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🧑‍🎨 | Ueda City Bessho Line, special program "Art Hautau" to commemorate the opening of all lines will be broadcast on July 7!


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Ueda City Bessho Line, special program "Art Hautau" to commemorate the opening of all lines will be broadcast on July 7!

 
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The Chikuma River overflowed, and the symbol "Red Iron Bridge" of the Ueda Dentetsu Bessho Line, which was familiar to local residents, was swallowed by a muddy stream and collapsed.
 

Typhoon No. 19 caused enormous damage to Shinshu in October XNUMX.The Chikuma River was flooded and was familiar to the locals ... → Continue reading

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Shinano River

Shinano River(Shinanogawa) isNiigataandNaganoFlowing throughFirst-class riverShinano RiverWater systemIt is the mainstream of.NiigataでSea of ​​JapanPour into.Of these, the Shinano River is in the Niigata prefecture area, which dates back to Nagano prefecture.Chikuma River(Chikumagawa)The name changes.In this item, the upstream part called Chikuma River is also described.Overall length 367Kilometers Of the (km), the part called the Shinano River is 153 km, and the part called the Chikuma River is 214 km, which is about 60 km longer than the Chikuma River.

However,River lawSince the main stream of the Shinano River system including the Chikuma River is defined as the Shinano River, the Shinano River isBest in JapanIt is a long river.Japan's three major riversIt is one of them.

Basin area11,900 km2Is the 3rd place in Japan[1], Niigata and Nagano occupy most of the two prefectures, but it is the primary tributary of the Shinano River system.NakatsugawaThe headwaters ofGunma OfLake NodoriDue to its proximity, the basin of the Shinano River system covers three prefectures including Gunma.

Name

In the olden days, it was called "Okawa" as a "big river", but later in the downstream area.Shinano countryAs a river flowing fromShinano RiverCame to be called[2].

It is a name in Nagano prefectureChikuma RiverThere are various theories about the origin of the name[2][3].

  • As the name implies, it was named after the river, which is bent by a thousand or so.
  • oldToyota VillageThe Chikuma River downstream from the river has continuous constrictions, and both banks have a cliff-like terrain, so there is a theory that it is a "chiku (cliff) ma (bag-shaped wetland) river".
  • Nagano Prefecture, the water source areaKawakami-muraAccording to the legend ofTakamagaharaThere was a big battle between the gods who lived in the area, and it is said that the river was created by the blood that was shed at that time. is there.

It is a tributary of the Chikuma River.SaikawaIs in western Nagano prefectureChikumaAlthough it flows through the (Chikuma) region, Tsukama was called "Tsukuma" in the olden days, so it seems that there is no direct relationship.

Chikuma River says "ManyoshuHas been sung in many poems since the time ofSaku-KomoroAroundShimazaki Fujimura("Chikuma River Journey Song''On the banks of Komoro old castle")But,Nagano cityNiigata from the surrounding areaPrefectural borderNearToyota Village(CurrentNakano) AroundTatsuyuki Takano("Oborozukiyo''Hometown』) Is singing.

The Chikuma River is sometimes called "Chuma" or "Chiuma" in Toshin, "Choma" in Hokushin, and "Chiguma" in Sakae Village and Tsunan Town, Niigata Prefecture.[4]..Of dialectologistsYoshio MaseIs from "Manyoshu"Azuma-utaSince there is a notation of "Chiguma no Kaha" in, "Chiguma" is the oldest word of Shinano, "Chiguma-> Chiuma-> Chuma-> Choma". It is estimated that it has changed[4].

Geography

Chikuma River TheSaitama-Yamanashi・ Located on the prefectural border of Nagano PrefectureKotake ShingatakeNagano prefecture side slope (Minamisaku-gunKawakami-mura) Is the sourceYatsugatake,Kanto MountainsWhile merging with various rivers that originate fromSaku Basin(Sakuhei),Ueda Basin(Ueda Taira) flows north.Nagano Basin(Zenkojidaira)KawanakajimaAt the northern end ofHida MountainsFrom the sourceMatsumoto basinIt flowed north from (Matsumotodaira)SaikawaMeet with.

At the confluenceOchiai Bridge(Ochiaibashi) is cross-linked.This bridge is a special T-shaped bridge.After that, the river flows northeast and enters Niigata prefecture.Shinano RiverAnd change the name.

Shinano RiverTokamachi basinThrough the border between Gunma and Niigata prefecturesTanigawadakeFlowed fromUono RiverMeet withEchigo PlainGo out to (Niigata Plain)NiigataでSea of ​​JapanPour into.Estuary TheAgano RiverIt was close to the estuary of the river, and depending on the times, it merged in Niigata and shared the estuary.

Geological findings

From Kawakami Village in the headwaters to Ueda City, it flows northwest along the Chikuma River Tectonic Line, turns northeast by about 90 degrees near Chikuma City, and from Nagano City.Shinanogawa fault zoneWas extended to the northeastFaultIt erodes the geologically weak part of the zone and flows down to the Sea of ​​Japan.bedLooking at the change in gradient, it is 7.3 in the upstream Saku area. Permill(‰), 5.5 ‰ in the Ueda area.However, around Nagano City, it is 0.93 ‰,Nishiotaki DamThe riverbed gradient becomes steeper again with the vicinity as a change point, and it is downstream from the vicinity of the Nagano Niigata prefectural border.TokamachiUp to the vicinity, the gradient is 3.5 ‰.[5].

The cause of this change in gradient isQuaternaryLateHolocene OfUplift activityAnd formed with the upliftFaultIt is due to.The uplift is affected by the Takaoka hills near Nakano City and Iiyama City, and the Nagaoka Fault, which is one of the faults near Tategahana, crosses the river, and the Jujihara Fault near the Nishi-Otaki Dam. , There is the Hokuryu Lake fault, and there is the Tsunan fault near the border of Nagano and Niigata prefectures.

