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🎥 | Shoot in a cave! "Rurouni Kenshin Final Chapter The Beginning" Location Summary


Taken in a cave! "Rurouni Kenshin Final Chapter The Beginning" Location Summary

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The picture taken here is a scene in which the Shinsengumi rushes in and out of the tunsho.

The second part of the final chapter of the movie "Rurouni Kenshin" series, "Rurouni Kenshin Final Chapter The Beginning" ... → Continue reading

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Of this articleitem nameHas the following notational fluctuations. (Past discussion)
  • Shinsengumi
  • Shinsengumi

Shinsengumi(Shinsengumi)Edo PeriodTerminal stage (Bakumatsu)of京都でSecurityActivities, especiallySonnōAspirant OfCrackdownI did an activityRoninIs a corps[1][2].

About the name

"Selection"wordIs sometimes written as "sen", and "ShinsengumiWas writtenhistorical dataThere is also.ShinsengumiSecretaryIsamu KondoBoth letters are used in the letters left by the soldiers, including[3]..Since the characters "Shinsengumi" are used in the documents with the official seal of the corps, the notation of "Shinsengumi" has been increasing in high school Japanese history textbooks since around 2004.[3].


Bakumatsu Of京都 ThePoliticsIt is the center and variousClanからReverence-Overthrow movement OfAspirantHave been gathering together to maintain the security of Kyoto.Kyoto officeとKyoto Town MagistrateJudging that it cannot be prevented by itselfShogunateIt is,Kiyokawa HachiroI planned to form a Roshigumi with a dedication by.

After recruiting in Edo, I moved to Kyo.However, I learned the intention (described later) in Kiyokawa's speech.Isamu Kondo,Serizawa duckRepulsion,Kyoto guardian OfAizu Domainmain·Matsudaira YohoIt was established as a Shinsengumi under the patronage of.

Under similar subordinatesKyoto mimaki group Retainer(Flag book,Lord) Was a regular organization, while the ShinsengumiRonin(Tradesman,農民It was a non-regular organization called "Aizu Clan Custody" composed of (including status).

The number of members is the predecessorMibu RoushigumiIt started with 24 people and exceeded 200 people at the peak of the Shinsengumi.Repressed the Joi faction in Kyoto[2][1].BusinessmenForcibly provide funds fromCorps rulesViolatorsPurge one after anotherTo doInternal conflictWas repeated.

Keio3 years(1867)6ToRetainerIt is collected in.In the next yearBoshin WarWhen it starts, the oldShogunate armyI changed the battle according toBattle of Toba and FushimiAfter being defeated byKoshuIn KatsunumaItagaki RetirementLeadShuntaiDefeated by and defeated[2]..Isami Kondo, the director, was capturedDecapitationWas punished by[1].



Bunkyu2 years(1862),Edo Shogunate TheShonai DomainSquire-Kiyokawa HachiroAccepting the dedication ofGeneral-Tokugawa Igemo OfSuperiorityAt that time, the shogunGuardIn the name ofRoninWanted.

Next Bunkyu 3 years (1863) In February, about 2 ronin gathered before Shogun Kamiraku.RoshigumiFormed a group asNakasendoGo west.For the Ronin director,Sosuke Matsudaira,Udono Kyuoh,Kubota Zhenkatsu,Yamaoka Tetsutaro,Man Matsuoka,Kinnosuke Nakajo,Sasaki TadaburoHave been appointed.

京都After arriving at, KiyokawaEmperorCommunicate with the forces, the RoshigumiEmperorA plan to make it a subordinate force is discovered.As a result of discussions with the Ronin directors, the Ronin group decided to prevent Kiyokawa's plan.EdoIt was decided to return to.On the other handIsamu Kondo,Toshizo HijikataCentered onTrial buildingWith the factionSerizawa duckCentered onMitoThe faction insisted that Kyoto remain for the protection of the shogun.

Udono Kyuoh is a member of the RoshigumiYoshio TonouchiとJiro IesatoInstructed to recruit survivors.In response to this, the trial hall group, the Mito group, the tunchi and below,Tomoyama NegishiA group of people in KyotoMibu VillageHowever, the Negishi faction left the army immediately afterwards.The tunchi and Iesato were excluded, and the same year3,Public military coalitionbased onArrogant"The predecessor of the Shinsengumi," with the aim of helping to realize the decisive actionMibu Roushigumi"(Seichu Roshigumi) was formed.On the other hand, the members who returned to EdoNew collectionWas formed.

