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Deprived baby ... Stepping into the darkness of an infant trading organization Notice of the Academy Awards Peruvian masterpiece "Song without a Name"

 
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In despair, Heorhina visited a newspaper company and directly complained that her daughter had been stolen.
 

The movie "Nameless Song" based on the true story selected for the 92nd Academy Awards Peru National Team will be released from July 7st ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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News (Chinese)

News (Chinese)(Shinbun,British: newspaper) Is the general social situation (NEWS) Or to report events in a specific field and to be widely read by the target audience.Periodical publicationIt is a paper medium.

newspaperIt is printed on low-quality paper called "," and sold in a folded state.

Overview

Newspapers worldwideEventFrom home and abroad, within the region, and evenBoardVarious means have been issued as means for transmitting information, such as inside the. Among them, newspapers called newspaper publishersNews reportA company organization specialized inNews agencyThe newspapers issued by the company have a wide range of influence of information, and their influence is almost proportional to the number of circulation. It may exist within a small community, for example, it is issued in school classes and club activities.Class newspaper,Student newspaper, Local public relations issued in the area. Newspapertv set-radio-magazineと と も にFour mediaAnd is typicalMass mediaIs one of the[1].

The newspaper is characterized by including various information within the range of handling, and it is emphasized that it is widely read in the target group and that it is sequential and quick. Even if it is the same paper medium in that it has a mission to transmit information, it has a strong personalityBook,magazineIs very different from. Therefore, the quality of the paper used is poor and the storability is low.

radio-TV broadcast,インターネットIn a modern society where people have developed, the status as an information medium is still unwavering due to the fact that it is easy to handle for users and has a high degree of commonality, despite the fact that it is in a slump and has no advantage due to its promptness. Is still one of the leading means to obtain cheap and diverse information forRailway station,Shop・You can see how they are sold or posted on the street.

Sort

Newspapers are classified into various types according to the publishing interval, distribution area, and content.

Publication interval

In terms of publication interval classification, the most common is the daily newspaper. Daily newspapers are divided into morning newspapers and evening newspapers depending on the time of publication, but many newspaper publishers like JapanMorning newspaperとEvening paperSome countries also issue[2].. However, even in Japan, there are newspapers in the morning and evening only, and the number of newspaper publishers that have issued few morning editions due to business difficulties and have only issued morning editions has increased since the 2000s.[3]. AlsoUNESCOAccording to the standard, daily newspapers do not necessarily have to be published daily, and newspapers that are published four or more times a week are treated as daily newspapers.[4][5].. In addition, there are weekly newspapers, seasonal newspapers (three times a month), monthly newspapers and quarterly newspapers.

Distribution area

In the distribution area, Japanese newspapers are bigNational newspaper,Block paper,Local newspaperIt is classified into three. National newspapers are published literally for the entire country, and in JapanYomiuri Shimbun,Asahi Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Nihon Keizai Shimbun,Sankei Shimbun5 companies of[6](However, the Sankei Shimbun plans to reduce its sales network to the Kanto and Kinki regions only by October 2020.[7][8][9]And it will not meet the requirements of national newspapers).Strictly speaking, block newspapers are included in local newspapers, but they refer to those that target wide-area regional areas that span multiple prefectures.Tokai region OfChunichi Shimbun,Hokkaido region OfHokkaido Shimbun,Kyushu region OfWest Japan Newspaper3 companies[10],AlsoTohoku region OfKahoku Shimpo,Chugoku OfChinese newspaperMay be added. Local newspapers are newspapers targeted at one prefecture or a smaller area.[11]Then, the ones that target one prefecture are called prefectural newspapers, and the newspapers in smaller areas are called regional newspapers. Before World War II, there were more than 1400 newspapers, but it took place between 1938 and 1943.Newspaper controlAs a result, each company was integrated by prefecture, and a "one prefecture, one paper" system was established in which one newspaper was placed in one prefecture.[12].. Several newspapers were newly launched after the war[13]However, this system basically continues to exist after that.

