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🎥 | "PUI PUI Molcar" theatrical version, pamphlet with all storyboards for 12 episodes released


Photo Pamphlet Image – (C) Tomoki Misato JGH / Shin-Ei Animation / Molkers

"PUI PUI Molcar" theatrical version, pamphlet with all storyboards for 12 episodes released

 
If you write the contents roughly
As for theatrical original goods, a total of 11 products such as film-style stickers, film bookmark sets, pouches, and ballpoint pens will be sold at the screening theater.
 

The movie "Tobide!Break in! Original theater goods from "PUI PUI Molcar" and 12 episodes of TV animation ... → Continue reading

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Ballpoint pen

Ballpoint penIs a writing instrument with a structure that has a small steel ball built into the pen tip and rotates with the brush to exude ink in the shaft and write.[1].Precision machineryAnd文 房 具Kind of.

EnglishThen. "ballpoint pen" (ball-point pen), or simply called "ballpoint"[2][3].. "Ballpoint pen" is sometimes said to be Japanese English[4][5], Is sometimes called "ball pen" in English-speaking countries as a common name / commercial term.[3][6][7].The United Kingdom,アイルランド,Australia,New ZealandIn English-speaking countries, the ballpoint pen is called "biroCalled "(Bijlow)"[8],British EnglishThen, "biro" is a noun that refers to ballpoint pens in general.This is the inventorBelo LaszloIt depends on the sound of reading the surname in English.

特性

At the tip金属orCeramics(Like a small part of Ball PentelResinThere are also tiny ones)ball(ball) Is inlaid, and by rotating the ball on the surface on which it is written, it is housed in a thin tube on the back of the ball.イ ン クIs sent to the surface of the brush tip and you can draw a lineペ ンA kind of.A unitized version of this series of mechanisms is called a refill, and is used by being housed inside the pen shaft.

There are many types of ballpoint pens depending on their thickness, color, ink characteristics, and how to put out the pen tip.There are two types, a cap type that is used by removing the cap that covers the pen tip, and a knock type that is used by pushing the button on the back to extend the pen tip.So-called multicolor ballpoint pensmechanical pencilThose with multiple knock parts, such as those that also have the functions of, are called multiple knock types.[1].

Unlike pencils, ballpoint pens are also used for official documents because the handwriting cannot be erased with an eraser.Until the advent of ballpoint pens, fountain pens were the mainstream of writing instruments, but ballpoint pens have the advantage of being able to draw smooth lines with a weak force due to their unique structure.fountain penDifficult to usePigmentSince high-performance ink such as ink can be used, it has excellent handwriting storage stability.In European schools, pencils are mainly used for drawing, and many countries use ballpoint pens and fountain pens for writing.[9]..In the past, even in French classrooms, only fountain pens were not allowed to use ballpoint pens,BigReleased the ballpoint pen "Crystal" in 1950 and became popular, and the ban on its use in the classroom was lifted in 1965.[9].

Since the tip of a ballpoint pen is hard and it is easy to apply pressure,Carbon paper,Pressure sensitive paperUsedCopy(carbon copy) Is also suitable.Since it is cheap, printed products centered on the company logo are often distributed for corporate advertising.The disadvantages of ballpoint pens are that the ball does not rotate well if there is an uneven surface, the written line is curved, and it is vulnerable to being left for a long time.

A normal ballpoint pen重力Since the ink is sent out using, writing cannot be done with the tip facing up.If you write letters upward from the horizontal, the ink will not come out gradually, and if air gets into the ink tank, bubbles will be created.Ink in a microgravity spacecraft, etc.Nitrogen gasForcibly send out with a space pen (popularlySpace penA special ballpoint pen called) is used.However, ballpoint pens are not completely unusable in space, and "America has taken the trouble to develop space pens with a lot of time and money.ロシア(Former Soviet Union)宇宙 飛行 士(I.e.pencilThere is a joke saying "I'm done", but the pencil lead is easily charged with static electricity.graphiteRussia is also replacing pencils with ballpoint pens, as debris and dust can adversely affect equipment, including[10].

