Grand Canal-themed museum with over 2000 years of history opens-Jiangsu Province
If you write the contents roughly
At present, more than 770 items (sets) of various cultural properties such as old books, literature, calligraphy, inscriptions, ceramics, metalware, miscellaneous goods, etc. on the theme of the canal from the spring and autumn era (403 BC-1 BC) to the present day Is on display and can be called the "Encyclopedia" of the Grand Canal.
The Grand Canal Museum in Yangzhou, which was built near the Guyun River in Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, officially opened on the 16th.Xinhuanet tells us ... → Continue reading
Record China for news on China, South Korea and East Asia. We will provide information about each country in Japanese.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Encyclopedia(Hyakkajiten,Luo: encyclopedia) Is everySubjectsOverknowledgeAnd collect this by departmentAlphabetical order-Alphabetical orderOr arrange them in [[Iroha order z] etc.CommentaryWrittenbookThat. "EncyclopediaIs sometimes written.
KojienAccording to the XNUMXth edition, "Academic-SkillArt-社会-家庭A book that collects and records knowledge covering all other subjects, arranges it by department or in alphabetical order, and adds commentary.".According to Daijisen, "(I.e.A book that arranges items according to the format of a dictionary and adds explanations to matters in all fields that the knowledge ofIt is.
"Encyclopedia" in "Encyclopedia" generally means "various fields"[Note 1][Note 2][Note 3][Note 4]..Once "Encyclopediadictionary, But1931To平凡 社But"EncyclopediaWas published, and since then, "Encyclopedia"Encyclopedia"The notation has taken root.
"Encyclopedia"(Hyakazensho), but this name is a little old-fashioned.Especially in France, which will be described later.EncyclopediaPointing to something by the hand ofEncyclopediaOften called.ChineseIn, it is called "Leishu", but "Encyclopedia" is the official notation.
It means an encyclopediaEnglish: encyclopedia It is,Greek language OfKoineἘγκύκλιος (enkyklios: en + kyklios, "in circle" in English), which is a word derived from "ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία" and means "in a circle"Education"Or"Raising childrenIt is a combination of παιδεία (paideia), which means ", and is common from the educational knowledge that Greeks gathered around the speakers in the city and became an audience.knowledgeWas used to mean.
Number of turns
There are dozens of large encyclopedias, but there is also a one-volume book that summarizes the description compactly.For the very majorityindexThere is also one that is an independent volume.In addition to the indexMapThere is also one that exists as a single volume.
Besides these, it is published regularlySeparate EncyclopediaAlso exists.Partwork encyclopediamovies,Medicine,English,Japanese history,world HeritageIt is published on various themes such as, and when it is filed at the time of completion, an encyclopedia of that theme is established.For more information...
Encyclopedia媒体Until around 2000paper Ofbook(Printed matter) Was the mainstream, but after that, besides books,Electronic dictionary(携 帯Built-in with a dedicated device of the typeICToRecordWhat was done),CD-ROM/DVD-ROM,memory card, USB memory,webThere are various forms. "Britannica EncyclopediaThe traditional encyclopedia, which was originally a paper medium, is now often offered on the Web.As a service developed exclusively for the Web from the beginning, it is open source content written by general users themselves.WikipediaIs famous[Note 5].
An encyclopedia is basically a collection of knowledge in various fields or all fields, as explained in the explanations of Kojien and Daijisen.EncyclopediaEncyclopediaAnd "Encyclopedia Britannica" also deal with such a range of knowledge. (This is common, but when you dare to distinguish it from the one described below, it is sometimes called a "comprehensive encyclopedia").However, there are also encyclopedias that collect various knowledge in a specific area of specialization in advance.For example, in "Pharmacy Encyclopedia", "Philosophy Encyclopedia", etc., it is sometimes called "specialized encyclopedia".
Configuration / arrangement
There are two ways to organize and arrange the encyclopedia: one is to classify each item by field and the other is to arrange them by the name of each item (alphabetical order in Western Europe, and Japanese encyclopedia in the case of Japanese encyclopedia. There is an order etc.).In each item, words with articles in the encyclopedia are often marked to allow cross-reference.The same is true for online encyclopedias, for example in Wikipedia for words with articles inside.hyperlinkIs attached to facilitate cross-reference.Most dictionaries and encyclopedias are classified in Chinese because they cannot be arranged mechanically.