This division of national newspapers and local newspapers exists outside Japan. In the UKThe TimesA national newspaper based in London and other regional newspapers coexist.[14].. On the other hand, because of the vast land area in the United States, national newspapersWall Street JournalとUSA TodayNo more than 2 sheets of paper,New York Times,Washington PostA large number of local newspapers are distributed in each region, from large-scale ones to small ones in rural towns. However, it is rare for two or more companies to compete in many regions, and there is only one newspaper in each region except for large cities.[15].

Message

Regarding the content of publication, many newspapers are general newspapers that handle news in general without any specialization. On the other hand, there are newspapers that specialize only in specific industries and fields.Specialty paperOr called an industry paper. in Japansports newspaper TheSportsAroundEntertainment,leisureな どEntertainmentA newspaper that mainly deals with related matters in other countriestabloidIt is almost equivalent to paper (tabloid). As another special thingPublic competition OfRaceTo anticipateForecast paperAlso exists.Political partyIssued by organizations such as and various organizations for membersEngine paperHas also been published in large numbers.

Of the general newspapers, those for the upper class and intellectual class are called high-class newspapers, and newspapers with sensational content for the masses are called tabloids. The distinction between high-end and tabloids is very clear in the UK.[16]However, in the United States, there are few clear tabloids, and newspapers with calm coverage are the mainstream as a whole.[17].

Format

Newspapers are the size of the paper (Format) Is also classified into several categories. Basically, it is divided into large and small formats, and the large ones are the broadsheet format (375 mm x 600 mm), which is widely used in general British paper, and most domestic general paper, which is unique to Japan. AdoptedBlanket size[18]There are several formats such as (406mm x 545mm). The most commonly used small formatTabloid version(235 x 315 mm or 285 x 400 mm). Since the tabloid version is widely used by popular newspapers including the United Kingdom, the popular newspaper is also called tabloid. Japan also,Evening Fuji,Daily GendaiSome evening sports newspapers like this use tabloids.[19].. In addition, it is located between the twoBerlinerMany newspaper companies use (315mm x 470mm).

Others

General newspapers are sold commercially by newspaper companies for a fee, but in large numbersFree newspaperIn some countries.Student newspaperThere are also free papers published within a small community, such as. Also"Big issueTo provide support and employment to the poor, such asStreet newspaperHas been published in large numbers since the 1990s.

In addition, "The Mainichi Newspapers published"Braille every dayIsBrailleIs a weekly newspaper published in[20].

History

Prehistory

During the Roman EmpireActa Diurna[21][22]Is handwrittenOfficial gazetteExisted as. China as a paper product唐Teenager713 - 734Made around the time(English edition)』Existed. 16th centuryLetterpressWas made possible, and villas and pamphlet-style prints describing the news were published in Germany ((German version)Such). These were irregular.

Modern

1605, The world's first weekly newspaper "RelationBut in Strasbourg(English edition)First published by[23], 1650, the world's first daily newspaper ["(German version)"[24](6 days a week) was launched[22]. In the mid 17th century, news books began to be published regularly. Especially in the UKPuritan Revolution,Honorary revolutionThrough the development of news publishing, daily newspapers and local weekly newspapers have also been published. In the 18th century, you can read all kinds of newspapersCoffee houseHas appeared. Wealthy business manBourgeoisieHave a political debate based on a newspapersalonFormed a platform as well.

In the 18th century, when newspapers became popular,American Revolutionary War,French RevolutionSuch asCivil revolutionHowever, newspapers played a major role in the formation of public opinion in the process, and in the newly established government,LibertyLegally as part ofFreedom of speechCame to be recognized[25].

In the West, in the 19th centuryIndustrial revolutionDue to the increase in urban population and social changes due to[26]. In the 1830s in the United StatesThe Sun, And cheap newspapers called Penny Press became popular.[27]. In 1868, the British Times adopted a web-fed rotary press.[28]. Popular newspapers like the Sunday newspaper have grown,PrinterDevelopment and adoption of roll paper,AdsBy postingWorkerIt became possible to sell at a low price to the class[29].1884ToOttomar margenthaler RhinotypeThe inventor of a so-called plant-casting machine, which enabled printing presses to cast a whole type on a line-by-line basis, improved the printing speed and cost of newspapers and made it possible to publish newspapers at a lower cost.[30]. In 1880, the world's first newspaper containing a photo version was published in the United States[28]. At the end of the 19th century,Joseph PulitzerLed "New York World』\ Like paperSensationalismNewspapers that emphasize entertainment[31]When,"New York TimesLike paper (apart from objectivity)[32]) Two streams of newspapers dedicated to transmitting information appeared[33].

