whenIn the worst accident that exceeds the underground fire at the submarine coal mine, the tunnel is submerged in a short time due to the large amount of seawater that erupts, so there is a high possibility that most of the workers, especially those in the deep part, will escape late and drown. ..In addition, drainage and rescue are impossible, let alone carrying out the corpse, and the tunnel will be abandoned as it is.

Japanese coal mine accident

In Japan during the Meiji eraAquaculture industryIn the name ofmineDevelopment was active.However, the mines at that time were profit-oriented and the working environment was secondary, so safety measures were often poor, especially gas explosions andDust explosionLarge-scale accidents often occurred in coal mines where mine is prone to occur.The number of small-scale fatal accidents is considered to be enormous, including unrecorded accidents.Second World WarLater, when safety measures were enhanced, the number of accidents decreased dramatically, but due to high costs, conversion to fluid energy, and an increase in imported coal, the mine was closed one after another.In addition, the accident has not completely disappeared, and as a result, compensation for workers and bereaved families for the accident has been a major pain for business owners, spurring the decline of coal mines in Japan.

Major coal mine accidents in Japan
  • 1899June 6 Toyokuni Coal Mine (Fukuoka) Explosion accident.210 dead and missing.
  • 1907July 7 An explosion occurred at Toyokuni Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture).20 dead and missing.The worst accident in the Meiji era.
  • 1909November 11 Explosion accident at Ohnoura Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture).24 dead and missing.
  • 1912 Hokutan Yubari Coal Mine(Hokkaido) Explosion accidents on April 4 and December.29 dead and 12 missing, respectively. On January 276, 216, the company closed the wellhead with 1913 miners of unknown life or death.
  • 1913February 2 Explosion accident at Futase Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture).6 dead and missing.
  • 1914November 11 Explosion accident at Shin-Yubari Coal Mine (Hokkaido).28 dead and missing.
  • 1914th of February 12 Hojo Coal MineExplosion accident in (Fukuoka Prefecture).687 dead and missing.It is said to be the worst coal mine accident in modern Japanese history.
  • 1916 Higashimi first coal mine(Yamaguchi ) Inflow accident (because the mining area was in the sea area).235 dead and missing.
  • 1918 Explosion accident at Ohnoura Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture).376 dead and missing.
  • 1920June 6 Explosion accident at Kitakami mine (Hokkaido), Hokutan Yubari Coal Mine.14 dead and missing.
  • 1927 Uchigo Coal Mine (Fukushima) In the mine火災..136 dead and missing.
  • 1938October 10 Explosion accident at Hokutan Yubari Coal Mine Tenryu Mine (Hokkaido).6 dead and missing.
  • 1941March 3 Explosion accident at Bibai coal mine (Hokkaido).18 dead and missing.
  • 1943 Chosei Coal MineSeawater inflow accident in (Yamaguchi Prefecture).183 dead and missing.
  • 1944 Explosion accident at Bibai coal mine (Hokkaido).109 dead and missing.
  • 1958May 9 FukuokaYamada CityA gas explosion occurred at the Ikemoto Mining Daisho Coal Mine in Tokyo.14 dead.
  • 1960 67 people were killed or missing at the Toyoshu Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture) due to the flooding.
  • 1960May 2 Hokutan Yubari Coal Mine(HokkaidoYubari)soGas explosionOccurs.42 dead.
  • 1961 An underground fire at the supernatant coal mine (Fukuoka Prefecture) killed 71 people.An underground fire at the Otsuji Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture) involved the coal mine chief who was rescued, killing 26 people.
  • 1963May 11 Mitsui Miike Coal MineExplosion accident in (Fukuoka Prefecture).458 dead,Second World WarIt will cause the highest number of deaths in later accidents.
  • 1965 Explosion accident at Hokkaido Coal Mining Factory (Hokkaido).61 dead and missing.
  • 1965 Explosion accident at Mitsui Yamano Coal Mine (Fukuoka Prefecture).237 dead and missing.
  • 1966May 11 Sumitomo Tobetsu Coal MineA gas accident occurred at around 2:45 am in (Hokkaido).Three working staff and 3 miners died.Four miners are seriously injured.
  • 1970 Gas explosion accident at Mitsui Ashibetsu Coal Mine (Hokkaido).5 dead and 7 seriously injured.
  • 1972 Ishikari Coal Mine A gas explosion accident occurred at Ishikari Coal Mine (Hokkaido) around 11:2 pm on November 5 dead.
  • 1977 Gas explosion accident at Mitsui Ashibetsu Coal Mine (Hokkaido).25 dead and 8 seriously injured.
  • 1981 Hokutan Yubari New Coal MineGas protrusion / explosion accident in (Hokkaido).Water injection work was started with 59 unidentified people left behind in the mine, and the final death toll was 93.
  • 1984 Underground fire at Mitsui Miike Coal Mine Ariaketan (Fukuoka Prefecture).83 dead.
  • 1985 Explosion accident at Mitsubishi Nandai Yubari Coal Mine (Hokkaido).62 dead.