Flood history

Flood damage in Nagano prefecture

In the Chikuma River basin洪水The oldest is the literature ("Japanese abbreviation』) Etc.NiwaFour years (4) are recorded.The biggest flood in history1742 (Generosity2 years), "Full of water"It is called.AndTokugawa ShogunateIt is said that 64 floods were recorded throughout the reign.

  • 888 June 6 (20th year of Niwa)887 Occurred inNiwa Nankai Earthquake, Tokai EarthquakeでYatsugatakeAt the foot of the mountainCollapseWas formedDam lake(River channel obstruction) Crashed after 303 days and occurredEarth and stone flowFlood that is thought to be the cause[6][7][8]..The amount of flooded river channel blockage in the Otsuki River is 5.8 million m3Estimated to be[8].
  • 1543 (astronomical12) Funayamago was washed away by the Chikuma River flood.
  • 1602 (Keicho7) Kurohiko-go was washed away by the Chikuma River flood.
  • 1742 (Generosity2 years) Full of water,The largest flood in history on the Chikuma River Tategahana water level (36)Shaku 10.9 m)..2,800 dead
  • 1847 (Hiroka4 years) Zenkoji earthquakeThe landslide caused by the landslide dammed the Sai River and collapsed, causing great damage downstream.Tategahana water level 8.2 m
  • 1859 (Ansei6 years) Togura Onishi in the current Chikuma cityEmbankment, Senbonyanagi Shimogawara embankment broke[9].
  • 1868 (The first year of the Meiji era) Chikuma River, a total of 7 floods this year, severe damage in April and May.4 houses outflow.
  • 1885 (Meiji15) September, October Embankment broke, flooded 9 units[9].
  • 1896 (Meiji 29) The Chikuma River, the great flood since Kanpo. "Yokota sliceOver 10,000 homes have been spilled or flooded.
  • 1897 (Meiji 30) Both the Chikuma River and the Sai River were flooded, and 599 houses were flooded in the Chikuma River basin.
  • 1898 (Meiji 31) The current Awasa embankment in Chikuma City broke, flooded more than 7,300 houses, and 6 people died.[9].
  • 1910 (Meiji 43) Each river, including the Chikuma River, is flooded.Over 259 units washed away and more than 12,800 units flooded above and below the floor.
  • 1914 (Taisho3 years) 36 casualties, 30 outflow houses, 339 flooded houses.
  • 1945 (Showa20 years) Akune typhoonHeavy rain due to low pressure due to the influence ofWith Nagano City TsunashimaSuzakaLevee breach in Okurazaki.
  • 1949 (24) Kitty typhoonby.45 completely destroyed houses, 187 partially destroyed houses, 1,478 flooded houses.Levee breach at Tanbajima, Nagano City and Murayama, Suzaka City.
  • 1958 (33) typhoonSmall and medium-sized rivers were flooded and destroyed by No. 21, 9 dead, 9 completely destroyed houses, 62 partially destroyed houses, 19 outflow houses, 564 above-floor inundation, and 2,807 underfloor inundation.
  • 1959 (34) Typhoon No. 7[10] 65 dead / missing, 1391 completely destroyed houses, 4091 partially destroyed houses, 4238 above-floor inundation, 10959 underfloor inundation.Tategahana water level 10.44m
  • 1961 (Showa 36) Julyrainy season(I.e.[11] Due to heavy rain, 107 people were killed in the Chikuma River basin, 903 completely destroyed houses, 621 partially destroyed houses, 3170 above-floor inundation, and 15351 underfloor inundation.
  • 1965 (40) Two people died in Nagano prefecture, 2 houses were flooded above the floor, and 265 houses were flooded below the floor.
  • 1969 (Showa 44) Damage is concentrated in the Takase River basin, a tributary of the Saigawa River.About 500 tourists and climbers were left behind in Takase and Azusa Valley, and rescued three days later.
  • 1981 (Showa 56) Flood since 34, 11 dead, 4906 above-floor inundation, 3683 underfloor inundation.
  • 1982 (57) June, with the rainy season frontTyphoon 10by.4 dead, 23 completely destroyed outflow houses, 44 partially destroyed, 80 above-floor inundation, 1384 underfloor inundation.The second water level after the war in Tachigahana after 34. In September, due to Typhoon No. 2.The Taru River, a tributary of the Chikuma River, broke down, with 9 casualties, 18 units flooded above the floor, and 54 units flooded below the floor.
  • 1983 (58) Baiu front[12] ByIiyamaThe main stream of the Chikuma River was breached, 9 people were killed, 7 houses were completely destroyed, 8 were partially destroyed, 3891 were flooded above the floor, and 2693 were flooded below the floor.Recorded the highest water level up to 2019 at Tachigahana. (11.13 m)
  • 1985 (60) Damage occurred in Saigawa, 171 houses were flooded above the floor, and 1032 were flooded below the floor.
  • 1995 (Heisei7 years) Baiu front[13] by.765 houses flooded and the JR Iiyama Line was severely damaged.
  • 1998 (10) 8 units flooded above the floor and 110 units flooded below the floor.
  • 1999 (11) Tropical cyclone[14] Due to one death, 1 flooded houses, road disruptions, and train suspensions occurred frequently.
  • 2004 (16) Typhoon 23by.31 houses flooded above the floor, 432 flooded below the floor Recorded the 4th highest water level in Tachigahana, 139 flooded houses.Tategahana water level 10.32 m
  • 2006 (18) Heavy rain before the rainy season in July[15]..4 units flooded above the floor and 50 units flooded below the floor.Recorded the second highest water level in Tachigahana and Rikugo, evacuation advisory 2 cities and 4 districts.Tategahana water level 10.68 m
  • 2019 (ReiwaFirst year) November,First Year of Reiwa East TyphoonAccording to (Typhoon No. 19).The main stream of the Chikuma River is about 70 m in Hoyasu, Nagano City (left bank).[16] Collapsed over[17]..Hokuriku ShinkansenNagano Shinkansen rolling stock centerGreat damage to[18]..In Suwagata, Ueda CityUeda Electric Railway Bessho Line OfChikuma River BridgeCollapsed[19][20].Tategahana water level 12.44 m, breaking the record for the highest water level ever[21][22]