Entering the 21st century, a Japanese stationery maker creates compressed air inside the shaft by knocking instead of filling it with gas and sends out ink.Pressurized ballpoint penHas been developed and sold by each company.Since it is pressurized, it can be written regardless of the direction of the tip, and since there is no gap for water to enter from the pen tip, it is characterized by being able to write even on wet paper or in a sub-zero environment.

Construction

The tip of the ballpoint pen (called a tip) has a structure in which a metal or ceramic ball is fixed to a metal pedestal so that it can rotate freely, and the processing of the tip that affects the performance of the ballpoint pen is particularly important and advanced. Technical capabilities are required.There are various materials for ballpoint pen tips, and the main materials for ballpoint pen tips are listed below.

Chip material

Free-cutting brass
It is easy to process and can be manufactured at low cost, but it has a short life.
White copper
Same as above.Corrosion resistance is relatively better than brass.
stainless
It is relatively wear resistant and has a long life.Most of the ballpoint pen tips produced in Japan are made of this material.

Ball material

Stainless steel
It can be manufactured at low cost, but its wear resistance is slightly inferior.
Cemented carbide
Mainly carbonizedtungstenIs used.It has a long life.
Ceramics
mainlyaluminaIs used.In addition to having a long life due to less wear, it does not cause a chemical change in the ink, and the surface has fine irregularities, which makes the ink sticky.
Artificial jewelry
RubyIs used for high-end ballpoint pens because of its low coefficient of friction and low wear.

Shaft material

Synthetic resin
The most common shaft material.It is widely used because it is inexpensive and can be mass-produced.
金属
Used in some expensive ballpoint pens.It has the advantage that the main body can be made smaller than synthetic resin.
wood
It is rarely used in general because the material tends to be out of order.
celluloid
Oncefountain penMaterial used in large quantities for.It disappeared at one point due to the appearance of synthetic resin, but it is still used in detail with an emphasis on the old-fashioned texture.
ebonite
Same as above.UVAlthough it deteriorates with, it has a beautiful jet-black luster.
paper
GermanyShaft material devised in.Wrapped in multiple layersKraft paperUse a paper tube made of cardboard.A large area for printing the logoRecyclingBecause it is easy for companiesPropagandaIt tends to be used extensively.

Since the ballpoint pen supports the ball by caulking around it, if it is laid down and written, the caulking may rub and cause a malfunction.Since there is a seat inside the pen tip to support the ball, it is better to write at an angle where the seat can support the ball in the correct position.Therefore, when writingfountain penUnlike, it is required to write at an angle close to a right angle to the paper surface (60 to 90 degrees is desirable).

History

Inventing a ballpoint pen required the development of high-precision processing and fixing technology for extremely small balls for pen tips and high-viscosity ink.With conventional low-viscosity ink, a large amount of ink oozes out as the ball rotates, making it impossible to draw sharp lines.

  • 1884ToAmericaIt was conceived by human John Loud, but it was not practical because it could not prevent ink leakage.
  • Jewish HungarianJournalistBelo Laszlo(László Bíró) devised the world's first modern ballpoint pen1938Patented in the United Kingdom[11].1941ToGermanyEscapeアルゼンチンEstablished a company in the country when immigrating to1943Obtained a patent in the countryBiromeSold under the brand name[12].Royal Air ForceIs a licensed product of this pen (Biro) Has been adopted, and it has become known that ballpoint pens are less likely to leak than fountain pens when used in flight at high altitudes.[12].
  • 1945Biro's birome pen was mass-produced with Eversharp and Reynolds, and became a boom in the United States after the war.[12].
  • It is the reason why stable products that can prevent ink leakage almost completely are on the market.1950 eraAfter reaching[13].
  • 1950In frenchBigReleased the transparent shaft "Big Crystal", and released a 1970-color ballpoint pen in the 4s.[14][15]..BIC has been the largest ballpoint pen maker to this day in the 21st century.[12].
  • 1949ToAutoThe company is the first in JapanPencil type ballpoint penAnd developed ink for securities[16].
  • 1964Auto develops the world's first water-based ballpoint pen[16]..Since then, various water-based ballpoint pens will be released by each company.
  • 1965Paul Fisher is a nitrogen gas pressurized typeSpace penDeveloped.laterNASAWas also adopted[17].
  • 1966ToZebraThe company releases the ballpoint pen "Zebra Crystal" that shows the remaining amount of ink at a glance.
  • 1982ToSakura ClepasCompanyDecentralized OfThixotropyDeveloped and obtained a patent for a water-based gel ink that applies the phenomenon.After that, domestic companies also started developing high-performance gel ink ballpoint pens, and the performance of ballpoint pens improved dramatically, spurring the spread of ballpoint pens.