China coal mine accident

People's Republic of ChinaThen,1990 eraSince then, energy demand has become tight with economic development, and innumerable small-scale coal mine developments have been carried out.Although the government has established laws and regulations and enhanced safety measures, there are a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises operating in poor facilities and non-delivery companies, and major accidents continue to occur (non-delivery companies are rescued when an accident occurs). To run away before doing[23]).

2005More than 3,341 people due to 5,000 accidentsWorkerIs said to have died.More than 200 people have been punished in connection with the accident.For this reason, the Chinese government2006Has a relatively small coal mine with annual production of less than 3 tons2007In addition to announcing measures to forcibly close by2008Is2010Reduced the number of small coal mines to within 1[24]Announcing the goal to do.The government's occupational safety authorities have reported that the annual death toll of mines (including non-coal mines) in 2015 was 598.[25].

Major coal mine accidents in 2005
Major accidents delivered in overseas news.
  • 2 LiaoningExplosion accident at Sonjiawan Coal Mine.More than 200 dead / missing[26]
  • 8 GuangdongA flood accident occurred at the Daxing coal mine in Meizhou.123 dead / missing[27]
  • 10 Henan ProvinceAn explosion occurred at a coal mine in Hebi City.34 dead / missing[28]
  • 10 Sichuan ProvinceAn explosion occurred at a coal mine in Guang'an.28 dead / missing
  • 12 Hebei ProvinceExplosion accident at a coal mine in Tangshan city.75 dead / missing
  • December Inundation accident at a coal mine in Xin'an, Henan Province.12 dead / missing

Turkish coal mine accident

According to The general Mine Workers Union in Turkey, 2000 accidents occurred between 2009 and 25655 at a coal mine run by the Turkish Coal Corporation (TTK). , 63 dead, 26324 injured[30].

United States coal mine accident

Of energySecurityFrom a policy point of viewAppalachia coalfieldDomestically produced coal is used, including production, and in addition to open pit mining, coal mines by tunnels still exist.

British coal mine accident

Ukrainian coal mine accident

Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) coal mine accident

  • June 1972, 6: An explosion occurred at the Wonky Mine 6km north of Bruwayo. 320 people buried alive[31].

Coal mine workers (coal miners, miners)

Coal was originally mined manually by workers and required a lot of labor.For men, "Coal minerIs called.

