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An additional aspect that has fallen out of the recent highlights of the move to correct discrimination against women.
 

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Tokyo Art Beat is a bilingual media that sends out the latest Tokyo art event information and news.


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Discrimination against women

Discrimination against womenWhat is (joseisabetsu)?FemaleAgainstSex discrimination.Male and femaleSome people call it (Dansonjohi). The antonym isMale discriminationThat.

Case study

Japan

Japan is considered to be one of the countries with the largest gender gap in the world.World Economic ForumPublished in the World Gender Gap ReportGlobal Gender Gap IndexThen.G7At the bottom,G20Saudi Arabia,トルコNext to the worst 3rd place[1].

The problem of improving the treatment of female workers in Japan is裁判 所bypolicyIt also overlaps with the history of formation. That is,Executive branchThe court is not moving towards equal employment opportunity for men and womenPrecedentThroughSex discriminationCan be cited as an example of correcting[2] .

The judicial movement to reduce disparities began in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time, as a labor lawLabor Standards ActThere was, but the Labor Standards LawwageWas only banning discrimination on the grounds of womenuse,DismissalThere were no other laws that appealed to labor discrimination, such as (for example, early retirement of women was a common practice in society at that time). And in terms of wages, companies have differentiated women by putting them in different jobs than men.[2].

Under these circumstances, firstArticle 14 of the Constitution of Japan(Equality under the law) Was attempted to correct the disparity. But,My human potencyThis move failed because there is no (the constitution does not apply directly to private humans)[2].. However, the court was in 1966.Sumitomo Cement CaseCivil lawArticle 90 (Violation of public order and morals(My human potencySee)Overcame this situation by using[2].. This move spread nationwide, and courts around the world used Article 90 of the Civil Code to correct women's early retirement, marriage retirement, and childbirth retirement.[2].. In the DietEqual Employment ActWas enacted in 1985[2].

Regarding the issue of female labor, it also overlaps with the history of improving the treatment of part-time workers.Non-regular employmentPlease refer to[3].

The following is an example in Japan. In addition, it should be notedPrewarThe right to suffrage and education was also discussed in.After the warAlso, we provide clothing guidance and hair guidance that promote discrimination.Junior high school,high schoolAlso exists.Female suffrage,Coeducation,Sex discriminationSee also.

South Korea

There is an opinion that the methods of ancestor rituals are discriminatory against women.[15].

In addition,Survivor,divorceDiscrimination against womenDeveloped country(Excluding Japan)Arab countriesCompared to South KoreaThere is a survey that is terrible[16].

Chugoku

RiceNew York TimesPublished an article about the social status of Chinese women, noting that the rampant sexism and mistresses at work and at home in China reflect women's lack of choice.[17].

According to a survey conducted by ChinaHR.com, nearly 6% of women have been gender-discriminated against by companies while seeking employment, which far exceeds that of male job seekers. In addition, if the job seeker is a woman, there are strict requirements for marital status, age, and appearance.[17].

Women are required to be conditioned as "unmarried only" when recruiting[18].. Also, there is the word "hidden family"[18].

ロシア

Russian FederationThe Labor Law prohibits women from working in 38 professions in 456 industries, including captains, train and truck drivers, carpenters, and divers. OldSoviet UnionSince then, it has been regulated to protect women from the dangers and health risks associated with these occupations, but some women are dissatisfied and file proceedings.[19][20].

Europe

As a result of the increase in Islamic immigrants, there was a situation in which "this is discrimination against women (from the viewpoint of traditional European values)" such as "invalidity of marriage because it is not a virgin". was there[21].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Compliment men as "like Socrates" sneer at the advice of Japanese women's magazines AFP BB NEWS December 2019, 12
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Trial and Society: Rethinking the" Common Knowledge "of Justice" Written by Daniel H. Foot Translated by Masayuki Tamaruya NTT Publishing October 2006 ISBN 9784757140950
  3. ^ Yuichiro Mizumachi"International Comparison of Equal Treatment and Keys to Utilizing Part-Europe, America, and Japan" October 2004,Independent administrative agency Labor Policy Research and Training Organization
  4. ^ House of Councilors Minutes Information
  5. ^ 26 Estimates of Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  6. ^ a b Proposal Amendment of Civil Code toward the formation of a gender equality society Science Council of Japan
  7. ^ a b "Selective Marital Surname / Inheritance Discrimination Q & A for Out-of-Marriage Children" Japan Federation of Bar Associations
  8. ^ "Plaintiff'Indirect Discrimination against Women'Country Side'Same Surname Is Widespread'Rules That Do Not Allow Married Couples' Surnames, Oral at the Supreme Court", Nikkei Newspaper, November 2015, 11
  9. ^ Meeting to think about revision of civil law, "Revision of civil law that is well understood", Chaoyangkai
  10. ^ a b Reason for Appeal, 26 (Neo) No. 309 Appeal Case, June 2014, 6
  11. ^ a b "Why is the'marital same-name compulsion is constitutional'decision'insensitive'?", HUFF POST SOCIETY, December 2015, 12.,
  12. ^ "" Insane "in Nagatacho, which has disregarded the Constitution, which has attracted attention to the Supreme Court decision," Prohibition of remarriage and provisions for married couples' surnames, "Business Journal, November 2015, 11
  13. ^ "Japan upholds rule that married couples must have same surname", The Guardian, December 16, 2015.
  14. ^ "Selective married couple surnames Let's deepen national debate", Japan Agricultural Newspaper, December 2015, 12.
  15. ^ June 2006, 4Red flag
  16. ^ "Discrimination against widows and divorced women, South Korea is the toughest" "JoongAng Ilbo" delivered on June 2008, 6
  17. ^ a b Confused Chinese Women Increasing Sexism = New York Times The Epoch Times December 2010, 12
  18. ^ a b Homare Endo "The 5th Women of the" Hidden Marriage "Hiding in the Shadow of <A Woman>" Because it will be negative for work "Hiding the marriage" "Nikkei Business Online" Nikkei BP, April 2008, 4 Date delivery
  19. ^ Russian Federation: Female officer fighting employment discriminationAmnestyInternational Secretariat (September 2017, 9)
  20. ^ Russian women, 456 occupations with employment restrictions = World Bank surveyNNA Asian Economic News(2015 9 年 月 日 15)
  21. ^ Masako Yamaguchi "[Latitude / Longitude] Is" Virginity "a Condition for Marriage? "Sankei Shimbun" Sankei Shimbun, delivered on June 2008, 6

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