It can be seen that due to the river improvement and hydraulic control work described later, the breakage of the embankment has not occurred with the same scale of flooding.Tachigahana observation point (observation started in 1951) is oldToyono TownAt the water level observation point by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism on the border between (currently Nagano City) and Nakano City, the slope of the Chikuma River bed becomes gentle and the width of the river exceeding 1,000 m narrows to 210 m.[23]..Downstream from thisQuaternaryDue to the uplift of the ground starting in the second half, the flow of the river meanders and the flow velocity drops.The planned high water level at the Tategahana water level observation point is 10.75 m, and the flood risk water level is 9.2 m.[24].

Flood damage in Niigata prefecture

  • 1620 (Genwa 6 years) NagaokaFlooding in the northwestern region.
  • 1868 (first year of the Meiji era) 10 outflow houses.
  • 1896 (Meiji 29) "Yokota slice".Outflow houses 2500 units, Okawazu water level 4.4 m.
  • 1913 (Taisho 2) Kizuike point on the north bank of the Koagano River breached ("Kitsu cut"), flooded 1440 houses, 2 dead[25].
  • 1914 (Taisho 3) 55 dead, 7154 above-floor inundation, 1881 underfloor inundation.
  • 1917 (Taisho 6) "".Levee breach at the Sogawa floodgate repair site.76 dead, 19 outflow houses.Okawazu water level 4.5m.
  • 1917 (Taisho 15) 1 dead, 3 outflow houses, 250 above-floor inundation, 120 underfloor inundation.
  • 1935 (Showa 10) 425 houses flooded.
  • 1949 (Showa 24) Flood caused by Typhoon Kitty, 1 house completely destroyed, 45 above-floor inundation, 307 underfloor inundation.
  • 1952 (Showa 27) 3 dead, 1 outflow house, 156 above-floor inundation, 1858 underfloor inundation.Levee breach at Higashidaidori River.
  • 1956 (Showa 31) 7 dead, 730 above-floor inundation, 1605 underfloor inundation.
  • 1958 (Showa 33) 9 dead, 19 outflow houses, 4429 above-floor inundation, 7723 underfloor inundation.
  • 1959 (Showa 34) 3 dead, 44 above-floor inundation, 859 underfloor inundation
  • 1960 (Showa 35) 4 dead, 2 completely destroyed houses, 2 partially destroyed houses, 1474 inundated above the floor, 4602 inundated below the floor.
  • August 1961 (Showa 36) Due to heavy rain caused by a typhoon, 8 people were killed, 3 houses were completely destroyed, 2 houses were partially destroyed, 2 were flooded above the floor, and 1474 were flooded below the floor.
  • 1964 (Showa 39) 20 completely destroyed houses, 2730 partially destroyed / above-floor inundation, 13970 underfloor inundation.
  • 1967 (Showa 42) 21 completely destroyed houses, 5072 partially destroyed / above-floor inundation, 12496 underfloor inundation.
  • 1969 (Showa 44) Levee breach at Takayanagawa.9 dead, 122 completely destroyed houses, 839 partially destroyed / above-floor inundation, 7447 underfloor inundation.
  • 1978 (Showa 53) 21 completely destroyed houses, 4217 partially destroyed / above-floor inundation, 9035 underfloor inundation.
  • 1981 (Showa 56) Uono River (Muikamachi) Breaks the bank.2 dead, 1446 above-floor inundation, 1502 underfloor inundation.
  • In September 1982, 57 half-destroyed house, 9 above-floor inundation, and 1 underfloor inundation.
  • 1983 (Showa 58) 12 underfloor flooded houses.
  • 1985 (Showa 60) 1 inundation above the floor and 13 inundation below the floor.
  • August 1998 (Heisei 10) Baiu front[26] As a result, 3 partially destroyed houses, 1422 above-floor inundation, and 8842 underfloor inundation. Due to the typhoon in September, 9 houses were flooded above the floor and 3 were flooded below the floor.
  • 2004July 16 Heavy rainfall in Niigata and Fukushima(July 7 flood damage).By the frontIgarashi RiverとKariyata RiverLevee breach.15 dead, 169 completely destroyed houses, 810 partially destroyed houses, 10712 above-floor inundation, 6359 underfloor inundation.
  • 2011July 23 Heavy rainfall in Niigata and FukushimaThe Igarashi River in the Shinano River system broke due toSanjo CityCaused damage mainly.
  • 2019 (first year of Reiwa) First Year of Reiwa East Typhoon(Typhoon No. 19) flooded the Shinano RiverNagaokaIn addition to the flooding of the Jodo River flowing inside, the Imai district of Nagaoka City was inundated.Ojiya-Tsunan TownHowever, the flooding of the Shinano River caused inundation damage.[20].

Ecosystem

Shinano River water system development history

Hydraulic control of the politicians

Jomon Period, Centered on Niigata CityEchigo PlainPart of was the Sea of ​​Japan.After that, gradually the Shinano RiverAgano RiverAnd the earth and sand thatTsushima CurrentThe earth and sand that[Source required]Echigo dunesFormAccumulation..Although it formed the current Echigo PlainLowlandTo people潟It was an area with poor drainage.In addition, the flow path was changed many times due to the flood.

1597 (Keicho2 years),EchigoKasugayama Castle LordUesugi KagekatsuWas touted as a great general in the consul ofNaoe Kanetsugu Theswallow-SanjoTo control floods in the vicinityNakanokuchi RiverExcavation.This is the Shinano River in the early modern periodWater controlIt will be the beginning of history.