If you roughly classify the items in the encyclopedia,Major item principleとSub-item principleThere are two methods.In Japanese literature, for example, the major item principle is based on the item name of a big theme such as "modern literature", and the trends of literary arts and famous writers and works are summarized in one item. It is a thing.Items can sometimes be lengthy, ranging from a few pages to tens of pages.On the contrary, in the sub-item principle, items are comprehensively set for each detailed theme and thing such as "Natsume Soseki", "Ryunosuke Akutagawa", "Naturalism", and "I am a cat", and a brief explanation is added separately for each. It is a thing. The first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was a major item principle.on the other hand"Blockhouse EncyclopediaIs famous for its thorough sub-item principle.
Both methods have advantages and disadvantages.While the large item principle can systematically grasp the whole, it is not suitable for investigating a specific work or writer.On the contrary, in the sub-item principle, it is easy to investigate each item, but it lacks cohesiveness as a whole.However, these two needles are not necessarily in opposition.Encyclopedias with an eclectic method (medium item principle) are not uncommon.The advantages and disadvantages largely depend on the unsuitability of the theme to be taken up, the position of the editor, the purpose of the user, and so on.
Articles published in encyclopedias are always at risk of becoming old and useless due to changes in circumstances and the discovery of new theories, so regular revisions and publication of new editions are essential.However, this requires a large amount of money and labor, so it cannot be done easily.The cost of this revision is one of the reasons why a significant amount of paper encyclopedias have moved online.Also, in the case of a paper encyclopedia, it takes a long time to revise, and there is a time lag for new information. The same is true for the CD-ROM version, but the online version is quicker to update information than paper or CD-ROM because the changes are reflected immediately, which is also one of the advantages of the online version. Be done.
Most of the ancient encyclopedias were written by individuals, but in the latter half of the 18th century it became very difficult to do this due to the increase in the total amount of knowledge, and since the publication of the "Encyclopedia", several writings have been made. The mainstream method is for a person to write in a specialized field, and the editor to compile it into an encyclopedia.The authors had some amateurs who were not in academia until the first half of the 19th century, but with the advancement and specialization of scholarship, such amateurs disappeared, and scholars and experts in each field themselves Most of the contributions were made in the field of specialization.The number of authors has tended to increase consistently due to the increase in the amount of knowledge and the number of volumes of the encyclopedia itself, and the number of authors in the "Encyclopedia" was about 140.1911In the 11th edition of "Encyclopaedia Britannica", the number increased to 1507...This trend continues thereafter, for example2007Heibonsha's "Revised New Edition" published in World EncyclopediaThe number of authors is about 7000...In addition, many of the authors of open content encyclopedias on the Internet are no longer even experts, and the number of authors has increased dramatically.As of June 2016, 6, Wikipedia has about 9 million registered users of the English version, and 3818 users who edited it within a month.The Japanese version of the data on the same day has about 134,106 registered users and 158 users who edited it within a month..
Generally called "the world's first encyclopedia" is "The world's first encyclopedia" planned by France's Dalambert, Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau and others.Encyclopedia』(L'Encyclopédie).Strictly speaking, however, it is not that there were no books that gathered knowledge of various fields and organized them by item, similar to the encyclopedia, so I will explain them as well.