Initially, it was expensive and did not spread, and the ink bleeds over time after writing, so it was not allowed to be used for official documents.However, due to the mass production effect and improvement, quality improvement and price reduction have progressed, and it has become possible to use it for official documents.Gradually, it was adopted by financial institutions, and in the 1960s ballpoint pen newspaper advertisements, a copy saying "loved by top banks" was used.[18].1970 eraLaterfountain pen,Dip penIt has become the most common writing instrument to replace.

Since the latter half of the 1980s, manufacturers have pursued resistance to fatigue in various ways, such as installing rubber grips and improving ink. In the mid-1990s, ballpoint pens with a variety of ink colors were released one after another, and the support spread not only to business but also to students.[Source required].

Types

Ballpoint pens are classified according to the characteristics of the ink used.Oil-based ballpoint pens were first invented and widely used for office work, but later water-based ballpoint pens (including water-based gels) also gradually became popular because they have good color development and can be written with low writing pressure, and have become mainstream in Japan since the 1990s. Has become[19]..For water-based inkgelImproved with the properties ofGel ink ballpoint penSince the beginning of the 21st century, it has the advantages of both oil and water.Emulsion ballpoint penHas been developed.

JIS,ISOStandards stipulate requirements for general writing and official documents, the latter being tampered with by chemicals (en: Check washing) Is highly resistant.

Oil-based ballpoint pen

The most classic ballpoint pen, in the 1930s and 1940sBelo LaszloDeveloped by.Low volatility and high viscosityOrganic solventBecause it uses ink for ink, it has the advantages of less bleeding, no set-off, and a long writing distance.The ink achieves superficial drying by penetrating the paper.Basically, the pen tip does not dry up (malfunction due to ink drying)[20], Refills have a relatively long shelf life.Disadvantages include the heavy writing quality, faint writing, and the occurrence of bokeh (excess ink pool on the pen tip).Dyes are mainly used as dyes, and although they are inferior in light resistance to pigments, they have good water resistance, and it has been confirmed that they can be stored in handwriting for more than 50 years in practice.

From around 2000, conventional soot (2-Phenoxyethanol,benzyl alcoholA "low-viscosity oil-based ink" ballpoint pen that aims for a smooth writing taste with an ink composition different from) has appeared.[21]..For relatively early onesAutoOil-based soft ink has existed since 1999.

Other

Water-based ballpoint pen

Auto"Aqueous Ballpoint Pen W" (1964)[23],Pentel"Ball Pentel" (1972)[24]Is pioneered.It is popular in Europe and the United States in advance.Roller ballIs called.Due to the low viscosity of the ink, the smooth writing feel is attractive.Compared to oil-based ballpoint pens, it is superior in terms of writing taste and color development.Dye ink also has the weakness that when it gets wet, the ink flows and the characters disappear (pigment ink is water resistant).

Unlike oil-based products, it is easy to dry up, so the cap must be closed securely after use.There is also a knock type that does not require a cap, and in 1990 at the latest for overseas productsLamyProducts such as "swift" have appeared, but the history of Japanese products is short.pilotIt was first put into practical use in "V Ball RT" (2008).[25].

The internal structure of the water-based ballpoint pen includes a batting type and a direct liquid type depending on the ink storage method.The conventional batting type isCapillariesSince the ink is supplied from the batting, it has the characteristic of being able to write regardless of the direction of gravity, but when the remaining amount of ink cannot be seen and the remaining amount decreases.Ink flowHas the drawback of lowering.The direct liquid type, which was developed later, directly stores liquid ink and stores it.fountain penBy supplying it through a collector that resembles a comb groove (bellows), the drawbacks of the batting type are eliminated.[26]..There is a limit to the amount of ink that can be retained by the collector, and there is a risk of ink leaking if the collector receives extreme temperature or atmospheric pressure changes.[27]However, improvements are being made in this respect as well.[28].