After the transfer of Mr. UesugiEdo Period,Shibata DomainBecame the mainMr. MizoguchiSince he also occupied the vicinity of Nakanoguchi, successive lords were carrying out river improvement.

Nagaoka DomainOf the second feudal lordMakino TadashiParticipated in the improvement of the Shinano River.ShinkawaWe carried out a major excavation project and drained the bad water of the three lagoons that existed in the Kambara Plain to the Sea of ​​Japan, and in the Kambara PlainNitta developmentWas successful.

It is said that the Chikuma River in Shinano Province also recorded 64 floods throughout the Edo period, and even the simultaneous flood with the Sai River recorded 11 floods.During this timeMasanori Fukushima,Matsushiro Domainmain·Tadaki Matsudaira OfElderThe country was changed to parents and children and the Matsushiro clan.SanadaSuccessive generations often performed embankments, digging, and replacement of river channels.

However, despite the repeated hydraulic engineering projects, the Shinano River repeatedly flooded and troubled the heads of the politicians.What emerged under these circumstancesOhkozu Diversion ChannelIt is a plan.

Modern hydraulic control

The Okawazu diversion, which began construction in the Meiji era, was planned from the Edo period to reduce the flow rate of the Shinano River.1909 Full-scale construction began in (Meiji 42),1922 (Taisho 11) Succeeded in water flow, two years later1924 Completed in (Taisho 13)[27].

This had the effect of significantly narrowing the width of the lower reaches of the Shinano River.

1918 (7th year of Taisho)- 1941 In (Showa 16), the first repair project of the Chikuma RiverMinistry of InteriorHowever, the floods brutally occurred and did not lead to a fundamental solution.

Postwar hydraulic control-dams and floodways-

1948 From (Showa 23), the second phase of the Chikuma River repair projectMinistry of Construction(CurrentMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismHokurikuRegional Development Bureau) Was started and is still in progress.

However, the basin has been damaged by floods once every few years, and as a fundamental hydraulic control measure.damFlood control was attempted.In the Shinano River system, Niigata and Nagano prefectures prior to the projects under the direct control of the Ministry of Construction.Prefectural dam businessIs promoted,Susobana Dam(Susobana River),Kasabori Dam(Ryuhori River) etc. were built.Ministry of Construction1960 (Showa 35)Sekiya watershedI planned to build1964 (Showa 39)Niigata earthquakeBecause the city of Niigata was flooded extensively byToriya NogataDrainage plan was started.

After this,1969 Completed in (44).Sekiya diversion channel1972 Water was passed in (47),Kambara Oizumi・ Construction of the Nakaguchi River lock has also started.

But in August 1969Torrential rainCauses great damage to the basin, and as a countermeasure, the Ministry of Construction1974 (Showa 49), "Shinano River water system construction implementation basic planRevised.In thisMultipurpose damPlan to buildOmachi Dam(Takase River)But1986 In (61),Mikunigawa Dam(Sagurigawa)1993 (HeiseiIt was completed in 5 years).

Even in the prefectural managementOtani Dam(Igarashi River)Aburumagawa Dam(Aburuma River) Is in Niigata PrefectureNarai Dam(Narai River) AndOkusobana Dam(Susobana River) was completed in Nagano Prefecture.Also, the population is increasing rapidlyNagaokaTo supply water supply toMyomi Weir(Shinano River)1990 It was completed in (2).

While hydraulic control is underway, flood damage has occurred repeatedly since then.2004 In (16)July 16 Heavy rainfall in Niigata and Fukushima(July 7 flood damage)Sanjo City-Mitsuke CityCaused damage to such things.

In this way, floods and hydraulics have been called "from ancient times.doing repeatedlyIn this situation, it shows the difficulty of hydraulic control of the Shinano River. Construction of the dam was continued even in the 2010s,Hirokami Dam(Wada River, completed in 2011),Bleached river dam(Bleached river. Canceled in 2012).

The aforementionedFirst Year of Reiwa East TyphoonDamaged by (Typhoon No. 19), the "Shinano River Emergency Water Control Project" is underway through the 2020s.[28].

One of the best hydroelectric power generation areas in Japan

On the other hand, the Shinano River has abundant water and the upstream part isKanto Mountains-Hida Mountains-Kiso MountainsBecause it is a torrent,HydropowerIt was a perfect place for me.In the Taisho era, the Takasegawa power plant of the Takasegawa was built, but in the early Showa period, waterway power plants were built in various places.

Especially the oldMinistry of Railways(CurrentJR East) Constructed a large-scale hydroelectric power plant on the Shinano River.In the Shinano River main riverMiyanaka Intake DamThe1938 Constructed in (Showa 13), Shin Yamamoto / Asakawara Reservoir and Senju / Ojiya / New Ojiya Power PlantCapital AreaPowered for railroad operation in Japan (see detailsShinanogawa Power StationSee).

Second World WarLater, on a large scalePumped storage power generationPlaces were built in various places.Especially in Azusa RiverAzumi-Midono Power StationAnd TakasegawaNew Takasegawa Power Station, Of the Minamiaiki RiverKannagawa Power Station, Kiyotsu RiverOku Kiyotsu / Oku Kiyotsu No. XNUMX Power StationIs one of the largest in Japan and is of great importance in supplying electricity to the Tokyo metropolitan area.

