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harassment(Harassment,British: Harassment) Is a general term for acts that cause discomfort, such as making others (regardless of specific or unspecified number of people) feel uncomfortable or causing substantial damage.harassmentAlso called.
To a similar conceptmischief,BullyingHowever, in many cases, these are words that are used on the assumption that the perpetrator has malicious intent, while harassment and harassment are caused by some act from another person.Emotional scarsThe intention and subjectivity of the perpetrator do not matter because it is established by feeling that the person has been shocked.[Annotation 1].
An act that results in discomfort or loss to others in daily life.When a person feels uncomfortable with an act, the act becomes harassment.Even if the act is not offensive to A, it can be harassing to B.Since it depends on how the recipient feels, the perpetrator may not be aware that he or she is harassing, but may act based on ignorance, ignorance, or the good intentions of the person. It should be noted that there is.
Depending on the content of the actcrimeMay correspond to.. other than this,Civil actionAnd victim accusationssuicideIn some cases, the perpetrator and his / her manager may be held legally liable or may be subject to social sanctions.An example of a labor-management dispute isMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareCan be narrowed down by 11 itemsIn addition, "Central Labor CommitteeOrders / judicial precedentsDatabaseYou can browse using the search function.. Also,DiscriminationMay be included in harassment.
The Japanese government's policy is to equalize the gender gap in employment opportunitiesWe are expanding the range of support from to harassment regardless of gender...The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare gathered experts to "Study Group on Measures to Prevent Power Harassment in the Workplace" (Chair:Hiroki SatoChuo UniversityThe examination of the legal provisions of power harassment, such as the establishment of a professor), began in 2017...Sexual harassment measures were revised in 1997 and 2004Equal Employment Act[Annotation 2]Specified byClarify the responsibility of the business owner[Annotation 3], 2006 Ministerial Guidelines 10 Items[Annotation 4]And obliges employers who hire or dispatch workers to take "employment management measures to prevent sexual harassment of male and female workers"Clarified.In 2012, we released a portal site for raising awareness and solving power harassment in the working environment... In 2017, similar guidelines were set for maternity harassment.
Types of harassment
The type of "harassment" changes with the times.Refer to each page for details.
- Power harassment --According to the definition of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, giving pain based on superiority in the workplace can be broadly divided into violence, ranting, loss of peers, over / under demand, and invasion of privacy...In Europe and the United States, legislation has been enacted since the 1990s, and in Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare formed a working group in 2011.Showed concrete measures and measures against actors and victims.
- Sexual harassment --- "Sexual behavior that goes against the will of the other person causes disadvantages in working, and" sexual behavior "disturbs the working environment."..It became a problem as women improved their social status.
- Moral harassment - MoralHarassment on the basis of.Some countries have banned it by legislation.
- Alcohol harassment - DrinkingHarassment related tobottom upIt became a problem because some people died due to the coercion of.
- Smoke harassment ――Being aware of the health hazards caused by cigarette smokePassive smokingProblems such as unfair dismissal and harassment of those who neglected prevention and demanded measures against second-hand smoke became problems.
- Smel harassment --Harassment caused by odor.It has come to be described in the regulations of the service industry and the manners book, and especially bad breath and body odor are regarded as problems.In addition, more and more people are uncomfortable with the strong scent of perfumes and fabric softeners..
- Doctor harassment --Harassment of patients by doctors.Informed consentIt became a problem in connection with the discussion that the relationship between the doctor and the patient was re-questioned.
- Religious harassment ――It is a problem because of religion and religion.
- Blood type harassment - Blood TypeDiscrimination occurs because of.Japanese-speaking words.
- Electronic harassment --Harassment using electronic technology.
- Maternity harassment - Pregnant womanHarassment from the workplace against.
- Tameguchi harassment-harassment of people who feel uncomfortable with Tameguchi (Tamehara).
