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🎥 | Moomin was born in this way ... Tove Jansson's half-life drawing "TOVE" 10.1 released

Photo Tove Jansson grew up with Moomin – (C) 2020 Helsinki-filmi, all rights reserved

Moomin was born in this way ... Tove Jansson's half-life drawing "TOVE" 10.1 released

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This film was released in Finland in October last year and recorded the highest opening record for a Finnish film written in Swedish, and was also selected as the Finnish national team for the 10rd Academy Award for Best International Feature Film.

The half-life of Finnish writer Tove Jansson, who is known as the creator of the world-famous character "Moomin" ... → Continue reading

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93rd Academy Award for Best International Feature Film


Swedish(Sweden,svenska [ˈSvɛnːˈska] ( Audio file)) IsIndo-EuropeanGermanic languageNorth Germanic languagesIt is a language that belongs to the East Scandinavian languages.mainlyスウェーデンUsed in.

Was dominated by Sweden for a long timeフィンランドBut as a national languageFinnishIt is used together with.However, although most of the official notations are written in both languages, less than 6% of Swedish speakers (Swedish-speaking Finns) in Finland.Finnish territoryAland IslandsSo Swedish is the only official language.

Indo-EuropeanGermanic languageNorth Germanic languages OfOld norseIt is classified as a kind of.In the same Old NorseDanish,NorwegianAlso belongs.The three Old Norse languages ​​are very close, with some differences, and each speaker can understand to some extent without having to learn any other language.

ウクライナ OfKherson Oblast(CrimeaNorth)(Swedish version,Ukrainian version,English edition(Meaning "old Swedish village")エストニアFrom the islands off the coastRussian EmpireInhabited by descendants of those displaced by the early 18th century,Ukrainian,RussianThe number of Swedish-speaking people is decreasing.


8st century, Old Norse was established from the Germanic (original Norse) language of Scandinavia.It was then divided into two similar dialects, East and West, Old Norse (Norway and Iceland) and Old Norse (Denmark and Sweden). From the beginning of the 2th century, the Danish and Swedish dialects began to separate.13st centuryIs considered to be almost established.

originallyRunesIt was written in, but with the ChristianizationLatin lettersIt came to be written in, and againGreek languageLatinA large amount of loanwords were brought in from. From the end of the 13th century to the 14th centuryHanseatic AllianceHas gained power, mid-low German (Low Saxony) Is affected. The inflection of nouns that had 4 cases and 3 sexes16st centuryBy now it has been simplified to the current 2nd genitive.

It was in the 20th century that Swedish as a common and standard language became popular. The 1906 reprint established an almost consistent orthography. In the 1960sdu-reformenThere was a reform related to the second-person pronoun called.



9 letters a, e, i, o, u, y, å, ä, ö.Of these, a, o, u, å are called hard vowels, and e, i, y, ä, ö are called soft vowels.Note that these are important matters when pronouncing, which will be described later.

Precautions for pronunciation

It should be noted that, in general, there are many words that have two types of high and low accents in addition to strong and weak accents.On top of that, there are some notes specific to Swedish as shown below.

  1. g: after gaccentWhen taking a soft vowel with [j] , If you want a hard vowel after g [g] Becomes
    Göteborg /'jøːtːebori / (Gothenburg, Gothenburg)[1]):Yete Borry(Name of a city)
    gå / ɡoː / (Go, go[2]):go
  2. k: When taking an accented soft vowel after k [ç] or [ɕ] , When taking a hard vowel of k [k] Becomes
    katt[4]):cat Cat)
  3. sk: If you want an accented soft vowel after sk [ɧ] , If a hard vowel is taken after sk, it becomes [sk].
    sked (Feda / Feed)[5]):spoon
    Skåne (Skeone, Skone)[6]):Skeone (Skane)(Regional name)
  4. skt: In the case of skt, k is a silent letter.
    dramatiskt[7]): Dramatic
  5. -Rg / -lg at the end of the word becomes [-rj], [-lj].
    berg / bɛ́ɾɡ / bɜː (ɹ) ɡ / ((when berg alone) Barrier, Barry, Bali, (when berg is not alone) Bye[8]):en: wikt: mountain(s), mountain
  6. If the word starts with dj, gj, hj, lj, read only j.
    djup[9]):en: wikt: deep, Deep 
    hjul[10]):en: wikt: wheels, Wheel
  7. For r + {d, l, n, s, t}, r is assimilated into the tongue consonantSled tonguebecome.
    pärla[11]): en: wikt: pearl(sg.), Pearl
    Anders (Anders, Undash[12]): English en: Andrew Personal name equivalent to
  8. If -tion, -sion, -xion is the ending, the ti, si part is [ɧ] , Xi part [kɧ] Is pronounced.
    lektion[13]):en: wikt: lesson, Class
    passion (pahorn[14]):en: wikt: passion,enthusiasm
    reflexion[15]):en: wikt: reflection, Reflection



nounThere are two types of nouns: sympathetic nouns (amphoteric nouns) and neuter nouns.Once a sympathetic nounMale nounFeminine nounIt was classified as a sympathetic noun (generality) lt. genus utrum Tomo) is unified.The synonymous noun isIndefinite article en, definite article is, Neuter nouns are indefinite articles one, Definite articles the Take.AlsoadjectiveIt is important when learning because it also affects changes in.