Public works review and "declaration of dam removal"

In this way, the Shinano River has many facilities for hydraulic control and water utilization.But since the 1990sPublic worksMomentum for review has increased nationwide,Tone River-YodogawaConstruction of river facilities such as dams was canceled one after another in major rivers nationwide.The Shinano River system is no exception2002 It was planned to have the largest total water storage capacity in the Shinano River system in (12).Kiyotsu River Dam(Kiyotsu River, Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)2003 In (13), it continued from before the war and after the war, "Tadami Specified Area Comprehensive Development PlanThe "Yunoya Pumped Storage Power Generation Plan" based on the "Tadami River Hydroelectric Power Generation Niigata Dividing Plan", which was also taken up in "", and the Sanashi River Dam (the basis of which)Sanashi River..Niigata Prefecture) was canceled along with Ueike, and the long-standing Niigata diversion plan was crushed here.Construction of the Sanyogawa Dam (Sanyogawa, Niigata Prefecture) has also been canceled at the prefectural dam.

In addition, the Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (then the Hokuriku Regional Construction Bureau of the Ministry of Construction)1981 Taking advantage of the Shinano River flood in (56)1954 (Showa 29) "Chikuma River upstream dam plan"Minamisaku-gunMinamimakiPlanned for.This is a multipurpose dam for flood control and water supply, and is an attempt to construct a full-scale dam with a bank height of about 80.0 m and a total water storage capacity of about 70,000,000 tons upstream of the Shinano River main river.

When the "Chikuma River Upper Dam" is completed, 250 houses will be submerged mainly in Minamimaki Village, and JRKoumi LineIs submerged.1984 In (59), a budget was set for the implementation plan survey, but the residents strongly opposed it. After that, the local Minamimaki village and 5 towns and villages in Minamisaku district withdrew the construction promotion and turned against it, and the plan was frozen. ..

After that, the plan was reexamined in the momentum of reviewing public works projects, and in 2002, the "Chikuma River Upstream Dam Plan" was withdrawn by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.In this way, the only multipurpose dam that was planned to be built in Japan's longest river was canceled, but a hydraulic alternative to the dam has not been finalized.

2004 Entering (14), the governor of Nagano PrefectureYasuo Tanakaof"Escape from dam declaration], The dam plan for the Shinano River system, which is being planned in Nagano Prefecture, was collectively canceled.Asakawa Dam(Asakawa), Kakuma Dam (Kakuma River), Kurosawa Dam (Kurosawa River), Kiyokawa Dam (Kiyokawa), and it was canceled without saying.Many praise this declaration as "advanced ideas," "good measures that emphasize environmental protection," and "the first step in cultivating the coalition of public works and interests."On the other hand, there are criticisms that "the hydraulic control plan is weakly grounded" and "a foolish measure that ignores the safety of residents".

Alternative "inside the river"ReservoirIt was pointed out that the dam was renamed in the end, and like the Asakawa Dam, it was canceled without the consent of the downstream residents, so when a flood occurs in the Shinano River, where floods occur frequently in the future. Attention was paid to what kind of response the governor would take.2006 (18) of JulyHeisei 18 year 7 month heavy rainThe Tenryu River basin was damaged by heavy rain. Although the "Declaration of De-damming" was not directly related to the disaster, various dissatisfactions with the Tanaka prefectural government, including inadequate hydraulic control measures, surfaced.After losing the prefectural governor's election, Tanaka went down to the field.

Instead of TanakaMurai HitoshiWas appointed governor. At first, he repeatedly criticized the "Declaration of De-damming", but after taking office, he showed a cautious stance toward a hasty return to dam construction. It was decided that the perforated dam) should be taken.

Major rivers in the Shinano River system

River facilities of the Shinano River system

Regarding the water utilization of the Shinano River, the main stream and the tributaries have different characteristics.The height of the Shinano River main river exceeds 50 mdam-Multipurpose damDoes not exist, but that muchSpillwayThere are many.

Only the Shinano River has two drainage channels constructed in one river.You can see that it is difficult to control hydraulic pressure.

In addition,Tone River,Kiso River,YodogawaIt is also characterized by the fact that there are not many systematic water utilization facilities for securing water resources, and the main focus is on hydraulic control.IrrigationIs placed in.On the contrary, many large and small hydraulic, mountain and water use dams are constructed in the tributaries.

On the other hand, it boasts one of the largest amount of power generation and power generation facilities in Japan for hydroelectric power generation facilities.Pumped storage power generationThere is a track record of construction in five locations, the Azusa River, Aiki River, Takase River, Kuromata River, and Kiyotsu River, which is also one of the highest in Japan.Also, in Niigata prefectureJR EastIs getting the power supply from the Shinano River to support the railway network in the metropolitan area.In its historyUnauthorized Water Intake at JR East Shinanogawa Power StationAlso got up.