Gel ink ballpoint pen

Sakura ClepasDeveloped for the first time in "Ball Sign" (1984)[29].Neutral ballpoint penAlso called.Depending on the nature of the gel, it has both the goodness of a water-based ballpoint pen (smooth writing taste) and the goodness of an oil-based ballpoint pen (you can see the remaining amount of ink, and the ink output is constant until the end).[30].

For water-based inkgelThe gel ink with the agent added is a high-viscosity gel inside the refill, but when the ball rotates, the ink quickly becomes low-viscosity.SolThe ink oozes out of the pen tip.When the exuded ink adheres to the paper surface, the ink gels immediately, so there is little ink bleeding.[31]..In addition, it has the characteristic that relatively large ink particles are easy to use, and special products such as pastel color (opaque) ink mixed with white pigment, glitter ink, scented ink, and erasable ink have also appeared.There are two types of ink materials, dye-based and pigment-based. Dye gel ink has vivid colors and smooth writing, but has difficulty in water resistance.Pigment gel ink has high water resistance and light resistance after drying and is suitable for long-term storage.

Like water-based, it is easy to dry up, and initially only the cap type was used, but there is also a knock type that does not require a cap.Mitsubishi pencilof"SignoKnock type ”(1997)[32]Since then, it has been put into practical use, and later, a multi-color knock type and a multi-function knock type with a refill that is as slim as oil-based have appeared.The knock type contains ink that is difficult to dry up, andSpringThe ball is pushed out with and the gap is closed when not writing to prevent dry-up.

Erasable ballpoint pen

In 1979, American stationery maker Paper Mate released the eraser-erasable ballpoint pen "Eraser Mate" using "Eraserable Ink" that made the ink particles larger so that they would not soak into the paper.Mitsubishi pencilHad released "Kerbo" for a while.However, this cannot be used like a pencil because it cannot be erased over time.[33].

Has the same usability as a pencil since the 21st centuryPilot CorporationThe "D-ink" was a hit, and the successor models "e-GEL" and Mitsubishi "Uniball Signo Erasable" appeared.However, it did not take root because it was difficult to erase or easily disappeared.[33].

In January 2006, the handwriting can be erased by the frictional heat generated by the pilot rubbing with the rubber on the back of the pen.Friction ballWas released in advance in Europe, and was released in Japan in 2007. Due to its convenience, a total of about 2010 million units have been sold worldwide by 3.[9]..Friction has continued to spread around the world.

However, the erasable ballpoint pen has the problem of tampering with documents.In Maizuru City, Kyoto Prefecture, many official documents written with an erasable ballpoint pen have been found and have become a problem, and movements to ban their use are progressing in the office work of Japanese local governments.Manufacturers are also calling for refraining from filling out certificate documents with a ballpoint pen that can be erased[34]..There is also a method to restore the erased characters at low temperature after writing with an erasable ballpoint pen.[35].

Emulsion ballpoint pen

In the 21th centuryZebraA new type of ballpoint pen developed by, a water drop type in oil that is a mixture of oil-based ink and water-based gel.EmulsionUse ink.By stabilizing the mixture (emulsified) at a ratio of 7 oil-based and 3 water-based, both the smooth writing taste of water-based and the bright and dark writing line of oil-based are achieved.Both water resistance and light resistance are high.

Ball standard

The diameters of the pen tip balls are 1.2 mm (B), 1.0 mm (M), 0.7 mm (F), 0.5 mm (EF), but 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm thick, 0.4 mm, 0.3 mm. Extra-fine ones such as millimeters, 0.25 millimeters, and 0.18 millimeters are also appearing.

In Japan, 0.5 is preferred for the convenience of writing kanji with dense lines and is widely distributed, but 0.7 or less is not sold for products for Europe and the United States of Western manufacturers, or 0.5 is set as a special specification for export to the kanji area. It may be prepared.This is the same tendency with mechanical pencils.