So the emergence of modern newspapersIndustrial revolutionFrom Europe onwards, it became a major player in supporting the industry. This is laterMass marketingIt has also come to be used as a part of the method of, and has come to play a role in the advertising activities of companies.

In Japan during the Edo periodTile versionThere is aWoodcutIt was printed and issued. The oldest existing tile versionOsaka team(1614 - 1615) Is an article. At the end of the Edo period, some newspapers began to be published,1862The first newspaper, "Kitaita Batabiya Shimbun,"1870"Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun," the first daily newspaper in Japan, was launched[34].

Since then, newspapers have spread to all over the world and have become one of the important mass media, but with the advent of the Internet in the latter half of the 1990s, the number of copies has advanced in developed countries, which has forced a major qualitative shift. It was

Etymology

The word "newspaper" is not found in ancient Japanese. The first occurrence of this word isNorthern Song DynastyA history book of the Tang Dynasty, compiled in the timesNew tang bookIt is said that. There is a list of books written in the Tang dynasty in "Teibunshi" of "Shintosho", but in that, it says "There are three volumes of "Nanso Shimbun" in the late commander." The term "newspaper" used here meant "fumon" or "news" in Japanese today. "Newspaper" in this definition isclearIt was also written in the generations. For example,Emperor QianlongWas compiled byAll four booksIn "Summou Shimbun", we introduce the book "Shikuma newspaper" written by Seisuke Wei. This is a collection of miscellaneous theories from various books like the current weekly magazine,Way of yin and yangThe story,Li ZichengTurbulenceRyukyu KingdomAlthough there are many false articles and so-called skipped articles in modern times, the editor of "Shinko Zensho Somokudai" criticized that "the editing policy is messed up and there are XNUMX mistakes" doing.

At the end of the Qing dynasty, Westernersnewspaper", and when the local Chinese imitated this and published a newspaper,News (Chinese)With the word "newspaperWas called.ChineseNow, even in the 21st century,News (Chinese)" News Used in the sense of[35]On the TVNews programAlso used for titles such as. In addition, in Chinese newspaper Is "newspaperIt is. on the other hand,KoreanThen in the "newspaper"HangulThe notation "신문" is "newspaperMeans.

The Japanese word for English was "NewsThis Chinese is adopted as a translation equivalent to ","NewsToNews (Chinese)","newspaperTonewspaperIt came to be called.Natsume SosekiIn the novel newspaper Is a newspaper, and even among those written in the early Showa period,newspaper Are called newspapers.Newspaper regulations,Newspaper law“Newspaper” such asnewspaperMeans.

After that, "newspaper" was abbreviated as "newspaper." Along with that, "newspaper"newspaperIs used less and has come to refer to the paper itself.[36].. On the other hand, the kanji “paper” is sometimes used to mean “newspaper”, such as “daily newspaper”, “national paper”, and “each paper”.

In modern EnglishnewspaperTopaper"" may be abbreviated ("today's paper= "Today's newspaper").

For company names and paper names of newspaper companiescitizenIs a public office in ancient Rome in the sense of protecting the rights ofCivilian"Tribune" ("Chicago Tribune"Such)[37],Imperial Mail(Holy Roman Empire) Originated from the fact that he issued his own newspaper (“Post” (“Washington Post"Such)[38]Reflects societymirrorMeaning "mirror" ("Daily mirror] Etc.) are selected[39].

Production process

The process of producing a newspaper is roughly as follows.