Japan
In HokkaidoPrisonerThe miner was also used.
After World War II, so-calledInclined production methodWorkers gathered at coal mines in various places against the background.
The United Kingdom
In the early 19th century, children and women were hired as hurriers, or carriers called coal drawers and coal thrusters.Children helped because it was difficult for women to carry alone, and their work was often unloaded in 12-hour shifts.[32][33].
Children aged 3 to 4 were hired and engaged in work regardless of gender.[34][35]..Carriers are called thrusters, and sometimes hair is lost by pushing with the head or the entire body.The weak child was hired as a coal trappers.Their job is to operate the trap door for ventilation when passing through the wagon.[34][36][37]..As the mine grew larger, it became more difficult to do by human power, and children between the ages of 10 and 14 were assigned to guide horses to pull wagons called coal drivers.
In 1842, employment in mines under the age of 10 was "Mines and Collieries Act 1842Was banned by. In 1870, all children between the ages of 5 and 13 were obliged to attend school, and many coal mine children quit, but in the 1920s it was common for those who left school. It was a job.
Coal mine engineer

Problems caused by coal mines

  • (English edition
  • Sink hole
  • (English edition --Contaminates waste and soil generated by mining and mineral processing.After burningFly ashis not.
  • (English editionDeterioration of surrounding water quality due to
  • Resource curse ――Economic term that refers to the fact that industrial power and economy do not develop because the industry does not develop depending on resources, the soil is polluted with the excavated soil, and securing resources causes civil war and political corruption.

Coal mines and cities

Japan

development

Coal is heavy and expensive for land transportation.Therefore, in order to reduce costs, a coking coal processing factory was set up near the coal producing area and coal mine (raw material location type).And each company needs to secure human resources to work in the coal field or factory.Coal mine housingAnd so on, and one village will be formed there, and when it becomes a large-scale one, it will be there.hospital,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,parkIt will form one city with such things.

Kushiro,YubariThe city grows bigger,InfrastructureIn parallel with the maintenance of the food service industry for workers,Movie theater,Sex industryThe entertainment industry, such as, has also developed and has become bustling.HokkaidoIshikari coalfieldDotted inBibai,Yubari,Mikasa,Akabira,Ashibetsu,UtashinaiIs a typical example, and countless large and small settlements are scattered in the city area, and it was established together with the employment companies.

Sorachi,ChikuhoFor transporting coal in rural areasfreight trainRunCoal mine railroadWas opened, and at the same time, it became a foothold for residents' transportation and was directly connected to a large consumption area.In addition, except for Japan,Fushun(Already closed)Datong,RiceAppalachian Mountains OfWaterfall linecity,Germany OfRulesIndustrial area,ロシアKuzunetsuku region (Novokuznetskな どKemerovo OblastSoutheastTom riverBasin),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfKaraganda region,ウクライナ OfDonetsuLocal areas are representative.

decline

But in JapanPacific WarLater, with the increase in imported coal, the domestic coal industry, which had a relatively high cost structure, began to decline, and in addition, from around the 1960s, it became oil.Energy conversionAs the trend progressed, the demand for coal as fuel and processed products decreased significantly.On the other handPostwar reconstructionHigh economic growthIncreased demand for coal at steel mills, mainly for coalCokeIt came to be used for processing into.However, in the case of Japan, as mentioned above, depending on the transportation cost and import dependence,Steel mill ThePortIt was usually installed in (port location type).As a result, Japanese coal mining cities that have lost the advantage of raw material locations have been severely damaged, and management companies have been forced to reduce their scale. As a result, the working population will continue to decline due to the closure of coal mines and the closure of mountains. , Cities and villages collapsed.

Cities and settlements that had coal mine settlements in the mountains and depended on coal mines and coal mine railroads were devastated by their abolition, and the cities became non-functional.Ghost townThere are not a few cases where it became.Most of the city area is in the mountainous areas, and the population of Yubari City, which was a coal mine settlement, has decreased to 1% of its peak, and Mikasa City, Ashibetsu City, Akabira City, Utashinai City, and Yamada City. (CurrentlyKama) Population decline is remarkable.It floats on the sea in Nagasaki Prefecture as an unmanned one due to the collapse of the village.Hashima(Gunkanjima),Kushiro coalfield OfYubetsu district,Rumoi coalfield OfAsano district,Iriomote Island OfIriomote Coal MineOn the other hand, the remaining villages are also aging inhabitants, aging charcoal houses, etc.InfrastructureProblems such as shortages are occurring.