The Mibu Roushigumi is from Mibu VillageYagi HouseMansion in and aroundTonshoAnd recruit the first soldiers.As a result, it became a group of about 36 people.Kyoto guardian OfMatsudaira YohoFrom the crackdown on the Ronin and the citysecurityIs entrusted with.

4,Osaka OfMoney changerHiranoya Gobei 100BothAnd get thisCorps clothing,Corps flagAlign,Corps rulesStart to enact.

6,Osaka Sumo OfWrestlerAnd killed in a brawl.The Mibu Roushigumi was also injured.BugyoshoJudges that there is something wrong with the wrestlers.The sumo wrestlers apologize for giving 50 cars to the Mibu Roushigumi.

8, Serizawa Kamo and other 30 soldiers from KyotoRaw silkWholesalerArson was angry that Yamatoya Shobei had abandoned the money plan.Pull out the swordFire extinguishingKeep away from it and burn it overnight.It is said that Matsudaira Katamori was indignant at this incident and called Kondo and others to take action.As one theory, there are negative views on the involvement of Serizawa and the Mibu Roushigumi.[4]However, there are many rumors that describe the name of the Roshigumi, and there is a theory that they were burned.[5][6].

In the same month, the Mibu RoushigumiAugust XNUMX political changeDispatched to the security of the, and its work is evaluated.Then, a new corps name "Shinsengumi" is appointed.The corps name isSamurai Denso[7] There are two theories, one is that it was given by Matsudaira Katamori and the other is that it was given by Matsudaira Katamori.The latter theory is the Aizu feudal lordHonjinIt means that I got the name of the guard unit from Katamori.

9, Kondo, Hijikata and others at the Yagi Mansion Serizawa KamoGoro HirayamaAssassinated.Shigesuke HiramaEscape,Kenji Noguchi The12ToAccused..The Mito faction was wiped out, and the trial hall faction took control of the group and established an organization with Kondo at the top.


MotoharuNew Year (1864)May 6,Ikedaya IncidentKilled and captured the Joi sect.8,ForbiddenParticipated in the suppression of.

Due to the Ikedaya incident and the Kinmon IncidentImperial court・ From the Shogunate / Aizu clanImpressionAnd about 200 carsrewardIn the same year9It was decided to recruit the second soldiers.Hijikata, Saito, Ito, because the name recognition of the Shinsengumi was rising in the Ikedaya incident.Heisuke TodoAnd other executives headed directly to Edo to visit the swordsmanship dojo, etc.Koutaro ItoIt was confirmed that they succeeded in attracting these factions and returned to Kyoto with 32 people in May of the following year.[8]..Through these activities, the Shinsengumi has been increased to 200 people, and from Mibu Tonsho to accommodate the soldiers.Nishi HonganjiRelocate to.

Choshu conquestOn the battlefield in preparation for participation inCommandThe order becomes clearplatoonSystem (XNUMX program to XNUMX programs andSmall cargo miscellaneous goods). The "military law" was also enacted.However, there was no order to dispatch to the Shinsengumi.

Keio3 years(1867)3, Ito Kashitaro and other factions have different ideasGoryo GuardianFormed and withdrew.same year6, ShinsengumiRetainerIt is collected in.same year11, Raid the Imperial Guard and assassinate Ito and others (Aburanokoji Incident).


3rd year of Keio (1867)10ShogunYoshiki Tokugawa ResignationWas done.Shinsengumi is oldShogunate armyin accordance withBoshin WarParticipate in, but in the first matchBattle of Toba and FushimiでNew Government ArmyDefeated.Takeaki EnomotoOwned by the ShogunatewarshipWithdraw to Edo.During this period, soldiers who realized the disadvantage of the battlefield continuedEscapeHowever, the strength has decreased.

After that, the shogunate gave him a mission to prevent the new government army from advancing to Kofu.Koyo ZhentaiRenamedKoshu HighwayTheKofu CastleAdvance to, but on the wayBattle of Koshu KatsunumaInItagaki RetirementLeadShuntaiTo be defeated.I returned to Edo again, but due to a difference in policyNagakura Shinpachi,Sanosuke HaradaThey left the armyYasushi CorpsFormed.Kondo, Hijikata and others are trying to come backNagareyamaKondo is captured by the new government armyExecutionAndOkita SojiWas also illtuberculosisDied in Edo.In addition, Harada who returned to Edo due to various reasonsHonorable partyJoined,Ueno WarHe died in the war (there are various theories).