But today's dictionary format is at the end of the 10th century.Eastern Roman EmpireMid-term "Macedonian RenaissanceWas born in the era.emperorConstantinos I"Porphyrogenetos" gathered various topics about history and thought from Greek and Latin classics and compiled it as a reference book for governance.With this flowJohn I TzimiskesUnder the rule of (reigned 969-976), the Greek dictionary "Suda dictionary] (Suda) has been completed.It has the characteristics of both the current encyclopedia and the dictionary of meanings, and is considered to be the oldest alphabetical dictionary of the present. Although there are some misrepresentations in the Suda Dictionary, it is still recognized for its significance in philological research due to the huge citations of the lost works of ancient writers. The name of the editor of the Suda Dictionary was long thought to be Suidas, which gave rise to the suffix -das, which refers to dictionaries. (Example:Imidas= Imithe）
On the other hand, in Asia, historically, it is close to an encyclopedia.ChugokuSince ancient timesLeishuExisted, but it still has a strong terminological hue, and as a full-fledged oneLightIn China in the era of the era, 14 parts, 106 volumes in totalThree-year-old figureThere is an encyclopedia with a figure called "(Sansai Zue)", which was completed in 1607 and published two years later.JapanThen, following this,Edo PeriodIn 1712, by Ryoan Terashima, "Japanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society] Was summarized.This is also an illustrated book, and the commentary was written in Chinese.These can also be called encyclopedias in a broad sense.It should be noted that (although modern encyclopedias also reflect the modern worldview), these also reflect the worldview of the time when they were written, so they are considered to be fantasy for modern people.Immortal country""Long leg country”, Etc. are also included..
Establishment of a modern encyclopedia
RenaissanceAfter that, there is a lot of knowledgevocabularyBooks that have accumulated the above are gradually being published in each country. At the beginning of the 17th century, the arrangement of each item, which had been divided by field until then, wasThe alphabetIt came to be arranged in order.This made the encyclopedia a mechanical and uniform composition in the alphabet, regardless of the conceptual relationships ordered by the editor's values..1695から1697ToPierre BayleWritten by "History Criticism Dictionary"..Also in EnglandEphraim Chambers 1728Published "Cyclopedia, or Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences"..Cross-references between items were introduced for the first time in Wikipedia, which had a great influence on the encyclopedia later...In addition, while the encyclopedias up to that point were biased toward the humanities, Wikipedia is also characterized by a significant increase in the descriptions of science and technology.
However, what is commonly referred to as the world's first encyclopedia isFrench RevolutionThe night before1751Started in FranceEnlightenment ThoughtAs part of the exerciseDalambert,Didro,Voltaire,RousseauThe separate volume "Encyclopedia』(L'Encyclopédie).They solicited subscribers and published it as a separate volume sale (the sales form is reminiscent of a separate volume encyclopedia that is regularly published under a certain theme, such as the "Monthly XX Encyclopedia" that is often seen today).By this attempt they saidEncyclopedia"is called.However, there were disagreements due to the writing attitude of each item, and there were constant withdrawals from internal conflicts.
The feature of this encyclopedia is "Beauty","愛","MusicIn addition to the major items such as ", we tried to explain the new technology that appeared in modern times in an easy-to-understand manner with pictorial illustrations including cross-sectional views, and to make new knowledge a widely shared property of the general public...Well-known items include "agricultural equipment," "open pit mining of coal," "laundry boat," and "rotating stage."From now on, the word encyclopedia is also used as a synonym for an attempt to describe all of the knowledge.As a typical exampleHegelof"Enchicropedy(German for "encyclopedia").In addition, while the encyclopedias up to that point were written by individual editors or have a strong tendency to do so, the encyclopedias are all contributed by renowned leading scholars in their respective fields of specialization, and are collected and collected. Clearly indicate the direction of creating two huge encyclopediasSince then, encyclopedias have been created in this style.
Development of encyclopedia
After the publication of the encyclopedia, the encyclopedia was published in each country inspired by this.1768ToEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfEdinburghAtBritannica EncyclopediaIs published,1796ToGermany OfLeipzigでBlockhouse EncyclopediaHas started publishing.1829ToPhiladelphiaでAmerican EncyclopediaDuring the 19th century, the United States, Great Britain, France, etc. Netherlands, Germany and other countries have begun to publish encyclopedias.The compilation of these encyclopedias was often promoted by editors with strong personalities.For example in FrancePierre Larousse 1863から1876He published the "19th Century Encyclopedia", which was almost his life, and Larousse himself was before the publication was completed.1875Died in..This 19th century encyclopedia came to be called Larousse after his name, and since then this Larousse encyclopedia has long survived as one of the large encyclopedias.
In the 20th century, no encyclopedia was published until then.スペインOr Japan,イタリアEncyclopedias have begun to be published in emerging countries and small and medium-sized countries.The encyclopedia was published in competition in each country during this period because of the implications of competition between nations, such as raising national prestige by publishing an encyclopedia that is the culmination of knowledge in one's own country..
