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🎥 | Angelina Jolie x "Wind River" director's survival suspense release decision

Photograph Movie "Those Who Wish Me Dead" Scene Photograph (C) 2021Warner Bros. Ent. All Rights Reserved

Angelina Jolie x "Wind River" director's survival suspense release decision

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The preview video starts with Hannah reminiscing about the past "traumatic wildfire" and confessing her remorse, "I misread the wind" and "I should have gone to help."

The latest work "Those who wish me dead" starring actress Angelina Jolie is ... → Continue reading

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Forest fire

Forest fire(Yamaji,English: Wildfire)(I.e.,森林And so on[1]. this火災IfForest fire(Shinrinkasai)[2],Forest fire(Sanrinkasai),Forest fireIt's called "Rinkasai".
When conditions such as dryness and strong winds overlap,Fire whirlwindMay develop into[3].


Natural phenomenon

Thunder,Volcano OferuptionDue toSpontaneous combustion..In rare cases, dead leavesWindRubbing each otherfrictionOr heat waves that occur in[4]It may occur due to the influence of.

Human behavior

Bonfire,Burning(Burning),Swidden agriculture, Incineration of garbageOutdoor incineration,tobaccoThe misfortune ofarson,Playing with fireEtc. are the main causes.[5][6][7]


Fire extinguishing

aircraft,helicopter,Fire truckIn addition to watering byFirebreakThere is a method of forming a fire and waiting for natural extinction, but in recent yearsThe United States of America,AustraliaLike,LightningWildfires that occur naturally due to such factors are regarded as a phenomenon of the natural cycle, and there are cases where measures are taken to prevent the fire from extinguishing unless it affects human life.

Fire extinguishes in Russia, for example, forest fires do not harm housesCost-effectivenessIf you don't see it, there is a government decree (2014-) that only monitors the fire and does not have to extinguish it.[8].

Fire extinguisher
With the purpose of extinguishing a large-scale fire,Boeing 747,Il-76,C130 HerculesThere are also large aerial fire extinguishing equipment that have been modified[9].. However, profitability is low,747 supertankerParent company (like (Boeing 747 remodeling)Evergreen AirlinesThere are also cases in which the operation was canceled due to bankruptcy.
Smoke jumper
Parachutes used in the U.S., Russia, and Canada to quickly bring in firefighters(English edition)Is organized.After arriving at the site, this smoke jumper is used for work such as cutting down trees to create a firebreak.[10].


  • Do not use fire outdoors (Bonfire,Burning(Do not burn)
  • tobaccoDon't litter
  • Don't let me play with fire
  • Enlightenment for climbers, etc.

Awareness-raising activities are being carried out by the Forestry Agency and the Fire and Disaster Management Agency in each region.[11][12]


  • Loss of water source recharge function due to burning of plants, due to sediment outflow洪水
  • biodiversityDue to the loss ofEcosystemUnbalanced
  • Aircraft accident (due to poor visibility due to wildfire smoke)

post process

Criminal disposition

in Japan's case,NegligenceWhen a forest fire occurs due toForest lawViolation of Article 203 (XNUMX)fine(50 yen or less) may be imposed.

Claim for damages

Compensation may be required for damages such as standing trees.In Kochi prefectureNational forestA small plane crashed, 7-8 haCedarIn the case of burning woods, the owner's country filed a lawsuit against the passenger's survivor for JPY 4,500 million.[13].

The United States of AmericaIn the example,OregonIn the forestfireworksA boy who threw a tree into the forest to burn more than 194 square kilometersProbationAnd 1,920 hoursvolunteer activityThe decision was issued. Also, regarding compensation for damage caused by forest fires,Road manager,Railway operator11 cases have been filed, etc., and there has been an example of claiming damages of approximately $3,700 million.[14].