ShinsengumiBattle of Utsunomiya,Aizu WarParticipate in, etc.AizuThen.Hajime SaitoThey left the army and remained.The remaining soldiersEzoJoined Enomoto and others who headed forBattle of FutamataActive in (Republic of EzoSee also).The new government armyHakodateIs marching toBenten DaibaHijikata and several others went to help the soldiers who were fighting the new government army, but Hijikata was killed in action by a bullet and the food and water were exhausted, so the ShinsengumiSurrenderdid.The former Shogunate army is in HakodateGoryokakuSurrendered to the new government army inHakodate War).

Meiji governmentBanned the bereaved families of the soldiers from possessing the relics.

Transition of evaluation

MeijiThe era was hostile to the ShinsengumiChiefThe fact that the graduate was in control of politicsImperial historyDue toBanditsThere is a strong tendency to deny the ShinsengumiHistoriographyResearch was delayed.In addition, it is well known that there were frequent uproars in the city, and internal conflicts and purges occurred frequently, and those who knew the time had the image of an armed group with bad behavior.

TaishoIn the ageJiro ObutsuThe novel "Kurama Tengu』But the Shinsengumi悪 役It is drawn as.However, in this eraTalkDue to the influence of, it is popular among the common people, and even in "Kurama Tengu"Isamu KondoOnly was portrayed as a master of personality, unlike other soldiers.

In the Taisho era,New selection group details"ButOtaru newspaperSerialized inShowa3 years(1928) ToShinsengumi Chronicles』(Kan Shimozawa), “” (Michio Hirao) Was published, the Shinsengumi began to be re-evaluated.Showa 8 (Showa XNUMX)1933),Metropolitan Police DepartmentWas founded inSpecial guard(Currently the Metropolitan Police Departmentriot police) Was popularly known as the "Showa Shinsengumi".Pacific WarInsidearmy(2st captain / lieutenant colonel, XNUMXnd captain / major)NavyOrganized byXNUMXrd XNUMX Navy Air CorpsCombat XNUMX Squadron (Captain, CaptainNaoshi KannoCaptain) is also called "Shinsengumi".

After the warIn movies and TV dramas, the Shinsengumi is often treated as the leading role, and each soldier is also spotlighted.Broadcasted in the 40's, "Shinsengumi blood record], [Burn sword』(Ryotaro ShibaOriginal,Asahi Kurizukastarring)"Mibu Yoshishiden』(Jiro AsadaThe original) caused a boom in the Shinsengumi.

Chronological Table

Bunkyu 3 (1863)

4th year of Bunkyu, 1864st year of Genji (XNUMX)

2nd year of Genji, 1865st year of Keio (XNUMX)

2rd year of Keio (1866)

3rd year of Keio (1867)

4th year of Keio, 1868st year of Meiji (XNUMX)


Real image

Enlistment qualification

There are no restrictions on age or status, and any healthy person with the aspirations of a nation can join the army.[11].Practical skillThere was no exam[12][13]..However, married people have wives and childrenMibu10 from the tunshoinThe condition was to live in a place more than (about 40 km) away.This is because the Shinsengumi is a manTraining campIt is thought that this is to prevent the wife and child from losing their lives due to the fact that they are in control.ExecutiveIf you are promoted to, you will have a house in Kyoto, and your wife and childrenconcubineWas allowed to meet.

I had an exchange with the ShinsengumiKuninori KataAccording to the memoir, it is called "temporary comrade" for a certain period after joining the army.Trial periodIt is said that the senior soldiers pushed in at night and the courage was tested, and those who behaved timidly at this time were banished.[14].


Fugaku who is active in KyotoRonin,RetreatAspirant Ofsearch-Captivity, Patrol of the area in chargesecurity,Escort guardSuch,PolicemenThe activity was a mission.

Due to the influence of many fiction works described later, there is a strong image that it is a "human slashing group" that slashed the ronin, but in reality it is a principle of capture (live capture), and it was slashed only when the criminal resisted and could not be captured.[15].Ikedaya IncidentAt first, the number of enemies exceeded, so I fought with a policy of slashing.HijikataWhen the corps arrives and the Shinsengumi gains an advantage, the policy is changed to capture[16][17]..After the incidentIsamu KondoReported that "seven defeated, four injured, and twenty-three summoned" (killed seven, injured four, and arrested 7).[18].