Normally, the larger the ball, the thicker the handwriting, and the smaller the ball, the thinner the handwriting. However, the diameter of the ball and the thickness of the line are not the same, and change depending on the writing pressure and the like.

Generally, for balls of the same thickness, water-based ballpoint pens and gel ink ballpoint pens have thicker handwriting than oil-based ballpoint pens.

Additional functions

As an additional function, with a clip[1], With seal (with seal)[1], With clock[1], With light[1],Self-defense equipmentWith (Tactical pen)and so on.

Luxury goods

Not as good as a fountain pen, but also for ballpoint pensMakie,Lacquered,RadenThere are some very luxurious items that employ traditional crafts such as, and are decorated with precious metals and jewels.Well-established fountain pen makers often sell oil-based ballpoint pens and rollerballs with almost the same design as their main product, the fountain pen.

Ballpoint pen drawing

Since the invention of the ballpoint pen, it has become a versatile art medium for professional artists as well as amateur graffiti.[37]..According to users, pens are cheap, portable and widely available.Therefore, this general stationery is also a convenient painting material.[38].. Traditional pen and ink techniques such as "pointillism" and "crosshatch" can be used for halftone and three-dimensional depictions.[39][40].. Above allAndy WarholFamous 20th century artists such as, have also used ballpoint pens to some extent[41]..Ballpoint pen drawings continue to fascinate people even in the 21st century.Contemporary artists are recognized for their particular ballpoint pen technical capabilities, imagination and innovation.A Korean artist living in New York, (Il Lee) Has produced large-scale, abstract ballpoint-only works since the early 1980s.[37]..His work has been exhibited in Seoul (Korea) and the United States.Lennie mace (Lennie Mace) Has drawn various contents on the surface of unconventional materials such as wood and denim since the mid-1980s, and has created works only for ballpoint pens.Terms such as "penting" and "media graffiti" were coined to describe his varied style.[42][43][44]..Mace is the most prolific ballpoint pen painter.His work is regularly exhibited throughout the United States and in Japan[45]..Recently, the British (James Mylne) Uses mostly black ballpoint pens to create photographicly realistic artwork, and sometimes uses other art materials to express color.Milne's work is internationally popular in London and through the internet[46][47][39]..The limited color types of ballpoint pens and the deterioration of colors due to light are one of the concerns of ballpoint pen painters.[48]..Mistakes are fatal to ballpoint pen artists.This is because after the line is drawn, it cannot be erased basically.[42]..When using a ballpoint pen for artistic purposes, you should also consider ink flow stagnation and clogging.[49]..Illustrations by the Japanese artist "Hakuchi" have become popular in the United States through the Internet.Juan Francisco Casas (Juan Francisco Casas) And Samuel Silva's ballpoint pen drawings have recently been the focus of attention for their "viral" effects on the Internet.[50].