  1. Planning/concept
  2. Interview/shoot
  3. Article writing
  4. Manuscript check
  5. Review-sometimes after layout
  6. Layout-Headline production and value judgment are also performed
  7. Editing/allocation/typesetting
  8. Proofreading
  9. Film and plate production
  10. Print
  11. Packing/shipping

First of all, newspaper production記者It begins with interviewing and writing an article. If you want to report the incident that happened on that day and make it into news, you will directly interview and shoot, but special feature articles andInvestigation reportIn such cases, first make a plan, and then conduct surveys and interviews based on that plan. From the government and companiesPress release,Press conferenceInformation will be provided to newspapers, but in addition to this, there will be unique coverage. In the editorial department of the newspaper companyPolitical department,Social department, Department of Culture, Department of Economics, etc. exist, and interviews are conducted in the respective fields and articles are created.[40].. In addition to these in-house articles created by reporters, focusing on areas that are not covered by the companyNews agencyYou can also use articles distributed from[41].

The completed manuscript is submitted to an editorial meeting after being checked and elaborated.OrganizerEditing and layout of the page is done by. After that, further editing will be performed, and when the school is completed, the data will be sent to the printing factory.[42].. The printed newspaper is shipped from the factoryNewspaper shopAnd sent to a stand. In Japan, from the storenewspaper deliveryIs carried out and the newspaper is delivered to each household in most cases.[43].

Newspaper printing

In newspaper printing, which requires speed, new technology was introduced ahead of the general printing industry, but due to restrictions on multicolor printing, the introduction was delayed compared to the general printing industry.[28].

In 1868, The Times was a roll-up paper system.Rotary printing machineSince the adoption of, newspaper printing has been carried out by rotary printing machines capable of mass and high-speed printing.[28].. In newspaper printing in the first half of the 20th century, paper molds were made from typesetting and lead was cast.stereotypeThe only paper production method was to make a letterpress and put it on a letterpress rotary press.[28].

The production and printing process of newspapers has been greatly mechanized and streamlined due to technological innovation since the latter half of the 20th century.[44].. Photosensitive resin plates were developed in the early 1980s, and in the latter half of the 1980s.CTSWas introduced[28].. Since the 1970s, the decentralization of national newspaper newspaper printing factories has been promoted in Japan for the purpose of cost reduction.[45].. In the 2000s, high-cost printing factories were rapidly separated into separate companies, and in 2006, all national newspaper printing became separate companies. At the same time, consignment printing of national newspapers to local newspapers has become popular.[46].

World status

Although newspapers are published all over the world, the penetration rate varies greatly from region to region, and the penetration rate is high in developed countries such as the United States, European countries, and Japan, and not so much in developing countries.[47].. However, Asia, where economic growth has continued since around 2000, especiallyIndia,ChugokuThe number of newspaper sales increased in2007The number one newspaper circulation was China, and the number two was India.[48].. In particular, India's newspaper sales are on the rise due to economic growth, in contrast to the newspaper industry in other countries, which is being pushed by the Internet.[49].. In addition to English, which is the official language, the Indian newspaper industry is very active in newspaper publishing in each regional language, and is the main language of northern India.HindiThe ratio and number of copies of newspapers published in Japan are increasing. However, although the percentage of English newspapers is decreasing, the number of copies is increasing.[50].

In the United States and Europe, 8% of newspaper revenue comes from advertising.[51], It has a different profit structure from Japan, where sales revenue is the mainstay. With the spread of the Internet, the circulation is gradually decreasing in the United States and Europe, and in the United States, where the number is decreasing rapidly,New York Times』Has a huge deficit and is proceeding with restructuring such as selling the head office building[52]In addition,2009ToDuffel Bagof"Christian Science Monitor』\ Paper cancels the publication of daily newspapers and shifts to online specialty[53]The scale of newspaper companies has been reduced and business has been closed one after another. Free newspapers surged in Europe, accounting for 2007% of the total circulation of European daily newspapers in 23.[54].

Japanese newspaper

Newspaper subscription rate is high in JapanNewspaper shopNewspapers by are unparalleled in other countries. Also regarding the priceResale systemHas been protected by. For these reasons, the circulation of Japanese newspapers is extremely large compared to the population, and the rate is also high.NordicBoasting one of the highest penetration rates in the world along with other countries[55].. As for the revenue of newspaper companies, the average sales revenue is 52.7% and advertising revenue is 30.8% (2006), and sales revenue is slightly larger than advertising revenue.[56].