Japanese encyclopedia since modern times
In modern JapanMeijiAt the time of civilizationWest ZhouByXNUMX academic circlesThe first encyclopedia in Japan was created.In addition, "Kyonori Konakamura and others have made efforts to establish"KojienThere is1879, The compilation was started by the Ministry of Education at that time, and later the Jingu Shrine took over.1914It was completed in.It is highly valuable as a material because it is a collection of ancient literature on things of each era.
However, as a modern Western-style encyclopedia, at the end of the Meiji eraSanseido"Japanese Encyclopedia" (10 volumes, XNUMX volumes)Seisuke SaitoIn the compilation of1907Publication started,1919Completion) is the fastest.. IncidentallyShowaFrom the beginning平凡 社of"Encyclopedia(Renamed to "World Encyclopedia" in 1955) (28 volumes in total,1931Publication started,1934Completed) etc. were published.Heibonsha was the first to create a new word "encyclopedia" instead of "dictionary" and use it in the title of the book, and the kanji notation "encyclopedia" will be generalized thereafter.Furthermore, after the high economic growth of the Showa period, it was not unusual for each household to have a separate encyclopedia around the 1960s, and it became popular.From Shogakukan, in 1962, "Encyclopedia of Japan"(Volume 13, separate volume), followed by "World Primary Color Encyclopedia" in 1965(8 volumes in total), and in 1967, "Dainippon Encyclopedia Japonica』(Volume 18, separate volume 4) was published.Encyclopedias are published one after another by each company, and people also called for this period, which is called the encyclopedia boom... From 1970 to 1970, forcible sales of encyclopedias became a social problem...During this period, the encyclopedia served exclusively as a decoration and status symbol in the drawing room.However, it takes up a lot of space, and after the encyclopedia boom ended, most encyclopedias were less welcomed at home and were often disposed of.
Compared to the encyclopedia, the content of the description per item is simple and the number of characters is small, but it covers a wide range of fields.the term OfdictionaryAs a publication that can be called1948ToJiyuminshaFromBasic knowledge of modern terminologyIs published every year, An annual collection of materials that reflects the customs of the times, which incorporates trends and social conditions abundantly, has also begun to appear on the market.Later in 1986ShueishaFromImidasIs issued,1989ToAsahi ShimbunFromChiezoAn annual collection of materials with the same concept appeared, and these three magazines began to stand up.Imidas''ChiezoIsインターネットDue to the decrease in the number of copies sold due to the spread of2007With the edition, the paper medium was abolished and the web version was completely replaced.Therefore, these annual collections of paper media only leave "basic knowledge of modern terms".The "Basic knowledge of modern terms" has also undergone a major renewal from the 2020 version, and the 2019 version has 1226 pages, but has been reduced to 296 pages.
New words / buzzwords
In 1983, Kodansha International published "Was published.The book systematically introduces Japan in English, with 9 volumes, 400 million English words, authors in 27 countries, more than 1300 people, and a cost of about $ 1500 million (at the time of publication). It cost more than 34 billion yen at the exchange rate).
CD-ROM / DVD-ROM version
1990Later,Personal computerPopularization and large capacityoptical driveWith the installation, the encyclopediaCD-ROMSuch asOptical mediaBy computersoftwareEven though it came to be on the market.Initially, these movements were weak,1990Sales of the paper encyclopedia Britannica were at record highs... However1993Microsoft's "EncartaDue to the rapid growth of CD-ROM encyclopedias such as ", sales of paper encyclopedias have plummeted, and sales of" Britannica "have fallen to one-fifth in a few years...In response to these movements1994Many encyclopedias have followed this trend, such as the release of the CD-ROM version of "Britanica".However, at this point, encyclopedia sales have already plummeted, resulting in a sharp decline.CD-ROM/DVD-ROMIssue of the edition did not result in a benefit to any issuer, including the new entrants. Sales of the entire encyclopedia in 2000 fell to one-tenth of that in 1990..
