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🎥 | Satoshi Tsumabuki Surprised by the Chinese movie scale Over 1 million yen for one day shooting "Use as much as you want"


Photo waving with a smile (from left) Tadanobu Asano, Satoshi Tsumabuki, Honami Suzuki, Tomokazu Miura = Andaz Tokyo (photographed by Shinya Miyoshi)

Satoshi Tsumabuki Surprised by the Chinese movie scale Over 1 million yen for one day shooting "Use as much as you want"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Satoshi Tsumabuki, who has participated since the second work, studied the language so much that he changed the Japanese lines to Chinese and made a role.
 

The actor's wife Satoshi Tsumabuki (40) performed the movie "Detective Chinatown Tokyo MISSION" in Tokyo on the 24th (released on July 7th) ... → Continue reading

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Language study

Chinese

Chinese(Chinese,: 汉语/Chinese language/中文 ,pinyin: Hànyǔ/Zhōng wén; British: Chinese) IsSina TibetanBelongs to言语.People's Republic of China(China)·Republic of China(Taiwan)·Republic of Singapore OfOfficial terminologyBesides,世界Live in each countryOverseas-ChineseIt is also used between.

Including each dialectChineseTheMother tongueAbout 13 billion people[1],Second languageIs said to be used by about 2 million people, the world's largestNative speaker populationHave.Also,United NationsIt is also one of the official languages ​​in[2].

Language name

People's Republic of ChinaThen mainly中文Call.

China is a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nation, and the language of ethnic minorities is inevitably the "Chinese language."Chinese language(HanOften called), is often used as an academic term. ElsewhereChinese,Chinese storyThere is also a way to call it.

In ChineseStandard languageIsMandarin ChineseToMandarin(China),National language(Taiwan),Chinese(Singapore, Malaysia, etc.)#historyAnd each item). When you just say "Chinese" in Japanese, it usually refers to a normal story.[3]..Putonghua is sometimes commonly referred to as "Mandarin", but like the relationship between Japanese standard language and the Tokyo dialect, it is also called Putonghua.Beijing TalkAre not necessarily the same[4].

Generally, in Chinese, the languageCulture(Example:GermanGerman), when referring to a language, dialect or colloquial language/conversation without a clearly defined letterStory(Example:Shanghai story).wordIs used for both of the above (eg Dede (German),Minnan Language).

Features

The characteristic of Chinese is that it is "concise from Chinese."

As an example of simplicity, first in ChinesetenseIs omitted. thereforeNowOrfutureOrPastIt depends on the reader's judgment. AlsosentenceAnd phrase,wordThe relationship between and条件ResultWhenOrderingWhenReverse connectionWhen both areword orderIt is only shown by and is left to the discretion of the reader. Hence the ChinesegrammarIs simple, but has the characteristic that it is understood by common sense. In addition, auxiliary letters (classes of physics, characters, persons, and flames) are also omitted. Chinese has the property that sentences can be established with or without supplementary characters. So this is JapaneseReadingIf you want to"Tenioha"Need to be added.

The reason for pursuing such simplicity is漢字Was used. ThatIdeographIn China, which uses only Kanji, it is possible that the Kanji to be written may not have been prepared, even though it occurs and exists as an oral word. In modern China, the method of writing colloquial language as it is is almost complete, but in ancient times many words did not have the kanji to be written. Therefore, the ancient writing method was to extract only the words that can be written as kanji from colloquial words and write them. Chinese has a property that allows it. In this way, when it was perceived that a written word had a more concise form than a spoken word, the written word consciously concisely and worked up in a concise direction. The text of "rongo" is already in that stage, and it is speculated that there was a considerable difference from the colloquial language at that time.[Source required]

On the other hand, Chinese is sensitive to rhythmPoetryIt always retains such a property, and the basis of its rhythm is often centered around quaternary phrases. Subscripts often work because of the composition of these rhythms. Using the property that a subscript is a word that may or may not exist, it is contrary to conciseness, but by adding a subscript, the rhythm is completed and the sentence is completed. Therefore, the subscripts added to satisfy such a rhythm often make it difficult to pursue a clear meaning. Also, these four phrases are oftenCoupletTypicalrhetoricBecomes In other words, it is a repeating rhythm in which words with the same grammatical conditions are placed in the same place. This couplet is easy to establish due to the Chinese character, and its sprout is "LaoziIt often appears in ancient writings such as. This will soonPoetryFrom Tang to Song中 世The beautiful sentence ofFour and six sentencesGave birth to[5].