Otherkaraoke"Karaoke harassment" that forces you to singOr, hired by a company personnel manager for job hunting studentsUnofficial offerI will harass you, saying, "End your job hunting and squeeze into my house."Owahara(Job huntingEnd harassment) ", And even the originCitizenshipBecause ofFacial harassment,ITTechnology harassment (tech harassment) that makes people with high related knowledge feel uncomfortable around them by treating people with low knowledge in an irreverent manner.Also, in gyms, etc., bulk harassment that creates an airy feeling like a hierarchical relationship by the difference in muscle mass (bulk), logical harassment that makes the other party uncomfortable by saying the truth,Childcare leavePatanity harassment that harasses men who getEtc. have been pointed out.Various concepts of harassment have been advocated due to heightened awareness of harassment, and awareness of the problem of harassment and harassment, in which everything is harassed, has also been advocated..
Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular
Students (or or) are particularly prone to harassment interrelationships at schooljunior).In harassment between students, there are "dismemberment (dismissal)" and "ignore (shikato)", but the most common is "disappearance".Bullying".Not only violent acts and bad words that directly harm the other party, such as hitting and kicking, but also insidious acts that do not directly harm the other party are harassment.Also in recent yearsBack school siteな どHarassment on the netIs also a problem.And recently, even though I have experienced harassment at school, there are cases where harassment of this kind of content continues even after I go out to society, even if I become a member of society as an extension of school and still stay in the company for a long time.In this case, there is also a problem of hitting a personality disorder.
Sexual harassment in school is especiallySchool sexual harassmentSome educators are arrested and punished by the board of education.For example, in fiscal 2016, 226 educational staff were disciplined for “obscene acts and sexual harassment” (223 males and 3 females)..
Education and research institutes such as universities and graduate schools abuse the position and rights of faculty members and harass students by not accrediting credits, making them disadvantageous in employment, not accepting dissertations, and not writing letters of recommendation.In addition to students, staff may be harassed in research institutes and workplaces by being forced to retire by their professor, being discriminated against in promotion, or being hindered in class research.Harassment that abuses power in these educational settings is often "Academic harassment(Akahara) (may be accompanied by sexual harassment).
Article 1 1
— International Labor Organization 2019 Violence and Harassment Convention (No. 190)
- (a) "Violence and harassment" in the world of work, whether one-time or repetitive, is intended for physical, psychological, sexual or financial damage, or Certain unacceptable behaviors and practices that cause or may cause these damages or threats thereof, including gender-based violence and harassment.
- (b) “Gender-based violence and harassment” means violence and harassment directed at individuals on the grounds of gender or gender, or violence and harassment that imbalances individuals of a particular gender or gender. , Including sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment that is often featured in the media for harassment "Sexual harassment(Sexual harassment) "is famous.There are many cases of male bosses at work and other female subordinates.For example, it is said that sexual harassment is the act of touching a woman's body as a skinship, calling her "○○ -chan", or treating her as if she were really interested.
There is also another harassment that has become a social problem in the workplace.that isPower harassmentIs.The boss / superior person abuses his / her job authority / power and mentally hunts down his / her subordinates.For example, yelling in front of other subordinates, ignoring only the subordinates who are outright, imposing an amount of work that clearly cannot be done alone, and cursing the subordinates who could not be completed. It hits it.This may be perceived by the surroundings as bad for the subordinates, which may lead to hunting down the victim.
Abuse and violence not only from colleagues, bosses and subordinates, but also from users of products and services have become a social problem (""claim""Monster customer"reference).For certain occupations, at schoolMonster Parent", At medical institutions,"Monster patient"Nursing careThen care haraIt is also sometimes called.
BanquetAt the seatAlcohol harassment(Alhara) is also a problem.While being unable to refuse alcohol is a matter of power relations related to power harassment, the constitution of not being able to drink alcohol is often hereditary, and forcing people to drink is harassing. It has been pointed out that it is an act of human rights infringement or an act of injury.Alcohol harassment used to be decreasing in companies and university circles.