The above movementcomputerIt was a story from an era when they were not organically linked to each other,2000From aroundインターネットWith the development and spread ofwebEditions are also being made.These web-based encyclopediasInternet encyclopediaIt became one of the major trends in the encyclopedia.1999"Britanica" has started to be released for free on the Web, and traditional encyclopedias such as "Larousse" have started new measures such as developing an online version at the same time as the book. As of 2005Mobile phone-PHS OfWeb browserThere are also encyclopedias that can be accessed at, and it is becoming an environment where anyone can access the knowledge of encyclopedias wherever they want to use them.Paper-based encyclopedias tend to become obsolete in terms of topical content over time after publication, but the web version of the encyclopedia allows item content to be updated at any time and is easy to revise. Is.Encyclopedias using electronic media such as web versions and CD-ROMs are generally superior to paper books in terms of usability such as search and cross-reference functions...This trend has accelerated further,2012Announced that the encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia, which was a representative of the encyclopedia, will stop publishing the book version and will completely shift to the web version.. Also2009Asahi Shimbun, Kodansha, Shogakukan, and Asahi Shimbun Publishing can jointly refer to the encyclopedias of each company on the Internet.Koto bankStarted.
Reader participation type
Although many encyclopedias have moved to CD and web versions since the 1990s, they are still written and supervised by experts and published by publishers in one direction. There was no change.However2001ToJimmy WalesとLarry SangerByWikipediaThis trend changed drastically when was established.Unlike previous encyclopedias, Wikipedia was characterized by the ability to participate in writing and editing "anyone", which in fact made Wikipedia a huge growth and the largest encyclopedia in the world.Following this success, Wikipedia and several other reader-participatory Internet encyclopedias have been compiled.For projects such as Wikipedia, which is one of the new trends in encyclopedias, where "anyone" can participate in writing and editing, systematic books compiled by experts and researchers like conventional encyclopedias. It is pointed out that there is a problem with reliability compared to..At the same time, it has been pointed out that many services are provided free of charge, which is a management disadvantage for traditional publishers...On the other hand, there is also an evaluation of experts who defend the quality of Wikipedia..
Encyclopedia as reading
An encyclopedia is a "search" book, not a "read" book, but it may be intended to be read.
- Inoue Hisashi("Kirito Kirito"Shinchosha Co., Ltd. 1981) -A man comes out to photocopy and memorize an encyclopedia
- A. J.Jacobs ("Amazing Encyclopedia Man Become the Best Man in the World!"Bunshun library 2005) -Non-fiction to read through Britannica
- Yoko Ogawa"Encyclopedia Girl" (""Kodansha 2012 years)
- Things from all over the world
- Encyclopædia Britannica(Britannica Encyclopedia, Encyclopaedia Britain) --English
- Encyclopedia Americana(American Encyclopedia, Daimai Encyclopedia) --English
- La Grande Encyclopédie(Encyclopedia) --French
- Brockhaus Enzyklopädie(Blockhouse Encyclopedia) - German
- Enciclopedia Italiana(Italian encyclopedia, Oi Encyclopedia) --Italian
- Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana(European-American Encyclopedia of International Liberal Arts) --Spanish
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia(Soviet Encyclopedia) - Russian
- Great Russian Encyclopedia(Great Russian Encyclopedia) - Russian
- 《Chinese Encyclopedia》(Chinese Encyclopedia) --Chinese
A well-balanced description of all fields.
Focusing on Japan, everything else is also described.
- Britannica International Encyclopedia(Britannica)-Books, CD-ROM, Internet (latest version is in English)
Encyclopaedia Britannica's Japanese translation encyclopedia.Focusing on the UK, everything else is also mentioned.
- Mypedia(Heibonsha) --Books, CD-ROMs, electronic dictionaries, memory cards, the Internet
An encyclopedia smaller than the World Encyclopedia published by Heibonsha.
- World Primary Color Encyclopedia,Dainippon Encyclopedia"Japonica", Banyu Encyclopedia "Genre Japonica"-both Shogakukan and books
An encyclopedia sold by Shogakukan.Already out of print.