History

Ancient chinese

Old Chinese(15th century BCAround- 3st centuryAround)[6]

  • 漢字Is the original form ofShell character(1899Found) is used and a simple sentence is recorded.
  • InitialsThere were compound consonants sl-, pl-, kl- (example: "supervisor" *klam) in (head consonant).
  • RhymeWas rich in tail sounds (eg "two" *gnis).
  • Word orderタイ 語TypicalSVO typewas. (Example: 吳 defeated Yukio Osho “Kure beat Yue with her husband.” SVO-Adv ⇔ Contemporary: Wu Army Zhuo Zhao Pong Yue Army defeated. Or Wu Army Zhuo Xiaoping defeated S-Adv-OV)[7]
    • The literature around this time was:Moroko HyakuyaThere are still books on the subject.
  • Played a grammatically important roleaffix,InvariantbyModifierWas formed, but began to decline in the latter half.
  • 代名詞ToCasewas there. Still someHakka,ShogoRemains in.
  • Sengoku period OfChu,Is the language ofChinese characterと 呼 ば れ るFontIn kanjiBamboo stripRecorded inBaoshan,Li Ya QinHave been discovered.
  • With the unification of the whole country, the language spread to various places.

Middle Chinese

Used Chinese(4st centuryAround- Generation)[8]

Modern chinese

Old mandarin(yuanTeens,LightTeens,clearGeneration)[11]

  • It is believed that the ancestors used the Han sound since the Tang Song[12][13].
  • In terms of vocabulary and grammar, the difference between sentence words and colloquial words has widened.LightFrom generationclearIn his teens, spokenWhite story novelHas become widely written.
  • In the former and the Qing eraNorthern languageCentered onAltay languagesI had absorbed some vocabulary from. By the wayInterstitial"Grip" isWas already there. Example:Bai Juyi"Mojo Hangzhou sashimi" is included in "Gekijou".
  • In the original daisies, "yes" was often used.
  • A language centered on the language of Beijing, where the capital was, began to spread all over the country. This language was called "Masson," but since the officials mainly used it, "MandarinThe name has come to be established[14].
  • manyNorthern dialectVoice inputDisappears[15].
  • Around the Ming Dynasty, Northern dialectChildhood"Sound" appeared.This is not an influence from the Altaic languages, but a phonological change of the Northern dialect itself.
  • Soft palate OfPalateProgresses. (clearQianlongperiod)[16]

Modern chinese

1895 OfSino-Japanese warLater, focusing on the words that describe things and concepts in Western EuropeJapanese-made ChineseBegan to flow into Chinese,1898ToKei Cho 横 浜 市It started in earnest with the publication of "Seikiho"[17].1905 OfChina AllianceSince the formation, excellent students from JapanWaseda UniversityToStudy abroadHowever, it has already been localized in Japanese and has become established.Japanese-made ChineseAnd touching Western concepts such asNational languageWas strongly influenced by. This large influx of new Chinese is1919Around its peak, after thatSecond World WarUntil the end, it continued while reducing the quantity gradually[18].

On the other hand, in the latter half of the Qing dynasty, the movement to establish standard language also increased in China,1904Requires communicative learning in elementary and secondary education[19].. Up until this time, the word "government" also included the meaning of "standard language" that should be established in the future.1910Is a standard wordMandarinThe name “” has come to be used.[20], Since then, the official language has come to refer to the dialect centered on Beijing and the national language to the standard language.TaiwanThen the name is still inherited.1911Was decided by the government of Qing Dynasty to unify the national language as a standard language.[21].