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d e f Design classification definition card (F2) Patent Office
  2. ^ The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Ed., Oxford University Press, 2005.
  3. ^ a b "Shogakkan Random House English-Japanese Dictionary』Shogakukan
  4. ^ "Japanese dictionary』Kodansha, 1989
  5. ^ "Ballpoint pen"WeblioEnglish-Japanese dictionary / Japanese-English dictionary ”
  6. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1975.
  7. ^ "New Japanese-English Dictionary 5th Edition" Kenkyusha, 2003
  8. ^ Room, Adrian (1983). Dictionary of Trade Name Origins. Routledge. pp. 41. ISBN 0710201745. http://books.google.com/books?id=Qdw9AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=hu#PPA41,M1 2008/7/22Browse. 
  9. ^ a b c "Classroom in Paris, a pen made in Japan that changed the landscape". WORLD (Asahi Shimbun). (December 2011, 11). http://globe.asahi.com/feature/111120/02_1.html 2015/5/12Browse. 
  10. ^ "Pedro Duque's diary from space", ESA NewsJuly 2003, 10
  11. ^ The first complete specifications appear to be UK 498997, June 1938 and UK 512218, December 1938; his rather basic Hungarian patent 120037 was dated April 1938. Collingridge, MR et al. (2007) "Ink Reservoir Writing Instruments 1905–20" Transactions of the Newcomen Society 77 (1): pp. 69–100, page 80
  12. ^ a b c d Bellis, Mary. “About ballpoint pens”. About.com. August, 2014Browse.
  13. ^ Romanowski 1998.
  14. ^ "History”. BIC Japan. 2019/11/10Browse.
  15. ^ "Bic Cristal Ballpoint pen”. The Museum of Modern Art. 2019/11/10Browse.
  16. ^ a b "The history of ballpoint pens is the history of OHTO". www.ohto.co.jp. OHTO. 2020/6/1Browse.
  17. ^ Discourses such as NASA asking Fisher to develop it and NASA spending a lot of money on development have been disseminated as promotions and jokes, but in reality NASA is not involved in the development of the Space Pen. Steve Garber, "The Fisher Space Pen", NASA History Program Office
  18. ^ Nikko ballpoint pen advertisement "Asahi Shimbun" July 42, 7 Morning edition 26st page
  19. ^ Wakako Tayuki (August 2009, 5). “Is "Aqueous Ballpoint Pen" Endangered Now?". Excite Bit connectorExcite. 2016/12/4Browse.
  20. ^ "Opi Lab: vol.02: Pilot's commitment-bonus-". OpinetteMarketing Communications (September 2003, 9). 2016/12/4Browse.
  21. ^ Katsuyuki Okawara (April 2008, 2). “"I hate oil-based ballpoint pens" made oil-based ballpoint pens a hit". Nikkei BP NetNikkei BP. 2016/12/4Browse.
  22. ^ [New product] Triplus ball / oil-based ballpoint pen newly released Staedtler (December 2018, 12)
  23. ^ Water-based ballpoint pen W - National Science MuseumIndustrial Technology History Information Center
  24. ^ Ball Pentel B50 - National Science MuseumIndustrial Technology History Information Center
  25. ^ Sugimoto (August 2008, 8). “Capless but smooth writing-Pilot, Japan's first knock-type water-based ballpoint pen". ITmedia Enterprise.ITmedia. 2016/12/7Browse.
  26. ^ Water-based ballpoint pen Uniball UB-150 - National Science MuseumIndustrial Technology History Information Center
  27. ^ "When there is a sudden change in atmospheric pressure or temperature (direct liquid ballpoint pen)”. Mitsubishi Pencil. 2016/12/4Browse.
  28. ^ Water-based ballpoint pen Uniball UB-200 - National Science MuseumIndustrial Technology History Information Center
  29. ^ Ballpoint pen (world's first water-based gel ink ballpoint pen) GB280 - National Science MuseumIndustrial Technology History Information Center
  30. ^ Shigeyasu Inoue (2002). “Development of gel ink ballpoint pen”. Heat measurement (Japan Society for Thermal Measurement) 29 (5): 232-233. two:10.11311 / jscta1974.29.232. 
  31. ^ Useful information for ballpoint pens: About ink for ballpoint pens. Japan Writing Tools Industry Association, 2002.
  32. ^ "Uniball sign knock type XNUMX yen type”. Mitsubishi Pencil (October 1998). As of October 10, 1999オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/12/7Browse.
  33. ^ a b Seiichiro Takita"Genealogy of erasable ballpoint pens"(Wayback machine
  34. ^ "Ballpoint pen that can be erased in official documents" Maizuru City, Kyoto "It was sweet to recognize" ". Kyoto Shimbun (Kyoto Shimbun). (September 2015, 4). http://www.kyoto-np.co.jp/politics/article/20150407000019 2015/5/12Browse. 
  35. ^ Friction ball (various friction series) Frequently asked questions --Pilot HP
  36. ^ History of ZEBRA