Overview of each region

  • Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsFire departmentAccording to the survey, there were 2008 forest fires in 283. The top causes of forest fires that occurred from 2009 to 2013 are:Bonfire, Fire,arsonAndSpontaneous combustionIt is often caused by an artificial cause[15].
  • Fire extinguishing from the groundFire truckThe road around the site (Forest roadExtinguishing a fire becomes very difficult depending on the situation of).helicopterBy the dispatch ofFire extinguisherHowever, the loading capacity is limited and the weather, time of day,heliportDepends on the certainty because it depends on the distance from. For this reason, he carried a water bag on his back.Fire brigadeMembers[16]Throw inHuman tacticsFire extinguishing is also performed.
  • Abnormal drynessFern phenomenonMay encourage expansion.Seto Inland SeaEach island has more or less experience of disaster. In the past, there were times when there were frequent wildfires in Hokkaido as well, and there were 1886 during the 1945 years from 60 to 1,438,682 for which statistics were available.Town walk(About 150 million ha) burned down[17].. The forest area of ​​Hokkaido in 1892 was about 390 million ha.[18]Therefore, a simple calculation shows that less than 4% of the forest area was damaged.
  • If it occurs in a good wood producing area,forestryAnd the amount of damage to related industries such as processing and distribution will be enormous.
  • Fire protection zone (fire protectionProtected forest) Is installed, and the slope of the roadGreeningIs an evergreen plant that makes it difficult to produce dead grassgrassMay be adopted.
  • 1971 (Showa 46),Wildfire that occurred at Haigamine in Kure City, Hiroshima PrefectureWas a catastrophe that killed 17 people. This is the most casualty post-war forest fire, and all 17Fire departmentStaff and mostMartyrIt remains in the record as a fire that caused many people.
  • February 2021, 2 in Ashikaga City, Tochigi PrefectureLarge wildfireThere has occurred.Believed to be a cigarette mischief by hikers[19].
North America
  • LightningIn addition to spontaneous combustion due toSwidden agricultureIt is caused by an artificial cause. HelicopteraircraftAlthough seawater and lake water are also pumped and sprayed by the company, their size is likely to be extremely large, so in many cases the purpose is to protect the bases such as villages and roads. Basically, one would expect natural extinction.
  • Occurs occasionally in the mountains around the Rocky Mountains and can last for weeks.
  • Firefighting work of wildfires occurring in various places to a private fire companyア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グThere are many local governments that do this, and several companies have entered the market, but many companies withdraw because of low profitability.
  • CaliforniaThen.刑 務 所Of the inmates who have a low level of risk, "inmates' fire brigade" who gave fire education, assisted work such as constructing a fire belt in the event of a forest firePrison workProgram saves money[20].
  • North America,AustraliaIn our forests, we regularly fire small, controlled fires. This not only prevents the natural cycle of a forest fire from stalling, but also prevents damage from a large forest fire.
  • SiberiaRuralTundraThe zone isorganic matterContains a large amount ofsoilTherefore, even after the trees disappear, they continue to smolder as a seed fire in the soil. These trends arelignite,ligniteLow qualitycoalOften found in areas with exposed layers.

・Arctic fire is a fire that often occurs spontaneously in the Arctic and its surrounding areas due to lightning. In recent years, the number of fires in the Arctic has increased due to the effects of global warming. The Arctic fire promotes the absorption of sunlight due to peat fires and soot, and the extensive burned area causes a large amount of carbon dioxide to be emitted, creating a vicious cycle for further global warming. ing[21].


Some plants that grow in areas where wildfires occur frequently have morphology and ecology adapted to wildfires.Typical fire protection is to thicken the bark.In addition, since the temperature of the underground part does not rise compared to the above-ground part, nutrients are stored in the underground part so that it can survive even if the above-ground part is burnt, and buds are sprouting from the roots and trunks that remain even if the above-ground part is damaged. It is also known that it enhances the ability of sprouting regeneration to be put out and regenerated.In addition, some plants have a mechanism to entrust them to the next generation even if the individual parent plant is burnt, and the heat of the fire breaks the fruits and sprays the seeds, or the temperature rise due to the fire causes the seeds to dormant in the ground. Some have a mechanism that leads to germination.Immediately after a forest fire, there are few competing plants and pathogens, and since it is a suitable environment for seedlings, many plants have a strategy of entrusting it to the next generation rather than their own survival.Forests on the Mediterranean coast and AustraliaHardwood forestIt is called, and is characterized by dryness in summer and many forest fires.