The area in charge of the Shinsengumi isGion,FushimiAndImperial Palace,Government district TheAizu Domain1,000 soldiers, aroundKyoto mimaki group500 people were solidified.TraditionalKyoto officeとKyoto Town MagistrateWas also involved in maintaining security.Other organizationsjurisdictionIt is said that the Shinsengumi often broke their jurisdiction because of the escape of the Ronin.

In movies and TV dramas, the Shinsengumi are often seen patrolling in groups with the corps flag at the head, but there is no such sighting record.[19].


1865(KeioFirst year)Shooting sword,Jiu Jitsu,literature,Gunnery,Equestrian,Spear artEach ofTeacherWas provided.However, it is not clear how long it was operating[20].

SecretaryIsamu Kondo, Deputy captainToshizo Hijikata, Ichiban Team LeaderOkita SojiThe representative of the ShinsengumiNatural reasonTrial buildingBecause he was a swordsman of the Shinsengumi, Tennen Rishin-ryu is famous as a swordsman related to the Shinsengumi, but other soldiersShindo Munenryu,Hokushin Ittou styleOthers are mixed, not Shinsengumi equals Tennen Rishin-ryu[21]..Of the seven sword masters, one is Tennen Rishin-ryu (Soji Okita).GenreAnd if the enlistment time is differentRehearsalBecause you can't do itBamboo sword driving practiceWas limited to[21]..The training seemed to be quite intense, and the Shinsengumi was stationed there.Yagi HouseIt is said that he often saw those who were overthrown and stuck.In addition, Isami Kondo and Kamo Serizawa often sat at high places to watch, but Toshizo Hijikata always wore his body and sweated while scolding him for being "light and light."[22].

Of the Boshin WarBattle of Toba and FushimiでNew Government ArmyHijikata said, "I can't do anything if I don't use a gun. I wear a sword and take a spear, and I can't use anything."[23] AndBattle of Koshu KatsunumaLed by KondoKoyo Zhentai ShuntaiFrom the case of losing in just 2 hours toMelee battleOften have the image of a group specializing inShogunate armyFollowFrench styleMilitary trainingWas going on.Nishi HonganjiIn the precinctsCannon,rifleNishi Honganji, who was annoyed by the sound of the gun, petitioned the Aizu clan to stop the training.afterwards,MibuderaThe training site was moved to, but the training hindered the worshipers, causing damage such as damage to the temple due to the sound of the cannon.


To strengthen organizational strength#PositionIs providedCommandCreated a command system.

TacticsAlways faced with more people than the enemy, surrounded by a group and attacked.For exampleSanjo Seisatsu IncidentNow, prepare 8 allies against 34 enemies,Aburanokoji IncidentThen, 7 or 35 people attacked 6 enemies.[24]..In addition, a person in charge of rushing called "death turn"rotationI decided in advance so that even if an incident suddenly occurs, I can deal with it without fear.

Clothing / equipment

Initially,cuffThe Yamagata pattern (Dandara pattern) was dyed white.Light green(light blue)ofHaoriIt is said that he was wearing.Haori's Dandara is a performance such as Kabuki.Chushingura"soAko Roushi Enter the Kira residenceThe pattern of the haori that I wore when I did it (but not historical fact)Ako incidentAsagi-iro is the one that spread through the creation based onsamurai OfCostume to deathIs the color of.It was made by Kagamiya Kimono Store (currentlyDaimaru).According to one theory, it is also called "Hishiya", a kimono shop in Shijo, not a capital letter shop.

Dandara Haori seems to have been abolished in the first year or so,Ikedaya IncidentThe testimony that he wore at that time is the last record.The clothes of the soldiers witnessed two days after the Ikedaya incident are dressedundershirt, KusutakaHakama,Navy blue Ofgaiter,rearheadband,WhiteSquirrelMet[25]..Was followed by the ShinsengumiOmura DomainMaster/Watanabe NoboruAccording to the report, if the follower was a black robe or black hakama, it was immediately found to be a Shinsengumi.Also,MeijiOld man at the end, Shinsengumi is blackRashaTube sleeveIt is probable that he was all black after the abolition of Dandara Haori, as he testified that he wore the Jin Haori.

For security and combatPot metal,Chainmail,gauntlet,TorsoSuch asArmorWas attached.Weapons assume urban warfareKnifeとShort spearMet.Isami Kondo, the directorKnifeAlmost the same length asWakizashiI liked it.Deputy chief Hijikata Toshizo also has a blade length of 2Shaku8Size OfMamoru Izumi, 1 shaku 9 inch 5Minute OfHorikawa KunihiroI was using the sword.