However, due to the spread of the Internet and the development of Internet media in the 2000s, not only young people but also middle-aged and elderly people are moving away from newspapers (as a global trend).The total circulation peaked at 1997 million in 5377 and reached 2008 million in 5179.[57], Advertising expenses also increased from 1990 billion yen in 13592 to 2008 billion yen in 8276[58],is decreasing.The business environment is becoming more difficult.In addition, the time that readers read newspapers is also declining in the 1995-2010 survey.[59]..Newspaper companies are focusing on online distribution of articles,Nihon Keizai ShimbunThere are also media that have secured a certain number of members, such as the Nikkei electronic version of.In partfree paperAlthough some people are paying attention to, the management of free papers, which depend on advertising revenue for most of their revenue, is often difficult, and since the 21st century, publications have been discontinued one after another, and it is not possible to gain a position as a major media alternative to newspapers. It is said to be difficult.

Online newspaper

インターネットIn the early days1993Already a newspaper companyHome PageBegan to open and distribute news,1995In JapanOnline newspaperIssuance has started[60].. Since then, most of the world's largest newspapers have started distributing news on the web.News siteAs one of the online newspapers has grown. Also, a portable terminal by an American news giantiPadA dedicated paid newspaper will also be published[61].. With the spread of online newspapers, some Western newspapers prioritize web media over paper media when publishing articles.Web firstBegan to come up with a policy called[62].

Many online newspapers are free, but newspaper companies are recruiting paying members to generate income, and the charge for distributing articles is increasing. In 2015, all five Japanese national newspapers are paid online. Issuance of edition started[63].

WikinewsIs also one of the online newspapers. In addition to those published by major newspapers, on the InternetCitizen journalismAs one of the reasons, there are those who expect online newspapers,JANJANThe use of some media, such as those that were first published, did not grow,2010Around the time, most citizen media in Japan were forced to shut down[64].

Order of circulation

The following data isWorld Newspaper AssociationThis is the ranking of the number of circulations of each pay newspaper according to the "World Press Trends 2016"[65][66].

News (Chinese)Country言语Number of copies (1000)
Yomiuri ShimbunJapanese flag JapanJapanese9,101
Asahi ShimbunJapanese flag JapanJapanese6,622
USA TodayUnited States flag The United States of AmericaEnglish4,139
Dainik BhaskarIndian flag IndiaHindi3,818
(English edition)Indian flag IndiaHindi3,308
Mainichi NewspapersJapanese flag JapanJapanese3,166
Reference NewsFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuChinese3,073
Amar UjalaIndian flag IndiaHindi2,935
The Times of IndiaIndian flag IndiaEnglish2,836
Nihon Keizai ShimbunJapanese flag JapanJapanese2,729
People's DailyFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuChinese2,603
Chunichi ShimbunJapanese flag JapanJapanese2,452
Hindustan DainikIndian flag IndiaHindi2,410
Malayala ManoramaIndian flag IndiaMalayalam2,343
Wall Street JournalUnited States flag The United States of AmericaEnglish2,379
BuiltGerman flag GermanyGerman2,220
New York TimesUnited States flag The United States of AmericaEnglish2,134
(Chinese version)Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuChinese1,880
(Chinese version)Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuChinese1,853
Rajasthan PatrikaIndian flag IndiaHindi1,812

Others

  • libraryWhen reading newspapers in public facilities such as, put it in a clip holder (long binder)Newspaper rackOften mounted on a dedicated rack called.
  • The total number of issues from the first issue of the newspaper (or the total number of years from the first issue)Paper age(Shiri)”.
  • Japanese call tableso,"ToothWhen sending "Newspaper newspaper".
  • In the Toho special effects movie, when a monster attacked or a monster incident occurred, a fictitious newspaper was printed with the actual case being mixed with the fictitious newspaper name such as "Every morning newspaper". Special effects fans such as nabe kettle are collecting.
  • Kawachi Ondo"Shinmon" is read as the newspaper of "Newspaper poems" which is a song dealing with current affairs.
  • When wireless communication becomes practicalCruise linerIn some cases, a "shipboard newspaper" that summarizes the news received from land was published. For the first time in Japan, it became possible to communicate with landTenyo MaruAt that time, I was informing the passengers of the events in Japan in the form of newspapers.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

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