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An additional aspect that has fallen out of the recent highlights of the move to correct discrimination against women.
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Discrimination against women
Japan is considered to be one of the countries with the largest gender gap in the world.World Economic ForumPublished in the World Gender Gap ReportGlobal Gender Gap IndexThen.G7At the bottom,G20でSaudi Arabia,トルコNext to the worst 3rd place.
The problem of improving the treatment of female workers in Japan is裁判 所bypolicyIt also overlaps with the history of formation. That is,Executive branchThe court is not moving towards equal employment opportunity for men and womenPrecedentThroughSex discriminationCan be cited as an example of correcting .
The judicial movement to reduce disparities began in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time, as a labor lawLabor Standards ActThere was, but the Labor Standards LawwageWas only banning discrimination on the grounds of womenuse,DismissalThere were no other laws that appealed to labor discrimination, such as (for example, early retirement of women was a common practice in society at that time). And in terms of wages, companies have differentiated women by putting them in different jobs than men..
Under these circumstances, firstArticle 14 of the Constitution of Japan(Equality under the law) Was attempted to correct the disparity. But,My human potencyThis move failed because there is no (the constitution does not apply directly to private humans).. However, the court was in 1966.Sumitomo Cement CaseでCivil lawArticle 90 (Violation of public order and morals）(My human potencySee)Overcame this situation by using.. This move spread nationwide, and courts around the world used Article 90 of the Civil Code to correct women's early retirement, marriage retirement, and childbirth retirement... In the DietEqual Employment ActWas enacted in 1985.
The following is an example in Japan. In addition, it should be notedPrewarThe right to suffrage and education was also discussed in.After the warAlso, we provide clothing guidance and hair guidance that promote discrimination.Junior high school,high schoolAlso exists.Female suffrage,Coeducation,Sex discriminationSee also.
- Supreme CourtIs by genderRetirement ageWas invalidatedPrecedent
- 1981(Showa 56) September 3,Naha District CourtInTotomeA ruling is made that the issue of inheritance (a practice in which women are not granted the right to inherit property) is unconstitutional.
- 1985(60) June 6nd国会Foreign Affairs CommitteeIn foreign affairsUnder Secretary of StateMayumi Moriyama Koganei Country ClubAtcompetitionHe replied that he was very regrettable about the fact that he refused to participate because he was a woman. Also, at that timeMinister of Foreign AffairsShintaro AbeStated that he had just learned of this fact and forgot to participate in the competition to show his strong regret... Also, at the 102nd Diet of this yearConvention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against girlsApproves the conclusion.
- 1995(Heisei7 years) August,Sumitomo Metal IndustriesFour female employees are sued for being discriminated against for salary increases and promotions.
The proceedings will eventually spread to other Sumitomo Group companies. The breakdown isSumitomo Electric Industries(2 people)Sumitomo Chemical(3 people)Sumitomo Life(12 people).
A series of trials that lasted more than 10 years2006Sumitomo Metal Industries and plaintiffs in AprilsettlementWas put to an end.
- In Japan, couples are selective because there is a provision of the Civil Code that they have the same surname at the time of marriage.Family name by coupleNo system has been introduced, but it is argued that this is against gender equality. Although the provisions of the Civil Code leave it to the couple to choose whether to refer to the husband or wife, in reality the rate of change by the wife is 96.1% of the total. And this is for womenIndirect discriminationHitGender equalityContrary to, Is the claim. Also,JapanIn favor of 130 countries includingUnited Nationsで1979Adopted in "Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against girls”Requires the introduction of selective married couples.
There is an opinion that the methods of ancestor rituals are discriminatory against women..
According to a survey conducted by ChinaHR.com, nearly 6% of women have been gender-discriminated against by companies while seeking employment, which far exceeds that of male job seekers. In addition, if the job seeker is a woman, there are strict requirements for marital status, age, and appearance..
Russian FederationThe Labor Law prohibits women from working in 38 professions in 456 industries, including captains, train and truck drivers, carpenters, and divers. OldSoviet UnionSince then, it has been regulated to protect women from the dangers and health risks associated with these occupations, but some women are dissatisfied and file proceedings..
As a result of the increase in Islamic immigrants, there was a situation in which "this is discrimination against women (from the viewpoint of traditional European values)" such as "invalidity of marriage because it is not a virgin". was there.
- ^ Compliment men as "like Socrates" sneer at the advice of Japanese women's magazines AFP BB NEWS December 2019, 12
- ^ a b c d e f "Trial and Society: Rethinking the" Common Knowledge "of Justice" Written by Daniel H. Foot Translated by Masayuki Tamaruya NTT Publishing October 2006 ISBN 9784757140950
- ^ Yuichiro Mizumachi"International Comparison of Equal Treatment and Keys to Utilizing Part-Europe, America, and Japan" October 2004,Independent administrative agency Labor Policy Research and Training Organization
- ^ House of Councilors Minutes Information
- ^ 26 Estimates of Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ a b Proposal Amendment of Civil Code toward the formation of a gender equality society Science Council of Japan
- ^ a b "Selective Marital Surname / Inheritance Discrimination Q & A for Out-of-Marriage Children" Japan Federation of Bar Associations
- ^ "Plaintiff'Indirect Discrimination against Women'Country Side'Same Surname Is Widespread'Rules That Do Not Allow Married Couples' Surnames, Oral at the Supreme Court", Nikkei Newspaper, November 2015, 11
- ^ Meeting to think about revision of civil law, "Revision of civil law that is well understood", Chaoyangkai
- ^ a b Reason for Appeal, 26 (Neo) No. 309 Appeal Case, June 2014, 6
- ^ a b "Why is the'marital same-name compulsion is constitutional'decision'insensitive'?", HUFF POST SOCIETY, December 2015, 12.,
- ^ "" Insane "in Nagatacho, which has disregarded the Constitution, which has attracted attention to the Supreme Court decision," Prohibition of remarriage and provisions for married couples' surnames, "Business Journal, November 2015, 11
- ^ "Japan upholds rule that married couples must have same surname", The Guardian, December 16, 2015.
- ^ "Selective married couple surnames Let's deepen national debate", Japan Agricultural Newspaper, December 2015, 12.
- ^ June 2006, 4Red flag
- ^ "Discrimination against widows and divorced women, South Korea is the toughest" "JoongAng Ilbo" delivered on June 2008, 6
- ^ a b Confused Chinese Women Increasing Sexism = New York Times The Epoch Times December 2010, 12
- ^ a b Homare Endo "The 5th Women of the" Hidden Marriage "Hiding in the Shadow of <A Woman>" Because it will be negative for work "Hiding the marriage" "Nikkei Business Online" Nikkei BP, April 2008, 4 Date delivery
- ^ Russian Federation: Female officer fighting employment discriminationAmnestyInternational Secretariat (September 2017, 9)
- ^ Russian women, 456 occupations with employment restrictions = World Bank surveyNNA Asian Economic News(2015 9 年 月 日 15)
- ^ Masako Yamaguchi "[Latitude / Longitude] Is" Virginity "a Condition for Marriage? "Sankei Shimbun" Sankei Shimbun, delivered on June 2008, 6