Happened the same yearXinhai RevolutionAlthough this movement was temporarily suspended by the government, the newly established ROC government emphasized the unification of Chinese and continued the unification of national languages.[22].. In the establishment of the "national language" in the Republic of China, the unification of pronunciation was first emphasized, but there was controversy over whether to use the Beijing dialect or a new pronunciation that was an eclectic mix of local dialects for this pronunciation, and finally1924Stipulated to mainly use the Beijing dialect[23].

1917IsMr. ChenThe magazine published bynew youth] In the magazine,Suitable forThe movement to change the written language from "literal style" (literal text) to "colloquial style"White talk movement) Spreads,Literary revolutionHappened[24].Lu Xunof"A Q MasadenWas created in this movement.1919(8 years in the Republic of Korea),Beijing UniversityProfessor'sSengenBecame a central figure in the New Cultural Movement by contributing to a magazine and appealing for character reform and advocating the abolition of Chinese characters.

Second World Warrear,1949ToMainland ChinaWas established inChinese Communist PartybyPeople's Republic of ChinaIn, the establishment of standard language and language unification continued to be pursued.However, in terms of pronunciation, "Kokugo" had already been established and was already widespread throughout the country during the reign of the Republic of China, so we basically took the stance of following this.However, since "Kokugo" was a loanword from Japanese, "MandarinIt was decided to change the name[25]..In response, the Government of the Republic of China, which fled to Taiwan, continued to use the term "national language."[26].

In terms of pronunciation, the government of the People's Republic of China followed the policies of the Republic of China in terms of pronunciation, but in terms of writing, it has undergone a large-scale reform and simplified the traditional kanji as an orthography.Simplified characters 1956Was adopted by. Also, as a language control agency1954The Chinese Character Reform Commission was established in1985Was renamed the National Language Characters Working Committee[27].

Standard language

In China, text words were unified since ancient times, but colloquial language was different in each region, and the pronunciation of kanji was also different in each dialect. From the beginning of the 20th century to the middle stage, aiming to resolve this situationNorthern languagePronunciation and vocabulary of modern colloquial novelsgrammarBased onMandarin"(pǔ tōng huà) Was made. To facilitate communication among the people,ChugokuThen the central governmentStandard language policyWill positively promote the use of normal talk,Education,broadcastWas introduced inStandard language-common languageIt is said that. It is generally said that about 8% of the total population understands normal talk, and the younger generation of dialect speakersbilingualIt is often. In 2017, about 80% of Chinese people will be able to use Putonghua[28],2000It was reported that it increased significantly from 53% of[29].

TaiwanAlso took control of Japan after the defeat of JapanRepublic of ChinaThe governmentNational language"(guó yǔ) (It is almost the same as "normal talk", and mutual understanding is possible, but there is a difference in voice and vocabulary)Compulsory educationIt is carried out[30].

Singapore,MalaysiaSuch asSoutheast AsiaIn the region of Mandarin, Mandarin, which is similar to ordinary language or ROC, is generally used.Chinese"(huáyǔ).

dialect

Many in ChinadialectThere is. For example,Mandarin(Northern languageOne) and Guangzhou (Cantonese・One of the Yukaku)Shanghai(Distributed in the eastern partWuNot only the pronunciation and vocabulary differ greatly, but there is also a difference in grammar,MandarinThose who can only speak can hardly understand even if they hear Cantonese and other dialects.言语There is also a view. However, since the written words are common, it is easy to read the written sentences, so in China, subtitles are often added to dramas, movies, animations, etc. that are broadcast on TV.[32][33].. In addition, since each local language belongs to the Chinese language group and the correspondence is clear, it is common to place normal language as a standard language and rank each local language as a dialect.[34][35].

Dialect classification is controversial, and it depends on the scholar how to divide it. In two categories, east of HunanYangtze RiverIn the north and southIsolinesIs almost equal to (Nantong,ZhenjiangEtc.), and inland areas north and west of thisNorthern language"(andJin Chinese), from which the south can be classified into southern dialect areas (Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2004).