Also, alternative industries are difficult to develop in such areas.in particularChikuhoIn rural areas, the soil was backfilledBotaBecause it is contaminated bySoil improvementNot to be leftAgriculture:It is also difficult to find development in.inside thatYubari MellonThese are examples of successful industrial transformation, but they do not lead to the securing of a large-scale labor force as much as coal mines.AlsoBubble period OfTourismBy dependenceleisureFacilities andBoxAs a result of the construction of many facilities, the maintenance cost has put pressure on the finances (Yubari City is a typical example).

Escape from decline

Fortunately, cities with good traffic conditions have succeeded in breaking away from the urban structure that depends on coal production.Growing into the largest city in eastern Hokkaido based on coal minesKushiroHas expanded its industrial base and developed into the largest industrial city in the eastern part of Hokkaido.Ube Coal MineWas holdingUbe CityIs from before the warcementIndustrial and coal chemistryComplexAfter the warSetouchi Industrial AreaThe mine is closing while gradually reducing the weight of the coal mine in the form of being incorporated into the mine.Kasuya-gunThe cities and towns in the Kasuya coalfield area that were distributed inFukuoka metropolitan areaBy expansion ofSatellite cityAs a result, the population has increased since that time.Holding the Joban coalfieldIwaki TheCapital AreaConverted from proximity to the machinery industry, and alsoSpaIt has also been successful in development.Also, in the Ishikari coalfield, the Japanese National RailwaysHakodate honsenNational Route 12Was a city along the lineIwamizawaIs a big citySapporoClose toBranch officeSince it was also the location, the impact was relatively minor.AlsoBibai CityAlthough the population has decreased sharply since that time, it has not yet reached the catastrophic population decline as in the mountainous municipalities, and due to breedingRice cultivationPromoted the conversion to.

Amakusa coalfieldIn areas where the region did not depend on the coal industry and other industries such as fisheries had already diversified, the impact of the closure of the mine was minor.In addition, the Iriomote Coal Mine is unique in that most of the people involved are migrant workers from the mainland, the main island of Okinawa, and Taiwan.Social structureBecause it was isolated from the local community (see the same section), the impact of the closure of the mine on the local economy was small.[38].

The United Kingdom

ThatcherUnder the "small government" policy, the administration privatized the coal industry, which had been nationalized after World War II, from 2 to 1984.(English editionThere was a social movement that remained in British history, but it was privatized in 1994.The background is the development of the North Sea oil field and coal price competition with overseas. The number of coal mines, which was 1981 in 211, dropped sharply to 1985 in 169, 2000 in 7, and 2005 in 8.Assistance was provided to workers who had a job, such as receiving a pension, but the support was not provided to the next generation, leading to an increase in the crime rate and the spread of narcotics.

After closing the coal mine, physical support such as soil improvement and construction of public green spaces and sports facilities.Business attraction, education / employment, entrepreneurship support, etc. are being carried out, and the village Grinethorpe in northern England is cited as a successful example, but coal mining cities are still a problem in parliament as a poverty problem[39].

  • Arthur Scargill: As Chairman of the British Coal Miners' Union, he led the British Coal Miners' Strike against the privatization of all mines.

Chugoku

(Chinese version

France

In 1959, a special conversion zone certification was granted to convert the industry of the region where the losing industry, including coal mines, is the core industry.The contents of the subsidy are the granting of industrial conversion subsidies and tax exemption measures. In 1967, an agreement was made on coal production targets, which led to the closure of mines and the reduction of production.Saint-Etienne,Dauphiné.Auvergne regionCoal mines such as these have closed, and other areas have also shrunk and will be closed in the future.This period was the time when the national land development plan was promoted, which also contributed greatly to the industrial transformation.However, due to the economic crisis since the 1970s, employment problems, landscape deterioration, and neglect of pollutants have surfaced.(French versionAccording to a survey conducted by 1985, about 2 haIndustrial idle landOf that, 1 ha, which is half, is a coalfield area.Nord-Pas-de-Calais region(Registered as a World Heritage Site in 2012) occupied[40].