Battle of Toba and FushimiでNew Government ArmyHijikata immediately after losing toAizu DomainTo 2,000BothIt is highly possible that it was used for new-style military equipment.[23].

Corps flag

"Red"On the groundFriLetter orwhiteIt is common to use a corps flag that dyes "Makoto" with letters and says that it contains Dandara in the same way as corps clothing.It is said that there are 6 types in all.CurrentTakashimayaHitOld clothes-cottonIt is custom-made by a quotient.When the flag appeared, the enemy was said to have frozen in fear.

Since the flag of the Shinsengumi was "Makoto", Isami Kondo's parents' homeTrial buildingThere is also a theory that it is supposed to be an error of "Seieikan".[Source required].


At the beginning of the formation, financial difficulties were difficult, and the supporters of the ShinsengumiHikogoro SatoBecause the support from was not enoughBusinessmenIs reported to have provided funding from[26].

Kyoto guardianIn the subordinate eraAizu DomainfromMoneyIt was covered by.afterwards,ShogunateWhen they became subordinates, each soldier received a salary from the shogunate. "Shinsengumi Nagakura Shinpachi" (Showa 2 YearAccording to my private book)Secretary50Both, Deputy Chief 40 cars,Deputy chief assistantIt is said that the monthly salary was 30 cars and 10 flat soldiers, but it is thought that it was actually less than that.[27]..Rewards, etc. for dispatching to various incidentsrewardWas sometimes given.

Bureau law, purge

In order to control the Ronin group, which is the people of Karasui, we have established a corps rule commonly referred to as the "Chuchu Hosho" (Bokuchu Hosho).The corps rules are strictly enforced, and the violating memberspurgeWas done.The establishment isAizu DomainBecame a custodyRoshigumiEra (Bunkyu3 years/1863) To Kondo et al.Trial buildingFrom the faction Serizawa et al.MitoIt is believed to have been presented to the faction.Natural reasonBe made to pledge when getting started withShinbunchoThe similarity with is also pointed out.

LawIt started to function as "Shinsengumi" after the name was changed and the organization centered on Kondo and Hijikata was established.Koutaro ItoEven during the assassination of the groupBe applicableIt is said that it was done.First article"ShidoThe content is abstract, such as "Two backs"InterpretationWas left to the existence of the director and deputy director.

One, swordsmanship
(BushidoDo not act against
One, the station is not allowed
(Withdrawal from Shinsengumi is not allowed)
One, no selfish money plan
(Do not borrow without permission)
I cannot handle proceedings without permission
(Do not participate in proceedings without permission)
I'm not allowed to struggle
(Do not have a personal conflict)
Right-handed person with seppuku
(For those who violate any of the aboveAccused(Shall be handed over)

Hiroshi Kozawa Showa3 years(1928)Shinsengumi ChroniclesIt has become famous since it was introduced in 』, and it is known as the above five articles, but at the same timehistorical dataNo record of all this has been found so far.Nagakura Shinpachi Taisho2 years(1913)'S article (""New selection group details]), Only four articles are presented, excluding "I am not allowed to struggle", and the name is not "the bureaucratic law" but only "prohibition" and "decree".Therefore, it is presumed that Kan Shimozawa dramatized the above five articles and the name "Bureau Chuho" by mixing the separately defined "Military Honor".

Battle of Toba and FushimiIn the previous 5 yearsDead inside the ShinsengumiUp to 45 people[28]..Looking at the breakdown, the number of deaths due to the battle with the Shishi was 6[29], Most othersAccused,assassinationSuch aspurgeIt was entwined.As far as the records are concerned, the Shinsengumi have mutual distrust within their own organization.Internal conflictThere were far more comrades killed than enemies at the end of the day.[30].


The top isSecretary..Assist the director directly underneathDeputy captainThere is, and below thatDeputy chief assistant,Inspector General(Inspector General),Account(AccountingIn charge) etc.PositionWas provided.The deputy chief assistant commanded the flat soldiers as the leader.Each corps has 10 to XNUMX programs, and each person has XNUMX people.A corporal was placed under the group leader.In principle, the organization of Shinsengumi is a multiple system of duties.Edo PeriodUnlike each organization in the above, it is a one-person system, and the influence of the Western military system has been pointed out.

Members below.Before using the name of the Shinsengumi (Mibu Roushigumi) Is also included.