- Poplardia(Poplar company)-Books, DVD-ROM, Internet
- Encarta(Microsoft)-CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, Internet (quit)
- The United Kingdom
- Britannica Encyclopedia
- The United States of America
- Catholic encyclopedia ――Although it is a "Catholic Encyclopedia", there are actually various articles and it is very detailed.
- AEIOU --The Austrian Cultural Information System[Note 6] (All articles have been translated into English)
- South Korea
- EnCyber- Doosan Encyclopedia of the WorldOnline version of (Doosan Toa)
- Pallas Nagy Lexikona[Note 7]
- Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL)[Note 8] --Theological encyclopedia.Also familiar with Judaism.
- Store norske leksikon (SNL) One of the official languages of NorwayBokmålEncyclopedia written in.Norwegian EncyclopediaSee also
- Jewish Encyclopedia
- Encyclopaedia Judaika
Encyclopedia on the internet
- Wikipedia(Wikipedia Japanese version)- Wikimedia FoundationOperated byInternet encyclopedia.
- Citizendium --One of the founders of Wikipedia, later withdrewLarry SangerWas launched by.The author is required to register his real name.
- Yahoo! Encyclopedia - Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(Shogakukan) Was free to use.2013May 12Ends the service.
- Hatena Keywords --Old Hatena Diary Keyword
- Modern digital library (Category: 00 General Note-031 Encyclopedia)National Diet Library ――More than 200 kinds of encyclopedias are published on the WEB.
- ^ In Chinese and Japanese, numbers such as "hundred," "thousand," and "ten thousand" are used to symbolize the large number and variety.For example, the explanation of the item "hundred" in Kojien says "many things, various things". (Kojien 2270th Edition p.XNUMX "Hundred"). Just because you use numbers such as "hundreds", "thousands", and "ten thousand" does not mean that they are exactly the numbers.
- ^ "Department" is "one by one classified according to certain criteria" (Source:Kojien 423th edition p.XNUMX "Department", XNUMXth edition "Department")
- ^ When there is only one field, it is called "single course" or "special course".
- ^ The name "encyclopedia" is平凡 社Founding president ofYasaburo ShimonakaIt is a coined word of (Source:Morio Ishiyama, "Back-reading Deep-reading Japanese Dictionary", page 98,Kusosha).ExclusivelywordAnd its usagedictionary(dictionary), The encyclopedia is写真,図It is characterized by giving a comprehensive explanation using also.The dictionary is called "Kototen" to distinguish it from the dictionary (dictionary) as "Mojiten" and the dictionary (dictionary) as "Kotobaten".
- ^ The predecessor of Wikipedia is written and edited only by expertsNupediaHowever, it was abolished due to a shortage of volunteer writers.
- ^ AEIOU --The Austrian Cultural Information System
- ^ Pallas Nagy Lexikona (Search by Kereses, browse by Bongeszes)
- ^ Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) --T.Bautz-Verlag
- ^ a b Kojien XNUMXth edition "Encyclopedia / Encyclopedia"
- ^ Daijisen
- ^ Encyclopaedia online etymology dictionary
- ^ ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
- ^ ἐγκύκλιος Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
- ^ Education Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
- ^ "Social History of Knowledge 2-From Encyclopedia to Wikipedia" p280-281 by Peter Burke Translated by Hiroyuki Iyama Shin-yo-sha July 2015, 7 First Edition First Edition
- ^ Revised New Edition World Encyclopedia All XNUMX Volumes XNUMXth Edition Handbook Heibonsha Retrieved June 2016, 6
- ^ Retrieved February 2020, 1
- ^ "Sankaikyo] Is pointed out in common.