Under such circumstances, in March 1984, the government set up areas with sluggish industries such as shipbuilding, coal mines, and the steel industry.(French versionAs a result, financial assistance such as special benefits was provided, and after that, assistance was also provided to areas near the German border.With such support, the automobile industry was attracted, and industries such as textiles / clothing and mail-order sales were promoted.[40].

culture

Works on the theme of coal mines
  • Hula Girl --A Japanese movie depicting residents struggling to open a health center after the Joban Coal Mine is closed.
  • Chikuho children --Photographed of children in the poor Chikuho area after the coal mine was closed due to energy conversionKen DomonPhoto book.
  • brass!: A movie based on the true story of a musical reconstruction of a coal mine town in England
  • Welcome to the parade: A movie based on a true story such as a British coal mine strike.
song
From the work process, there are coal mining songs, coal preparation songs, Nanban songs, and stone sword songs.[41].
Cultural organization
  • Grimethorpe Colliery Band: The movie "Brass! The orchestra that was the source of
  • Chinese Soot Bunka 团 --A theater company whose slogan is to face mines and serve coal mine workers.

Coal mine museum, theme park

Japan
Asia
  • (Chinese version
  • Fangzi Coal Mine Ruins Cultural Park (Fangzi Coal Mine Museum, Underground Coal Mine Experience Center ...)-Weifang City, Shandong Province, ChinaFangzi District
  • Taiwan Coal Mine Museum
Europe