List of river facilities

dam
once
Tributary name
(Honkawa)
secondary
Tributary name
three times
Tributary name
Dam nameBank height
(M)
Total water storage
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
(Thousand m3)
Modelbusiness personRemarks
Chikuma River--Nishiura Dam14.2335GravityTEPCO HoldingsSmall dam
Chikuma River--Nishiotaki Dam14.2770GravityTEPCO HoldingsSmall dam
Shinano River--Miyanaka Intake Dam16.4970GravityEast Japan Railway
Shinano River--Myomi Weir--Movable weirMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
East Japan Railway
Shinano River--Ohkozu diversion--SpillwayMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Shinano River--Kambara Oizumi--Movable weirMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Shinano River--Sekiya diversion--SpillwayMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Shinano River--Shinano River Sluice--SluiceMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
(Outside the river)--Asakawara Reservoir37.01,065GroundEast Japan RailwayCivil engineering heritage
(Outside the river)--New Yamamoto Reservoir42.43,640Rock fillEast Japan Railway
Aiki RiverMinamiaiki River-Minamiaiki Dam136.019,170Rock fillTEPCO Holdings
Nukui River--Koya Dam48.52,200GravityNagano
Nukui RiverRoom river-Yoji Dam42.0523GravityNagano
Yukawa--Yukawa Dam50.03,400GravityNagano
Kanahara River--Kanabara Dam36.5388Rock fillNagano
Yoda RiverUchimura River-Uchimura Dam51.32,000GravityNagano
Kamikawa--Sugadaira Dam41.83,451GravityNagano
Saikawa--Taisho pond--Rubber damTEPCO HoldingsSmall dam
Saikawa--Kamagabuchi Dam29.0-Arch typeMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismSabo dam
Registered tangible cultural property
Saikawa--Nagawado Dam155.0123,000Arch typeTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Midono Dam95.515,100Arch typeTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Inekoki Dam60.010,700Arch typeTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Saigawa Swan Lake5.8-Movable weirChubu Electric PowerSmall dam
Saikawa--Ikusaka Dam19.53,100GravityTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Taira Dam20.03,033GravityTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Minochi Dam25.34,248GravityTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Sasadaira Dam19.32,755GravityTEPCO Holdings
Saikawa--Odagiri Dam21.32,546GravityTEPCO Holdings
SaikawaSeba river-Sebadani Dam22.746GravityTEPCO Holdings
SaikawaNarai River-Narai Dam60.08,000Rock fillNagano
SaikawaTakase River-Takase Dam176.076,200Rock fillTEPCO Holdings
SaikawaTakase River-Nanakura Dam125.032,500Rock fillTEPCO Holdings
SaikawaTakase River-Omachi Dam107.033,900GravityMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
SaikawaAida RiverMizukamizawa RiverMizukami Dam38.0276GravityNagano
SaikawaOmi RiverMiyagawaKitayama Dam43.0213GravityNagano
SaikawaOmi RiverBesshiyo RiverOnikuma Dam36.51,930GravityNagano
SaikawaSusobana River-Okusobana Dam59.05,400GravityNagano
SaikawaSusobana River-Susobana Dam83.015,000Arch typeNagano
SaikawaSusobana River-Yunose Dam18.0330GravityNagano Prefecture Enterprise Bureau
MomagawaHaino River-Toyooka Dam81.02,580GravityNagano
Nakatsugawa--Noso Dam44.028,700Rock fillTEPCO Holdings
Nakatsugawa--Shibusawa Dam20.7220GravityTEPCO Holdings
Nakatsugawa--Ketto Dam55.3630GravityTEPCO Holdings
Nakatsugawa(Outside the river)-Konoyama Dam33.0560Rock fillTEPCO Holdings
Kiyotsu River--Futai Dam87.018,300Rock fillPower development
Kiyotsu RiverKassa river-Kassa Dam90.013,500Rock fillPower development
Kiyotsu RiverKassa river-Kassagawa Dam20.5104Arch typeTEPCO Holdings
Kiyotsu RiverKamakawa-Otaniuchi dam23.21,206GroundHokuriku Agricultural Administration Bureau
Uono RiverSagurigawa-Mikunigawa Dam119.527,500Rock fillMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Uono RiverAburuma River-Aburumagawa Dam93.515,800GravityNiigata
Uono RiverAburuma River-Yabugami Dam23.01,857GravityTohoku Electric PowerCivil engineering heritage
Uono RiverAburuma RiverKumata RiverKuromatagawa Second Dam82.560,000Arch typePower development
Uono RiverAburuma RiverKumata RiverKuromatagawa First Dam91.042,850GravityPower development
Uono RiverAburuma RiverKumata RiverKuromata Dam24.51,454GravityTohoku Electric PowerCivil engineering heritage
Uono RiverAburuma RiverWada RiverHirokami Dam80.512,400GravityNiigata
Ohkozu diversion--Okawazu movable weir--Movable weirMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Nakanokuchi River--Nakanokuchi River Sluice--SluiceMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Kariyata River--Kariyatagawa Dam83.54,450GravityNiigata
Igarashi River--Otani Dam75.520,000Rock fillNiigata
Igarashi RiverRyuhori River-Kasabori Dam74.515,400GravityNiigata
Shimojo River--Gejogawa Dam31.01,530GravityNiigata
Sekiya diversion--Niigata Oizumi--Movable weirMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

(Note): Yellow columns are dams under construction or planned (as of 2006).

Head work / intake weir
Primary tributary
(Honkawa)
AddressWeir nameManagement entityRemarks
Chikuma RiverNaganoUedaUeda Agricultural WeirLand improvement area-
Chikuma RiverHanishina District, Nagano PrefectureSakagiHanishina HeadworksLand improvement area-
Shinano River[29]NiigataSanjo City[29]Oshima head work[29]Niigata[30]-

Water level observation point

The observation point of the river office of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is from the downstream side.

Niigata
  • Nishiko Niigata CityChuo-kuIrifune Town
  • Teishibashi Niigata CityNishi-ward(I.e.
  • New Sakaya Niigata CityKonan wardHananomaki
  • Usui Bridge Niigata CitySouth wardHorikake
  • Homyo Shinden Minamikanbara-gunTagami TownLarge printHomyo Shinden
  • Aramachi Aramachi, Sanjo City
  • Ozaki Ozaki, Sakae Town, Sanjo City
  • Okawazu Tsubame City Okawazu
  • Nagaoka 1-chome, Shinano, Nagaoka-shi
  • 433-2 Motomachi, Ojiya-shi
  • Iwasawa Mattocho, Ojiya City
  • Tokamachi location TokamachiShingu Otsu
  • Miyanohara Nakauonuma-gunKamigoteraishi, Tsunan Town
Nagano
  • Tategahana 52-1 Tategahana, Nakano City
  • Okurazaki Iiyama City Tokiwa
  • 632-1 Oaza Ebe, Nakano City, Tonohashi
  • Kuiseke ChikumaKuiseke
  • Ikuta Ikuta, Ueda CitywordShimo Rihei
  • 1538 Mimayose, Saku City, Shionada

Main bridge

Described from the estuary

Number

Water transportation

Both the Chikuma River and the Shinano River are from the Edo period to the Meiji period.Passing by river boatReached its heyday and was responsible for the logistics of the basin.However, land transportation played a leading role in the logistics of the basin after that.Since ancient times at the mouth of the Shinano RiverGamaharazu(Kanbara no Tsu),Numata Tsu(Slimy),NiigataPorts such as (Niigata Mitsutsu) prospered, and Niigata in particular developed significantly during the Edo period.US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyIt was designated as one of the ports open to other countries.Niigata PortIs still functioning as an international trading portロシア, South KoreaThere are international flights to and from.