- ^ "Making an Encyclopedia of the British Empire" p39 Takehiko Honda Kodansha November 2005, 11 10st print
- ^ "History of 100 Books That Changed the World From Ancient Egyptian Papillus to Electronic Books" p159 by Roderick Cave and Sara Ayado Koichi Kabayama Supervised by Japanese version Mt. Ooyama Translated by Akira Hara Shobo May 2015, 5 25st Printing
- ^ a b "Visual Edition of the History and Culture of Books: The Power of 5000 Years of Books" p170 by Martin Ryans Translated by Fumiya Kuramochi Translated by Yasuyoshi Miyoshi Hiiragifusha May 2012, 5 22st print
- ^ "Making an Encyclopedia of the British Empire" p34 Takehiko Honda Kodansha November 2005, 11 10st print
- ^ "History of Illustrated Books" p62 Koichi Kabayama Ed. Kawade Shobo Shinsha July 2011, 7 First edition issued
- ^ "Making an Encyclopedia of the British Empire" p26 Takehiko Honda Kodansha November 2005, 11 10st print
- ^ "Visual Edition of the History and Culture of Books: The Power of 5000 Years of Books" p171 by Martin Ryans Translated by Fumiya Kuramochi Translated by Yasuyoshi Miyoshi Hiiragifusha May 2012, 5 22st print
- ^ "Social History of Knowledge 2-From Encyclopedia to Wikipedia" p302-303 by Peter Burke Translated by Hiroyuki Iyama Shin-yo-sha July 2015, 7 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "History of Sanseido Dictionary Japanese EncyclopediaSanseido Bookstore Toshinobu Sakaida June 2013, 6 Retrieved June 12, 2016
- ^ "Japanese Encyclopedia”. National Diet Library. 2020/6/23Browse.
- ^ "World Primary Color Encyclopedia”. National Diet Library. 2020/6/23Browse.
- ^ "Heibonsha so farHeibonsha, viewed May 2016, 5
- ^ "Forcible Commercial Code Still Rampant to Lawyers" "Asahi Shimbun" June 47, 1972, morning edition, 6th edition, 14nd page
- ^ "What is the basic knowledge of modern terms?Read January 2016, 6
- ^ ""Imidas" "Chiezo" suspended』ITmedia News August 2007, 08 Viewed June 31, 2016
- ^ A new discipline called "intercultural communication" that I encountered in the days of compiling the English Encyclopedia of Japan.Kanda Foreign Language Group
- ^ a b "Britannica Encyclopedia Ends Book PublishingThe Wall Street Journal Japanese Edition March 2012, 3 Retrieved June 15, 2016
- ^ "Making an Encyclopedia of the British Empire" p225 Takehiko Honda Kodansha November 2005, 11 10st print
- ^ "Making an Encyclopedia of the British Empire" p227 Takehiko Honda Kodansha November 2005, 11 10st print
- ^ "Visual Edition of the History and Culture of Books: The Power of 5000 Years of Books" p172 by Martin Ryans Translated by Fumiya Kuramochi Translated by Yasuyoshi Miyoshi Hiiragifusha May 2012, 5 22st print
- ^ ITmedia News "Competing with Wikipedia with reliability Free dictionary sites such as Asahi Shimbun, Kodansha, Shogakukan, etc.April 2009, 4 Retrieved June 22, 2016
- ^ The Chronicle Online: "SEVERAL COLLEGES PUSH TO BAN WIKIPEDIA AS RESOURCE"(As of January 2007, 9Archive）
- ^ Vermont Today: "WIKIPEDIA: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it?"
- ^ The Register: "There's no Wikipedia entry for'moral responsibility'"
- ^ Rough Type: "The Amorality of Web 2.0"
- ^ Pierre Athrine / [Other] Written by Tsutomu Sasaki / Translated by "Wikipedia Revolution What's happening there?" 』\ Iwanami Shoten(2008)(ISBN 978-4-00-022205-1)
- ^ Masaki Yamamoto and Yusuke Furuta "What's happening on Wikipedia begins to changeSocial mediafaith" Ohmsha(2008)(ISBN 978-4-274-06731-0)
- ^ Hacker japan2007 year 7 month number
- ^ There is a description that sales of Quid (France) have decreased by more than 70%.Source: Pierre Athrine / [Other] Written by Tsutomu Sasaki / Translated by "Wikipedia Revolution What is happening there?" The rise and fall of Chapter 5 Encyclopedia of Iwanami Shoten
- ^ nature: Special Report Internet encyclopaedias go head to head
- ^ Nature magazine evaluates Wikipedia's accuracy WIRED.jpVISION December 2005, 12
- ^ Britannica protests "Wikipedia overestimation" in Nature magazine WIRED.jpVISION December 2006, 3
- ^ Wikipedia is as accurate as Britannica, countering the article ITmedia News