  • Myrtaceae(Scientific name: Myrtaceae) is distributed mainly in AustraliaEucalyptus(Eucalyptus) AndCallistemon(Callistemon) Etc. can be seen as species adapted to fire.In addition to having a thick bark, it has high sprouting power and regenerates quickly after a fire.
  • Proteales(Proteaceae)Banksia(Banksia) Etc.Attach a type of fruit that opens in a fire.
  • Pinaceae(Pinaceae) in the Americas地中海Distributed along the coastPine(Pinus) Is well known for its adaptation to fire in some species, but not in other genera.Both those with fire-opening type fruits (cones) and those with thick bark and high sprouting ability are known.
  • Cypress(Cupressaceae) in the western United StatesSequoia(Sequoia),Giant sequoia(Sequoiadendron),Cupressus(Cupressus) Some species evolved in AustraliaCallitrisWith the genus (Japanese name undecided)ActinostorbusSome groups, such as all species of the genus (Japanese name undecided), are known to have fire-opening type fruits (cones).
  • Rhus family(Anacardiaceae) is also distributed in JapanSumac(rhu) Is capable of long-term dormancy in the ground, has heat-sensitive seeds, and grows quickly after a fire.
  • Legumes(Fabaceae) In the Tohoku regionYamahagi(Lespedeza bicolor) Has high sprouting properties and grows on the site of a fire[22]..Also, at the site of a forest fire in Australia, legumesSwainsona grayana(Japanese name undecided. English name darling pea) has flourished and livestock that ate it have been poisoned to death.
  • Beech family(Fagaceae) is distributed along the Mediterranean coastCork oak(Quercus suber) Is famous for its thick bark and resistance to wildfires.Japan alsoMizunaraRegenerates quickly at the site of the fire with high sprouting power.

In fungi, it parasitizes pine treesRhizina undul(Rhizina undulata) Spores are known to germinate when the soil temperature is high, such as after a forest fire.Also.Morels(Morchella), Some species from North America are said to have a good harvest after a forest fire, and it is thought that the cause is that the soil becomes alkaline due to ash.


Second World WarIn the middle, the Japanese military set up a forest in Oregon to cause a large-scale wildfire in the United States.IncendiaryWas dropped (US mainland air raid).

Wildfire in creation

The mystery of Siamese twins - Ellery QueenNovel


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ World Primary Color Encyclopedia 2Shogakukan. (January 1961, 1, 20). P. Page 1961. "Burning of buildings and forests is called a fire, and the disaster caused by it is called a fire." 
  2. ^ World Meteorological Organization warns that forest fires may occur frequently due to heat wavesTBS News Official Site
  3. ^ Fire whirlwind and lightning are also ordered to evacuate due to a forest fire in California, USA
  4. ^ Wildfire photography feature in GreeceJiji Press
  5. ^ Let's prevent forest fires!National wildfire prevention campaign
  6. ^ Greece The worst wildfire ever is caused by arsonNHK
  7. ^ Dryness, strong winds ... Bad conditions overlap Why Ashikaga's forest fire occurred
  8. ^ "Great fire in Siberia caused by "Because it costs money and you do not have to extinguish the fire"”. 47NEWS (August 2019, 8). 2019/8/3Browse.
  9. ^ Video: Watering the Chile fire from the air, large transport planes supporting one after another AFP (December 2017, 02) Read December 02, 2017
  10. ^ Death-Wish Jobs: Smokejumpers Meld Sky Diving, Firefighting Wired
  11. ^ Let's prevent forest fires!National wildfire prevention campaign
  12. ^ National Wildfire Prevention Campaign Forestry Agency
  13. ^ "What happens to the damages? Arrest of a 40-year-old office worker in a forest fire”. Daily Gendai (August 2014, 5). 2018/5/24Browse.
  14. ^ "194 square kilometers burned down by forest fire, ordering payment of 40 billion yen to boy”. CNN (July 2018, 5). 2018/5/24Browse.
  15. ^ What are the direct causes of forest fires? (Forestry Agency website) Read November 2014, 11
  16. ^ "Jet Shooter S", "Jet Shooter EV" (Ashimori Kogyo website) viewed on November 2014, 11
  17. ^ [Hokkaido Forest History p630 (Showa 28, published by Hokkaido Government)]
  18. ^ 7th Agriculture and Commerce Statistics Table (Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce Secretariat Recording Section, 1892)
  19. ^ 5 days after the fire in Tochigi and Ashikaga
  20. ^ Prisoners fighting wildfire, $1 hourly fire extinguishing program AFP (December 2017, 10) Read December 16, 2019
  21. ^ ""Unprecedented Anomaly": Arctic Fire |”(Japanese). GNV. 2019/11/27Browse.
  22. ^ Etsuyuki Iwata. 1964. About "Mt. Hagi" that develops on the site of a forest fire: Study of vegetation in the Kitakami Mountains (2). Annual Report of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Iwate University 23, pp13-26. two:10.15113/00012299

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Prominent forest fire

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