The dialects are based on Proto-ChineseThai languagesSouthern languages ​​such asMongolian language,Manchu languageNorth ofAltay languagesIt is thought that it differentiated while incorporating features such as pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar.as a feature,ToneHas,Isolated wordAnd justsyllableLanguage (Columbia University Press, 2004)Northern language(MandarinIs included)yuanIt has not been isolated or monosyllabic because it has been changed to a great extent since its generation.

Seven dialects

  1. Northern language(Mandarindialect)
    1. Northeast China dialect (Beijing Talk ,Tohoku official story,Ojiro Talk,Liaison talk)- Beijing-Tianjin-Heilongjiang-Jilin Province-Liaoning-Hebei Province-Henan Province-Shandong内蒙古Part of.
    2. Northwest dialect (Nakahara Talk,Ran Gin Talk)- Shaanxi-Gansu-Shanxi ProvinceThe whole area ofQinghai Province-Ningxia-内蒙古Part of Central AsiaDongan peopleResidential.
    3. Southwest dialect (Southwest official talk)- Sichuan Province-Yunnan-Guizhou,Hubei ProvinceMost of, northwestern Guangxi, northwestern Hunan.
    4. Jianghuai dialect (Jiang Huai official story,Nanjing official story)- Anhui Province-Jiangsu OfYangtze RiverNorthern regions (however,Xuzhou-BengbuExcept),Jiangsu OfZhenjiangFrom the westJiangxi ProvinceJiujiangThe southern coast of the Yangtze River to the east.
  2. Wu(Shanghai,Such. )
  3. Refined word(Cantonese
  4. 贛 語(And so on. It's close to Hakka.)
  5. Shogo(Such)
  6. Acronym
    1. Minboku
    2. Min Dong
    3. Minnan Language(Formosan
    4. Min Chinese
    5. Chinese language
  7. Hakka

Ten dialects

It is argued that the following dialects should be independent large dialects. Composed by Australian Academy of Humanities and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences"The Language Atlas of China"Is compiled from this standpoint.

  1. Jin Chinese -In the seven major dialects, it belongs to the northern language.
  2. Tongue -It belongs to Wu in the seven major dialects.
  3. Plain story(Hirai story)-In the seven major dialects belong to the Yuu word.

EthnologueClassifies Chinese into 14 (SIL International, 2004).Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfDonganIt is,CyrillicIs written usingRussian,KyrgyzThere are many borrowed words from such countries, and because they are used in different countries, they are independent languages, and the Dongan language is added to the nine dialects excluding plain language. in this case,Acronym TheMinboku-Min Dong-Minnan Language-Min Chinese-Chinese languageIt is divided into five languages.

In addition, there are small dialects whose classification is not fixed.

phoneme

Chinese isTonal language.syllableThe difference in the pitch of the sound ofconsonant,vowelIt has the same meaning as in. thisTone(Tone)[36].. For example, "MandarinIs the morpheme {ma}Light voiceThere are 19 including (Matsuoka, 2001).HoweverFlat voice,Yohei voice,High voice,Leaving voiceFour tones[37]Light voiceTherefore, it is actually divided into 5 different morphemes.

An example
  • Yinpei (first voice)- No(; Mom)-high and flat.
  • Yohei (second voice)- hemp(has; Hemp)-A rising tone.
  • Upper voice (third voice)- (I.e.(; Horse)-Keep it low.
  • Forgotten voice (fourth voice)- Taunt(; Abuse)-a sharp drop.
  • Light voice- Gossip(Ma; Questioning particle)-There is no intonation and the height depends on the previous tone.

Notation

It is a common character system of Chinese漢字Has a long history. KanjiChugokuOwnTextso,Latin lettersSuch asThe alphabetUnlikeSyllabaryIsIdeographIs. Kanji uses a large number of parts with complicated appearances, and is read irregularly.VariantThere are also many synonymous characters, so it takes a long time to learn, and because of the negative evaluation that it is economically inefficient, the simplification of characters andLatin lettersSince the Republic of Korea period, the movement for the transition to slogan has become popular, which has led to the development of simplified characters and mandarin notation.[38].. actuallyDPR Korea,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThen abolished kanji[39].