List of soldiers

Successive directors

Aizu Shinsengumi Director

Hakodate Shinsengumi Director



Successive Deputy Chiefs

Kumigashira / Kumigashira / Deputy Chief Assistant

~1864Kumigashira at the time of formation

Interrogator and Inspector General / Ronin




Initial Deputy Chief Assistant

State detective

Bunbu Shihan

Comrades and comrades

Soldiers other than the followingCategory: ShinsengumiSee.

Five beautiful men

Self-proclaimed Shinsengumi members, related parties, etc.

Comrades of the Mibu Roushigumi

Hakodate Shinsengumi

One squad
  • Difference figure
  • Leader,
One squad flat soldier
Two squads
Two Squad Flats
Three squads
  • Difference figure
  • Leader,
Three Squad Flats
XNUMXth Squad Flat
Unknown affiliation
Flat soldier

Works on the theme of Shinsengumi

There are many creative works as models and works that appear as bit parts.Only those with the theme of Shinsengumi are listed here.Category: Works based on ShinsengumiSee also



TV drama


Drama CD

  • "" (Rejet) Situation CD with the theme of Shinsengumi.
  • "Shinsengumi Drama CD Mibu Wolf Shinden" (Platinum Record) A full-scale period drama CD that draws the flow of historical facts into the story by reading aloud.
  • "Shinsengumi Hokushoden Shinsei Fall(TMS Music) A situation CD that develops in line with historical facts based on the theme of Shinsengumi after the Meiji Restoration.






[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia Shinsengumi (Kotobank)
  2. ^ a b c Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia Shinsengumi (Kotobank)
  3. ^ a b Tomomi Sasaki (May 2010, 5). "Shinsengumi" Kanji for "Sen". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2018, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180609045348/https://style.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDB2600B_W0A420C1000000 2017/11/17Browse. 
  4. ^ Masato Miyachi"New selection group in history",Iwanami Shoten
  5. ^ Hakone Kichiya "The Truth about the Yamatoya Burning Case" "Tamatsukuri History Collection 61"
  6. ^ Toshihisa Todo (2019). “Critique of Shinsengumi Research and Yamatoya Yakiuchi Case”. Bulletin of Ryozen Museum 24. 
  7. ^ At that timeMasanori Asukai.
  8. ^ Forgotten items of Shinsengumi Kusatsu-juku Honjin Shiga - NHK
  9. ^ "Shinsengumi "Rakuchu's Last Base" Settled in Controversy? Description of "Nishi Kujo Village" in Nishi Honganji Ancient Documents”. Kyoto Shimbun (June 2020, 6). 2020/6/7Browse.
  10. ^ There is a survival theory about Todo
  11. ^ Akira Kikuchi "The Truth of the New Selection Group",PHP Institute 79 page
  12. ^ Akira Kikuchi, "The Truth about Shinsengumi," PHP Institute, p. 194
  13. ^ new·Historical groupSeries "Hijikata Toshizo",Gakken 84 page
  14. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, pp. 83-84
  15. ^ Seiro Ito "What was the Shinsengumi doing in Kyoto?",KTC Central Publishing 308 page
  16. ^ Akira Kikuchi, "The Truth about Shinsengumi," PHP Institute, p. 27
  17. ^ History group image series "Illustration / Shinsengumi historic site travelogue", Gakken, page 74
  18. ^ Seiro Ito, "What was the Shinsengumi doing in Kyoto?", KTC Chuoh Publishing, p. 144
  19. ^ Akira Kikuchi, "The Truth about Shinsengumi," PHP Institute, p. 188
  20. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, page 84
  21. ^ a b Jun Osano "Illustrated Martial Arts Dictionary",Shinkigensha Page 152 "Shinsengumi and Martial Arts"
  22. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, page 82
  23. ^ a b New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, page 128
  24. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, pp. 84-85
  25. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, page 126
  26. ^ Special display Shinsengumi-The real image of the Shinsengumi told by historical materials- Kyoto National Museum
  27. ^ Akira Kikuchi, "The Truth about Shinsengumi," PHP Institute, pp. 199-200
  28. ^ Akira Kikuchi, "The Truth about Shinsengumi," PHP Institute, p. 209
  29. ^ New historical group image series "Hijikata Toshizo", Gakken, page 89
  30. ^ Seiro Ito, "What was the Shinsengumi doing in Kyoto?", KTC Chuoh Publishing, pp. 308-309
  31. ^ "Shinsengumi staff member Ito Kashitaro finds a picture showing his birthplace”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (June 2020, 12). As of June 5, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/3/16Browse.


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