Fishery:

The Chikuma River is a river that flows through Nagano Prefecture, which is an inland prefecture, and freshwater fish caught in the Chikuma River and other rivers have been used as one of the important protein sources.For example, run up the Chikuma River for spawning in the springJapanese daceIs also one of the fish species that have been caught[31]..As a characteristic fishing method for Japanese dace, "Tsukiba fishing" is known, which is a method of preparing an artificially prepared spawning bed in the flow of the river and catching the Japanese dace that gathers there.Also, the Chikuma RiverSakuIt flows from the valley in the vicinity to a valley that is wider than the upstream side, but by taking underground water here, in paddy fields and ponds, etc.KoiHas been engaged in aquaculture since the beginning of the 19th century[32]..In addition, as other major fish species that have been caught by fishermen,Sweetfish,Crucian carp,Oikawa,Kuchiboso,catfish,LoachAnd so on.However, Oikawa was released in 1929 due to the release of juvenile sweetfish.Biwa lakeArtificially imported fromExotic speciesIs[33]..Besides this, sweetfish,Char,eel, Carp, salmon,Rainbow trout,Yamame trout,SwordfishHowever, it is a fish species that is mainly released artificially.In addition to this, once in the Chikuma River, the government took the initiative.Kokren,Magnolia,Sougyo,KamulchiWas also released.In addition, as a result of artificial release in the Shinano and Chikuma rivers, the northern snakehead is an exotic fish that has been confirmed to inhabit.Largemouth bass,Small bus,Bluegill,Brook trout,Brown trout,Kadashi,Tilapia,Tyric BaratanagoCan be mentioned.Human influence is not limited to this, and once boasted a catch of 1 to 8 fish in the basin.salmon(Salmon), trout (Sakuramasu),Nishiotaki Dam,Miyanaka Intake DamWith the completion of, it almost stopped going up the Shinano River,1940 After that, it was no longer established as a fishing industry.Regarding salmon, Nagano Prefecture has been running a "comeback salmon" campaign since 1980, and although it has released 21 million salmon for 1 million yen in 6000 years, it was confirmed that it went up to the lower reaches of the Nishi-Otaki Dam. Was just an animal[34].

Of the Shinano River in Nagano PrefectureFisheries cooperative[35][36][37]
Fisheries association nameMain fishing grounds
Minamisaku MinamisakuMinamisaku-gunSakuhoOldYachiho VillageChikuma River main tributary upstream from[38]
SakuKomoroFrom the old Sakuho Town, Minamisaku DistrictSaku TownChikuma River main tributary[39]
Upper and smallerUedaからTomiChikuma River main tributary (Yoda River,Kamikawaincluding)[40]
KoshokuNagano cityMatsushiroからHanashina-gunSakagiChikuma River main tributary[41]
Chikuma RiverA tributary of the Chikuma River from Obuse Town to Matsushiro Town, Nagano City.・Asakawa(Joint management with Hokushin Fisheries Cooperative)
HokushinChikuma River main tributary from Nakano City to Obuse Town (Torii Riverincluding)·Yomase River(The Chikuma River confluence is jointly managed with the Takasui Fisheries Cooperative).Shinano River / Asakawa (joint management with Chikuma River Fisheries Cooperative)
High waterA tributary of the Chikuma River downstream from Nakano City.Kirimei Power StationNakatsugawa further downstream.[42]
Narai RiverNarai River(On the Shimadachi Bridge in Shiojiri City and Matsumoto City, upstream from the Sai River confluence) ・Kusari River (Asahi Village, Matsumoto City) ・Tagawa(Upstream from Namiyanagibashi, Shiojiri City and Matsumoto City)[43]
HataConfluence-Azusabashi (Prefectural Road 316Azusa River main tributary excluding the Shimatani River up to) (* Partially managed jointly with the Azumi Fisheries Cooperative)[44]
AzumiMatsumotoAzumi,NagawaAzusa River main tributary (* jointly managed with some Hata Fisheries Cooperatives)
SaikawaSaikawa(The main tributary of the area from Ikusaka-mura, Higashichikuma-gun, Ooka, Nagano-shi to Matsumoto-shi).Takase River-Chi River(Downstream from Matsukawa-mura, Kitaazumi-gun).Downstream areas of Azusa River, Narai River, and Tagawa (Matsumoto City area)
Central HokuanTakase River / Chi River (Omachi City area).Nogu River.
Saikawa breedingSai River (from the area of ​​Nagano City)OmachiYasaka / Higashichikuma-gunIkusakaMain tributary). (Omachi CityYasaka VillageUpstream from). ..
Susobana River systemSusobana River.
Shiga KogenThe main tributary of the Nakatsugawa upstream from the Kirimei power plant. (Zakko River·including)[45]
Fisheries cooperatives in the Shinano River system lakes and marshes in Nagano Prefecture
Fisheries association nameMain fishing grounds
Lake MatsubaraLake Matsubara(Lake Ina / Lake Naga)
Lake AokiLake Aoki.Lake Nakatsuna..Nogu River.
Lake KizakiLake Kizaki..Nogu River.
Shinano River Fisheries Cooperative in Niigata Prefecture[46]
Fisheries association nameWatershed
Shinano RiverA tributary of the Shinano River from the upstream end of Showa Ohashi in Chuo Ward, Niigata City to the downstream end of Kosudo Bridge in Akiha Ward, Niigata City.
Kamo River
Igarashi RiverIgarashi River, main tributary, etc.[47]
Kariyata River
UonumaMiddle Shinano River, Uono River main tributary, Kiyotsu River upstream, etc.[48]
Nakauonuma