With the above movement,Mainland China OfPeople's Republic of ChinaThen.1956In addition, the number of strokes is small and the unity of reading and composition is improved.Simplified charactersWas officially adopted[40].. Simplified Chinese is mandated by the central government to be used throughout China,SingaporeIs also used in Chinese (Chinese) notation. On the other hand, the Republic of China (Taiwan),Hong Kong,MacauSo basically, I kept the font before Simplified繁体字Is used[41].

Traditional/simplified characters are based on the history of political and technological history in each culture.ComputerAnother that is totally incompatible in processingCharacter code-Character setSystem (Simplified region =GB 2312, Traditional Chinese =Big5) Has been used. There are some simplified Chinese characters that are organized into one character (many-to-one), so when converting from simplified Chinese characters to traditional Chinese characters (one-to-many usage is required),hair"(Hair)" for "bullet", "CheersMisconversions such as "(cheers)" to "trunks" are often seen in traditional Chinese pages on mainland China.

ChineseRomajiIn the notation19st centurysinceWade-Giles methodHas been used traditionally and is stillTaiwanUsed for road signs, personal names appearing in English newspapers, etc.[42]..Then in 1913 during the Republic of ChinaBopomofoA phonetic symbol called is developed and widely used.In Taiwan, which is governed by the Republic of China government, it is still common to use Bopomofo to indicate the reading of Chinese characters.[43]..People's Republic of China1956ToChinese soundEstablished a new Roman alphabet notation[44].. This sound is1977ToUnited NationsThe 3thPlace name standardization meetingSo, as the Roman notation for Chinese place names,1982ToISOIt was adopted as the Roman alphabet notation in Chinese.Pinyin also helps foreigners (especially Westerners) to learn Chinese and elementary school students to learn Chinese characters.2009In Taiwan, it also uses Kanji sound.

grammar

Word form change(Inflection) Does not occur,word orderIs an important decisive factor in interpreting meaningIsolated wordIs[45].. Other languages ​​with isolated featuresVietnameseand so on. The basic word order isSVO typeIs[46].. However, in modern Northern languages ​​and written languages,To"Or"",""byPurposeThere is a display etc.,SOV typeCan make a sentence ofAgglutinationApproaching.

An example

  • Standard language grammar:I left the bookstore. / I Kyoshoshokan Book.Wǒ qù tú shū guǎn kàn shū. (Go to the library and read a book.)

In modern languages, particles and auxiliary verbs come before and after verbs, as in Japanese. For exampleIs a verbaspectRepresents (completion) and at the end of the sentenceModalityRepresents


In ChinesetenseRepresentsGrammar categoryDoes not exist. On the other handaspectExists and the verb says ""(Done)"Over/over"(experience)"Wear/Author"(Progress)".

  • Yesterdaygo withRyo Film Institute. / Yesterdaygo withRyoden-in.(I went to a movie theater yesterday.)

In addition, CaseThe characteristic of isolated words is that there is no change in word form due to. Therefore, even in Chinesenoun,adjectiveThere is no case change. Case is indicated by word order.

An example First person singularPersonal pronoun"I”(Wŏ)

  • IPast China. / IPassing China.(NominativeI have been to China. )
    • Shanghai:ITo China. / IIt's all over the country.look to Tsoncué chicoughé.
  • I amILearning. / IILearn.(PurposeMy mother lets me study. )
    • Shanghai:I personallyILearning. / My individual accountILearn.ngoghé mama gnian look ghózí.
    • English order by same: My mom made me study.

vocabulary

Chinese is basically a monosyllabic language, but modern languages ​​have a growing syllable of multiple syllables.[47].. One character is used for one syllable in the kanji used for Chinese notation.

An example

  • Home(jiā; House)
  • go(zǒu; Walk)
  • L(from; Big)

ExceptionallyLoanwordFor example, some words have no meaning in monosyllabic.