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ John Dodson; Xiaoqiang; Nan Sun; Pia Atahan; Xinying Zhou; Hanbin Liu; Keliang Zhao; Songmei Hu et al. (March 3, 2014). “Use of coal in the Bronze Age in China”. The holocene 0959683614523155 (5): 525-530. two:10.1177/0959683614523155. http://hol.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/03/03/0959683614523155 2014th of February 4Browse.. 
  2. ^ Coal-Fired Generation 4p ISBN 0128040564
  3. ^ International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook 2011 p179
  4. ^ History of Hokkaido Coal Mine Industry ” Sorachi General Promotion Bureau
  5. ^ Reconstruction of the coal industry in postwar France Author: Yukihiko Ishiyama
  6. ^ Total Primary Coal Production(United States Department of EnergyEnergy Information Administration)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Current status and countermeasures for coal mine accidents in China Asian Institute, viewed July 2019, 7.
  8. ^ "Abolition of coal-fired power suspension / policy shift to realize "decarbonization"". 2020th of February 8Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Dictionary of Coal Utilization Technology" p.37, p.236
  10. ^ a b c d e f Asahi Shimbun Nagasaki Prefecture Article "Coal Mine Imamukashi (1982)" dated April 4, 24
  11. ^ a b "Dictionary of Coal Utilization Technology" p.188
  12. ^ "Dictionary of Coal Utilization Technology" p.37
  13. ^ "Dictionary of Coal Utilization Technology" p.37, p.205
  14. ^ Isao Abe ""Structures" and "Facilities" in the Coal Industry-The Process of Establishment of "Facilities" in the 19th Century British Coal Industry (1)-"Economics, Vol. 102, No. 3, Kyoto University Economics, September 1968.
  15. ^ day-hole system
  16. ^ pitand adit system
  17. ^ Smiles, Samuel (1862), Lives of the Engineers, Volume III (George and Robert Stephenson), London: John Murray, ISBN-0 7153-4281-9 (ISBN refers to the David & Charles reprint of 1968 with an introduction by LTC Rolt) p. 107
  18. ^ Fordyce, William (20 July 1973), A history of coal, coke and coal fields and the manufacture of iron in the North of England, Graham, https://books.google.com/books?id=dlM_AQAAIAAJ 
  19. ^ Durham Mining Museum (2012a), Wallsend colliery, retrieved 16 January 2013
  20. ^ Wood, Nicholas (1853), "On Safety Lamps for Lighting Coal Mines", Transactions, North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Vol I (1852-1853): 301-322, retrieved 2013-11-17 (Presidential Lecture) )
  21. ^ Swan, JW (1881), "Swan's electric light", Transactions, North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Vol 30: 149-159, retrieved 2013-11-16 pp. 140-159
  22. ^ Sato, Motoharu (March 2016, 3), “The coal mine fire 90 years ago, Yubari“ Kamidori mine ”, which has not been extinguished yet and is still steaming”, Hokkaido Shimbun, http://dd.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/area/doo/1-0251899.html .
  23. ^ Coal mine explosion, 12 deaths = Escape of responsible person due to illegal operation-Henan Province, China (Jiji Press)
  24. ^ China cuts small coal mines to 2010 by 1 (Searchina July 2008, 7)
  25. ^ China's coal mine gas explosion finds missing bodies in 33 deadCNN.co.jp 2016/11/2 (viewed 2016/11/06)
  26. ^ Coal mine explosion killed 203 people in Liaoning Province, 13 unknown (Searchina, February 2005, 2)
  27. ^ Coal mine accident: 10 escaped coal mine executives detained, mayor suspended (August 2005, 8 Searchina)
  28. ^ Gas explosion at a coal mine in Henan, killing 34 people, even in Xinjiang (Searchina, October 2005, 10)
  29. ^ a b “The worst in Turkey's history for 274 fatalities in a coal mine accident”. Kyodo News(July 2014, 5). http://www.47news.jp/CN/201405/CN2014051501000814.html 2014th of February 5Browse. 
  30. ^ Finbarr Bermingham (May 2014, 5). “Turkey's Sorry History of Coal Mining Disasters”. International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/soma-disaster-turkeys-sorry-history-coal-mining-disasters-1448506 2014th of February 5Browse. 
  31. ^ "468 Life Buried Rhodesia's Coal Mine Explosion" "Asahi Shimbun" June 47, 6, page 7
  32. ^ Channel 4. "The Worst Jobs in History --Hurrier". Accessed from the Wayback Machine on 13 November 2009.
  33. ^ HalifaxToday.co.uk. "The Nature Of Work". Accessed 17 February 2007.
  34. ^ a b . 2007. "Ages at which children and young persons are employed in coal mines". Accessed 17 February 2007.
  35. ^ Rev. TM Eddy. July 1854. "Women in the British MinesFreepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com, Accessed 17 February 2007.
  36. ^ Durham Mining Museum, "Mining Occupations". Accessed 19 February 2007.
  37. ^ Riley, Bill. Pitwork.net. "Early Coal Mining History: Child Labor". Accessed 13 November 2009.
  38. ^ In the prewar mining industry in Okinawa Prefecture, local residents are rarely workers, and most of them are covered by migrant workers from the mainland and Taiwan (mainly).Battle of OkinawaIn many cases, the village itself disappeared due to the closure of the mine.Cases similar to Iriomote Coal MineYakabi Island(Copper) andOki DaitojimaIt is also found in (phosphate).
  39. ^ Regional revitalization and employment policy after coal mine closure(Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, July 2011 (No.7))
  40. ^ a b Regeneration of Declining Industrial Areas in France Author: Hironobu Oda Human Geography Research XXV pp273-30l 2001
  41. ^ Folk song <XNUMX> Nanban song and stone sword song West Japan Newspaper
  42. ^ Safety small poetry, song: Part of speech Chinese soot and coal safety production network

References

  • Heibonsha "National Encyclopedia" 1961 edition
  • Heibonsha "World Encyclopedia" 1965 edition
  • Sanseido "Concise Japan Encyclopedia"
  • Fuel Association "Glossary of Coal Utilization Technology" Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., 1984

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