For typical harassment, "VandalismThere is.This can cause a lot of nonsensical and long lines of characters to be pasted on a bulletin board on a website, continue discussions about content that does not fit the purpose of the bulletin board, and hurt managers and other users. Refers to such writing.channel 2Represented byAnonymous bulletin boardMost users don't have a handle, likenameless personTo others, even in places likeSlanderThere is a person (adhesive) who repeats.
There is also harassment to write information that is detrimental to a certain person in a place that can be seen by an unspecified number of Internet users.personal informationTo exposePoliciesInfringement andLibelAnd so on.This harassment overlaps with the "vandalism" mentioned above, but it is not completely synonymous.For example, defamation of a bulletin board administrator is also vandalism, but a website itself that aims to invade the privacy of others is not called vandalism.
In addition, although a real person is not directly damaged, a fan of that character (or a fan of the work) sees a thorough and relentless slander targeting a specific character such as an anime. Will bethread(mainlychannel 2,channel 5), Which is still good, but if it is a malicious person, the character is being abused in a cruel and bizarre way.Ascii art(AA) andSS(Short story) etc.Secondary creationIn some cases, sticking things are repeated, and these acts are "abuse", and the person who does it is "abuse kitchen" ("~ kitchen" refers to a person who is considered unfavorable.Net slang).As a result, fans who unknowingly opened the thread saw their favorite character being slandered or "abused" and were shocked mentally, or the image of the character was downgraded and the company indirectly May suffer damage.
In most cases, such an act can be done by deleting the writing on the bulletin board or receiving a posting block, but on the other hand, a civil lawsuit is filed by the copyright holder who fears that the character's image will be downgraded. In some cases, it cannot be said that there is no legal risk.
Other harassments include the dissemination of malicious programs.The effects vary widely, and some of them cause serious problems to the computer.Detail is"Computer virus"reference.
Mail bombThere is also harassment.This act is the targetEmail AddressWithout permissionDating site,E-mail MagazineIt is a harassment that sends a large amount of emails to the target by registering with or using dedicated software.
In addition, unauthorized disclosure or leakage of other people's photos and accompanying information (real name, home address, etc.) on the Internet has come to be called "photohara"..
These actions may be performed due to personal grudge or disgust toward a specific person, or may be performed for fun regardless of the person.
In neighborhood relationships, it is easy to recognize the words and actions of the other party as unpleasant harassment.
noiseMany of the residents who are making the sound are often making the sound without being aware of it.Therefore, even if a complaint is pointed out, the person is angry and tends to develop into a serious problem such as a neighborhood or a self-governing body.
In addition, there are harassments such as "Greetings (to the neighbors) are ignored" and "Out of friends".MurahachiActs such as "" may still be seen today.
There is also harassment at home.
In particular, there is a mutual relationship between parents and children.In the case of a child to a parent, it is often due to the desire to look at oneself or the emergence of independence that comes from the rebellious period.
The only problem isChild abuseIs.Raise your hand to your own child, have no interest in the childneglect,Sexual abuseand so on.These actions leave serious scars on the child's future.Harassment due to the mutual relationship of brothers and sisters as a derivative of child abuse (Abuse between brothers and sisters).
For specific companies and organizations
Harassment cases such as bomb threats may occur against specific companies and organizations.generallyPolicemenEven ifbombIs not set upPleasant criminalIn many cases, it ends up being mischievous due toA case that really happened, not a prankThere is also.
Japan Private Railway AssociationAccording to a questionnaire survey conducted in 2019, the number one in the ranking of annoying acts is "how to sit in a seat", and in particular, "do not sit in a seat" is annoying...In addition to this, "manner when getting on and off", "how to hold and place luggage", "how to use smartphones", "noisy conversation", etc. were ranked high.
The number of open-legged sittings that ranked first was especially high among men, and in another survey, 1% of the respondents answered that they were "quite annoying."..This annoyance is internationally recognized and it is not possible for men to sit on open legs in public transport.ManspreadingIt is called.