An example

  • glass(bōli;Glass)

Original ChinesewordIs a monosyllabic, so even ifToneEven if you make a distinction withPolysemy,homonymWill increase. Therefore, especially in Northern languages, "eye" → "eye, "Ear" → "ear, "Nose" → "nose, Etc., to make the meaning clear by using multiple syllables (Hashimoto, 1981).

Also, in the same sense monosyllabicmorphemeMay be aligned to form a two-syllable idiom. For example,verb"Study/study"(Learn) ispinyinIs written as (xué), but there are five homonyms ((Study, hole, 噱, ankle, 泶) So, in order to clarify the meaning of "learning", I made it into a two-syllable word, "Study/Study'' (xué xí) Can also be used.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "The world's languages, in 7 maps and charts"Washington Post March 2015, 4 Read March 23, 2020
  2. ^ "Member States and Official Languages" United Nations Information Center Retrieved February 2020, 6
  3. ^ "Toga Large Language Module|Chinese". www.coelang.tufs.ac.jp. 2020/9/7Browse.
  4. ^ "Mandarin is not a standard language|Chinese Study Seminar-The secrets of choosing a university". liuxue998.com. 2020/9/7Browse.
  5. ^ Kojiro Yoshikawa, The Story of Hanbun, Chikuma Publishing, New Edition 1971 (First Edition 1962), pp. 32–74, 177
  6. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p13-14 Wang Zhu Hua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  7. ^ (Hashimoto, 1978)
  8. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  9. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  10. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Words, History of Exploration" (Ajia Books) p31-34 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7
  11. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  12. ^ CaoGuangshun.and Dandan Chen. 2009. Yuan baihua teshu yuyan xianxiang zai yanjiu [Reexamination of the special features in Yuan baihua]. Lishi Yuyanxue Yanjiu[Historical Linguistics Study] 2:108-123. Beijing: The Commercial Press
  13. ^ Ota, Tatsuo (Tatsuo Ota). Traditional Chinese History Bai Teisha, 1988
  14. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p21 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  15. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p133 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  16. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p122-123 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  17. ^ "Modern Japanese-Chinese Vocabulary Exchange History New Chinese Language Generation and Acceptance, Revised New Edition" p77 Takeshi Shikuni Kasama Shoin August 2008, 8
  18. ^ "Modern Japanese-Chinese Vocabulary Exchange History New Chinese Language Generation and Acceptance, Revised New Edition" p4 Takeshi Shikuni Kasama Shoin August 2008, 8
  19. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p41 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  20. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p22 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  21. ^ “Chinese Communities and Standard Languages: Focusing on South China” p22 Chen Ohua Sanyuansha February 2005, 2 First edition, first edition
  22. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p42 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  23. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p120 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  24. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p45 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  25. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p123 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  26. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p58-60 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  27. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p127 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  28. ^ "Mandarin Chinese, penetration rate about 8%, about 6% in extremely poor areas”. AFP. 2021/5/10Browse.
  29. ^ "China, 29 types of characters Putonghua penetration rate to 73%"September 2017, 09 People's Network Japanese version Retrieved July 15, 2018
  30. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p60 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  31. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 3.
  32. ^ "Chinese Subtitles | Study Abroad Guide to Chinese for Beginners”(Japanese). chinaryugaku.com (September 2020, 7). 2020/9/7Browse.
  33. ^ "In China, Mandarin subtitles appear on Chinese TV programs. The dialect is too different!". zatsugaku-company.com. 2020/9/7Browse.
  34. ^ “Chinese Communities and Standard Languages: Focusing on South China” p19 Chen Ohua Sanyuansha February 2005, 2 First edition, first edition
  35. ^ JapaneseInMainland dialect(Local language),Ryukyu dialect(Ryukyu) Is similar to the relationship.
  36. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  37. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  38. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p15-18 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  39. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p127 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  40. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p17 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  41. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p36 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  42. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p166-168 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  43. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p168-170 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  44. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p9 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  45. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p7-8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  46. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p6 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  47. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p10-11 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition

References

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