  37. ^ a b Genocchio, Benjamin (August 2007, 8). “To See the World in Ballpoint Pen”. The New York Times (Manhattan, New York, USA: Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). ISSN 0362 4331. OCLC 1645522. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/10/arts/design/10lee.html August, 2012Browse. 
  38. ^ Attewill, Fred (September 2011, 9). “Artist wins £ 6,000 art prize after using 3p ballpoint pens from Tesco”. Metro (Kensington, London, England: Associated Newspapers Ltd). ISSN 1469 6215. OCLC 225917520. http://www.metro.co.uk/news/877097-artist-wins-6-000-art-prize-after-using-3p-ballpoint-pens-from-tesco August, 2012Browse. 
  39. ^ a b Mylne, James (2010). “About Ballpoints, & Using Them in Art". Biro Drawing.co.uk. James R. Mylne. As of November 2012, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.August, 2012Browse.
  40. ^ Tizon, Natalia (2007). Art of Sketching (illustrated ed.). New York City, New York, USA: Sterling Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 9781402744235. OCLC 76951111. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=MeyF9BFQKZEC&pg=PA84&dq=ballpoint+pen+artwork&hl=ja&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ballpoint%20pen%20artwork&f=false August, 2012Browse. 
  41. ^ Warhol, Andy; Slovak, Richard; Hunt, Timothy (2007). Warhol Polaroid Portraits. New York City, New York, USA: McCaffrey Fine Art. Pp. Intro. ISBN 9780979048418. OCLC 420821909. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=MB1MGlION0MC&pg=PP8&dq=ballpoint+pen+artwork&hl=ja&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ballpoint%20pen%20artwork&f=false August, 2012Browse. 
  42. ^ a b Liddell, CB (April 2002, 4). “The hair-raising art of Lennie Mace; Lennie Mace Museum”. The Japan Times (Tokyo, Japan: Toshiaki Ogasawara). ISSN 0447 5763. OCLC 21225620. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/fa20020403a1.html May, 2012Browse. 
  43. ^ Lebron, Orlando (1998). “Media Graffiti”. Juxtapoz Art & Culture Magazine (San Francisco, California, USA: High Speed ​​Productions) 17 (Winter, 1998). ISSN 1077 8411. OCLC 30889397. 
  44. ^ Liddell, CB (Jan 2002). “Getting the ball rolling in harajuku”. Tokyo Journal (Tokyo, Japan: Nexxus Communications KK) 21 (241): 36–37. ISSN 0289-811X. OCLC 13995159. 
  45. ^ Small, Suzy (August 19, 2005). “Ai Candy; exhibition preview”. Tokyo Weekender (Tokyo, Japan: BC Media Group) 2 (15): 16. http://www.tokyoweekender.com/archives/index.php?vol=2005&issue=15 May, 2012Browse.. [Broken link]
  46. ^ Garnham, Emily (April 2010, 4). “Biro artist recreates Girl With A Pearl Earring masterpiece”. Daily Express (London, England: Northern and Shell Media). OCLC 173337077. http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/169690/Biro-artist-recreates-Girl-With-A-Pearl-Earring-masterpiece August, 2012Browse. 
  47. ^ Battle, Bella (January 2011, 1). “Biro art is simply ink-redible”. The Sun (London, England: News International). ISSN 0307 2681. OCLC 723661694. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/features/2933676/Biro-art-is-simply-ink-redible.html August, 2012Browse. 
  48. ^ Holben Ellis, Margaret (1995). The care of prints and drawings (reprint, illustrated ed.). Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman Altamira. pp. 101–103. ISBN 9780761991366. OCLC 33404294. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RMevB4KjDRkC&pg=PA103&dq=ballpoint+pen+artwork&hl=ja&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ballpoint%20pen%20artwork&f=false August, 2012Browse. 
  49. ^ Johnson, Cathy (2010). Watercolor tricks & techniques: 75 new and classic painting secrets (illustrated, revised ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio, USA: North Light Books. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-60061-308-1. OCLC 299713330. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M2Vik1EPOnAC&pg=PA123&dq=ballpoint+pen+artwork&hl=ja&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ballpoint%20pen%20artwork&f=false August, 2012Browse. 
  50. ^ staff (February 2008, 2). “Simply birolliant --the incredible 10ft'photographs' drawn with a ballpoint pen”. Daily Mail (England: Associated Newspapers Ltd). ISSN 0307 7578. OCLC 16310567. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-511688/Simply-birolliant--incredible-10ft-photographs-drawn-ballpoint-pen.html August, 2012Browse. 

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