Also, intentionally ramming women mainly in the station yardCollision manAlso exists.
Insurance clinicAccording to the 2016 survey, sexual harassment and power harassment (1%) were ranked first, Matahara (69.3%) was ranked third, and mobbing (3%) was ranked fourth. The recognition from women was higher than that from men..
The number of consultations with prefectural labor bureaus, etc. in FY2019 was 87,570 (up 5.8% from the previous year)...Most of the consultations with the Labor Bureau, etc. are related to "bullying / harassment", and the number is increasing year by year.Of these, 7,323 cases were sexual harassment, 4,769 cases were treated as disadvantageous due to marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, etc., and 4,124 cases were treated as disadvantageous related to childcare leave.
Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareAccording to the 2016 survey, 32.5% of the respondents said they had received power harassment, and 30.1% said they had seen or consulted about power harassment. 11.7% of the respondents answered that they had been pointed out..
Perpetrator / Victim
In the aforementioned insurance clinic survey, the gender of perpetrators was 67.6% for men, 15.0% for women, and 17.3% for both...In addition, the position was most boss, 70.4%.
The gender of the victims was 29.5% for women and 23.7% for men...Workplaces were the most affected, at 68.2%.As for specific content, power harassment was the most common, at 60.1%.In the case of women, power harassment and sexual harassment were about the same.
- ^ Whether the content of harassment or harassment is incidental or illegal is another matter.
<Equal Employment Opportunity Law for Men and Women> Article 11 The employer shall be able to respond to the sexual behavior of the employer by the worker.
A system necessary to respond appropriately to consultations from the worker so that the working environment of the worker will not be harmed by the sexual behavior or the disadvantage of the working conditions. Maintenance and other necessary measures for employment management must be taken.
2 The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare shall establish the guidelines necessary for the appropriate and effective implementation of the measures that the employer should take based on the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
- ^ Measures against sexual harassment under the Equal Employment Opportunity Law for Men and Women see revisions in 1997 and 2004.
- Amendment of the Equal Employment Law in 9 (enforced in April 11) Obligation of business owners to give consideration to prevent sexual harassment of female workers
- Amendment of the Equal Employment Law 18 (enforced in April 19) Obligation of employers to take employment management measures to prevent sexual harassment of male and female workers
- ^ From the 9 items before the revision of the Equal Law, the measures for victims and the measures for actors are individually stipulated and set to 10 items.
- ^ Definition of harassment Osaka Medical UniversitySexual Harassment Prevention Committee
- ^ What is harassment? Hitotsubashi University
- ^ Noriko Furuta "Lecture "From students to working people-Understanding, prevention, and response to harassment-""'Human Rights' 22 Rikkyo UniversityAcademic Repository (March 2014, 3) pp.31-19.
- ^ "Serious sexual harassment damage to long-term care workers is a tendency to endure frequent rants and violence.""Tokyo Newspaper』April 2018, 10 (viewed June 10, 2018)
- ^ "Let's take a look at the judicial precedents | Akari workplace cheering party-Portal site for prevention and resolution of power harassment (power harassment) in the workplace-”(Japanese). Akari workplace cheering party-Portal site for prevention and resolution of power harassment (power harassment) in the workplace-. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ "Search by "harassment">". Central Labor Relations Commission Order / Judgment Database. Central Labor Relations Commission, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ "Search results for "harassment"". Central Labor Relations Commission Order / Judgment Database. Central Labor Relations Commission, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ Human rights consultation (human rights issues such as bullying, discrimination, and harassment) Musashino
- ^ "To ensure equal opportunities and treatment for men and women in employment”(Japanese). www.mhlw.go.jp. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ a b c "We have opened a portal site "Akari Workplace Support Team" for the prevention and resolution of power harassment in the workplace.". www.mhlw.go.jp. Labor Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ Shinobu Nogawa(Central Labor Relations Commission Regional Coordinator,Meiji UniversityLaw School Professor) "Measures and Challenges for Power Harassment from a Legal Perspective — Possibility of Legal Regulations on Power Harassment"Central Labor Relations Commission> 29 Labor Relations Seminar (Kochi Venue / Cancellation)", Central Labor Relations Commission, February 2018, 2.