Plurals are roughly divided into the following five types.

  1. Singular indeterminate form ending with -a ⇒ plural ending is -or
    Example) en flicka (girl): flickor
  2. Monosyllable sympathetic nouns and neuter nouns ending with -el / -en / -er / -ing / -dom ⇒ plural endings are -ar
    Example) en stol (chair): stolar
  3. Many Latin loanwords ⇒ Multiple endings are-(e) r
    Example) en familj (family): familjer
  4. Neutral noun with no accent on the final vowel ⇒ Plural ending is -n
    Example) ett äpple (apple): äpplen
  5. Neuter noun ending with a consonant ⇒ single and multiple isomorphism
    Example) ett golv (floor) ⇒ golv

Definite articles commonly preceded by nouns in other European languagesen.the, fr.le / la, de.der / die / das etc.) is a noun in SwedishEndingAppears as[Note 1]..Basically, a definite article is added to the end of a noun as it is to make a fixed form, but the method is as follows.

  1. Consonant ending with consonant ⇒ indefinite definite en is added to the ending as it is
    Example) en bil (car): bilen
  2. A vowel ending in a synonymous noun ⇒ The "e" in the indefinite article en is omitted and added to the ending
    Example) en flicka (girl): flickan
  3. A neuter noun with a consonant ending in it ⇒ The indefinite article ett's "t" is dropped and added to the ending
    Example) ett hus (house): huset
  4. Neutral noun with vowel ending ⇒ Indefinite article ett's "et" is dropped and added to the ending
    Example) ett äpple (apple): äpplet

PossessiveIs created by adding -s to the end of the noun.However, it is not necessary to add -s, -x, and -z.

Example) fader: faders(Father's), Lars: Lars(Lars') * However, you may add an apostrophe to make it Lars'.

Long time agoDativeAccusativeExisted,NominativeIt became the same type as and was lost.


There is no personal conjugation in Swedish as in other European languages.It once existed, but has disappeared in modern Swedish.tenseThe system is modernEnglishClose to, but there are also differences.Rules belowverbShows four types of tense changes.

  • Type 1: Stems ending in -a
    Example) tala (speaking): present form talar ・ Past form talade ・ Perfect participle ha talat ・ Past participle talad
  • Type 2: Stem ending with a consonant
    • Type 2-1: Stem ending with a voiced consonant
      Example) stänga (close): present form stänger ・ Past form stängde ・ Perfect participle ha closet ・ Past participle stängd
    • Type 2-2: Stem ending with unvoiced consonant
      Example) köpa (buy): present form köper ・ Past form köpte ・ Perfect participle ha köpet ・ Past participle köpt
  • Type 3: Ends with a vowel other than -a
    Example) sy (sew): present form syr, past form sydde ・ Perfect participle ha sytt ・ Past participle sydd


speakerpopulationThere are few, but in the area where it is spokenareaDepending on the size ofdialectIs diverse.As a dialect where non-speakers can clearly hear the differenceSkane(Swedish version,English edition[Note 2],Swedish FinnishSpeaks(Swedish version,English editionCan be mentioned. Also,GutnishMay be treated as a Swedish dialect[Note 3].ノルウェーCloser area,Dalarna region,NorrbottenThere are also differences in such things.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ As an example, some races appearing in the famous novel "Moomin" series (originally written in Swedish) in Japan have a mixture of "Hemul" and "Hemulen", but this is an indefinite "Hemulen". Because "Hemul" and the fixed form "Hemulen" ("The Hemul" in English style) are written as they are.
  2. ^ SkaneHistoricallyデンマークIn areas that were part of the Skåne dialect with SwedishDanish OfDialect continuumAlthough it is located in the middle of, it is often treated as a Swedish dialect. There is a large difference in pronunciation of "R" and "O" from standard Swedish.
  3. ^ 現代 のGutnish(Or the Gotland dialect) is strongly influenced by Standard Swedish.



  • Yasufumi Yamashita "Swedish Grammar" Daigaku Syorin 1990 First Edition ISBN-4 475 01753-X-
  • Yoshi Ozaki, Michio Tanaka, Seiji Shimomura, Tatsuo Takeda "Swedish Dictionary" Daigaku Syorin 1990 First Edition ISBN-4 475-00121-8
  • Alan Kirker, Birgitta Lindgren, Stole Lelan ed., "Language of Scandinavia" Tokai University Press 2002 First Edition ISBN-4 486-01533-9
  • Per Hedelin & Claes-Christian Elert (1997). Norstedts svenska uttalslexikon, Norstedts Förlag. ISBN-91 1-971122-0

Related item

  • IKEA ――All the products sold have Swedish names.

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