- ^ Osaka Labor Bureau Employment Equalization Office. “Measures for sexual harassment under the Equal Employment Opportunity Law for Men and Women> page 2 § Guidelines on measures that employers should take in employment management regarding problems caused by sexual behavior in the workplace (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Notification No. 26) Point 7) (July 1, XNUMX-))”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/5/13Browse.
- ^ "For those who are worried about harassment in the workplace (sexual harassment / harassment related to pregnancy, childbirth, childcare leave, etc./power harassment)”(Japanese). www.mhlw.go.jp. 2019/5/15Browse.
- ^ Roundtable Working Group Council Materials on Workplace Bullying and Harassment Issues Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (January 2012, 24)
- ^ Masahiro Irie "Workplace Power Harassment: Current Situation and Response"Health Science," Vol. 37, 2015, pp. 23-35, two:10.15017/1515750, NOT 120005607689.
- ^ Where does sexual harassment (sexual harassment) come from after all?Action cases and countermeasures Labor Affairs Lawyer Navi (released July 2020, 7) Retrieved August 14, 2021
- ^ Shinya Saeki (January 2018, 1). “Your smell is also harassment”. Nikkei Business. 2019/2/6Browse."Nikkei Business』April 2018, 1 issue
- ^ Ruth Evans (November 2012, 11). “Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality?”. with the BBC 2019/2/6Browse.
- ^ a b c d "Power harassment, sexual harassment, matahara ... 4 in 1 people who have experienced harassment In some cases, they received a retirement recommendation after consulting with their boss!". PR TIMES (September 2016, 11). 2020/12/14Browse.
- ^ "The number of victims of technology crimes is increasing." "Public Opinion Time Report" Public Opinion Time Report, March 2019, 3. Pages 1-6.
- ^ デ ジ タ ルDaijisen. "What is Maternity Harassment?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2019/6/7Browse.
- ^ a b c ""Techhara", "Karahara", "Brahara", "Owahara" ... A large number of new types of harassment are occurring!How many do you know”. Kodansha (June 2016, 6). 2018/1/21Browse. Contemporary business
- ^ Expert commentary on the latest method of "Owahara" that asks job hunters to finish job hunting NEWS Post Seven(2015 3 年 月 日 22)
- ^ Shimadzu, Sho. “"Return to childcare leave, immediate transfer" burns, hits Kaneka former employee and wife directly”(Japanese). Nikkei Business Electronic Edition. 2019/6/7Browse.
- ^ Daisuke Nozaki "" Hara Hara Employees "Crush the Company"Kodansha,Year 2016
- ^ "(PDF)”. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (December 2017, 12). 2018/4/26Browse.
- ^ Protect long-term care staff from "care harassment"Yomiuri ShimbunMorning edition August 2021, 8 (social security)
- ^ Photographs of others Posted on SNS without permission "Photohara" Beware of troubles even if not malicious"Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Evening October 2018, 10 (social aspect) Viewed October 10, 2018
- ^ "2019 station and train nuisance ranking”. Japan Private Railway Association. 2020/12/1Browse.
- ^ "A flood of criticism for both men and women! … Why do men open their crotch on the train?”(May 2018, 4). 2020/9/11Browse.
- ^ a b "Harassment seen in "harassment basic information" data”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/12/14Browse.
- My grudge purpose
- Self-restraint police
- Misplaced anger
- Flame (net term)
- Monetary purpose
- Age harassment
- Power harassment
- Sexual harassment
- Maternity harassment
- Vexations: Piano piece.Vexations means "harassment".