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism website"The total basin area of ​​the water system is the area of ​​Niigata Prefecture (12,584.18km).2) Is almost equal to 11,900km2So, it is the third place after Tone River and Ishikari River. "(reference)Top 20 river basin areas in Japan
  2. ^ a b "Shinano River Q & A: Shinano River Q & A Mini Knowledge | Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau Shinano River Office". www.hrr.mlit.go.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  3. ^ "Chikuma River Office Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". www.hrr.mlit.go.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ a b Yoshio Mase "Dialect Yomoyama dialect: Shinshu dialect and its fun"Aspects of Culture: Ueda Women's Junior College, Department of Comprehensive Cultural Studies Open Lectures",Ueda Women's Junior CollegeDepartment of Comprehensive Cultural Studies, 2006.
  5. ^ Tsuyoshi Uda, Yukiko Hiramatsu, Shinji Higashi "Earthquakes and active faults in the Niigata Plain-Shinano River Tectonic Zone"Verification of Continuous Disasters in Niigata Prefecture and Perspectives on Reconstruction," Research Institute for Natural Hazards, 2005, pp. 32-41.
  6. ^ Ninna flood Forefront of archeology from Shinshu
  7. ^ The collapse of Yatsugatake and the flood of the Chikuma River during the Heian period (PDF) "Historical Earthquake" (26), 19-23, 2011
  8. ^ a b Case study of a huge natural dam formed in the central and northern parts of Nagano Prefecture (PDF) Historical Earthquake Study Group "Historical Earthquake" No. 26
  9. ^ a b c Damage to major floods in Chikuma City and the Chikuma River (PDF) Chikuma
  10. ^ Typhoon No. 7 August 34-1959, 8
  11. ^ 36 Baiu front heavy rain June 36th to July 1961th, 6
  12. ^ Heavy rain in July 58 July 7-58, 1983
  13. ^ Baiu Front June 7-July 1995, 6
  14. ^ Tropical Cyclone August 11th-August 1999th, 8
  15. ^ Heavy rain in July 18 July 7th to 18th, 2006
  16. ^ About the response of the Chikuma River Office [8th report] (PDF) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Chikuma River Office
  17. ^ "[Disaster information] About the loss of the embankment near the left bank 58k of the Chikuma River in the Shinano River, a nationally managed river (2nd report) (PDF)”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau. NovemberBrowse.
  18. ^ About the main damage situation of facilities in JR East jurisdiction by typhoon No. 19 (PDF) East Japan Railway Company October 2019, 10
  19. ^ "Nagano / Chikuma River, 70-meter levee breach Shinkansen train ... (Photo = joint)”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun Electronic version. NovemberBrowse.
  20. ^ a b "About the damage situation caused by Typhoon No. 19 in the first year of Reiwa (54th report) (PDF)”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (September 2020, 5). NovemberBrowse.
  21. ^ Interim Report of the Chikuma River Basin Survey Team, Japanese Geotechnical Society (PDF) Japanese Geotechnical Society
  22. ^ Establishment of Typhoon No. 19 Disaster Investigation Team in the first year of Reiwa Japanese Geotechnical Society
  23. ^ Business overview for the first year of Reiwa Chikuma River / Sai River (PDF) Chikuma River Office, Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  24. ^ "Revision of flood risk water level and evacuation judgment water level (PDF)”. Chikumagawa River Office, Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (August 2020, 8). NovemberBrowse.
  25. ^ "Flood that hit Kamedago”. Kamedago Land Improvement Zone. As of April 2018, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse..
  26. ^ Baiu Front August 10, 1998-August 8, 3
  27. ^ History of Okawazu diversion channel-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau
  28. ^ Shinano River Water System Emergency Hydraulic Control Project Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau River Department River Planning Division, Water Disaster Countermeasures Center (viewed June 2020, 6)
  29. ^ a b c "Main land improvement facilities in Niigata Prefecture (Oshima Head Works, Shirane Drainage Pump Station and 2 other drainage pump stations)". Ministry of AgricultureHokuriku Agricultural Administration Bureau. NovemberBrowse.
  30. ^ "Facility management homepage". NiigataAgricultural Land Department Agricultural Land Construction Division Facility Management Section. NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ Uhei Naruse "47 Prefectures / Traditional Food Encyclopedia" text p.156 Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. January 2009, 1 ISBN 978-4-621-08065-8
  32. ^ Uhei Naruse "47 Prefectures / Traditional Food Encyclopedia" text p.158 Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. January 2009, 1 ISBN 978-4-621-08065-8
  33. ^ Osamu Katano, Tomoyuki Nakamura, Shoichiro Yamamoto, Shinichiro Abe "Fish Species Composition and Food Relations in the Urano River, Nagano Prefecture", Journal of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, Vol. 70, No. 6, Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, November 2004 11th, pp. 15-902, two:10.2331 / suisan.70.902, NOT 110003161507.
  34. ^ Chikuma Juku 14th Minutes Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Chikuma River Office
  35. ^ "Nagano Prefecture Fisheries Federation member introduction”. Nagano Prefecture Fisheries Cooperative Association. NovemberBrowse.
  36. ^ "Contents of fishery rights license, etc./Nagano Prefecture”. Nagano Prefectural Office. NovemberBrowse.
  37. ^ "Recreational fishing rules / Nagano Prefecture”. Nagano Prefectural Office. NovemberBrowse.
  38. ^ "Minamisaku Southern Fisheries Cooperative (Official Homepage)”. Minamisaku Southern Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  39. ^ "Saku Fisheries Cooperative”. Saku Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  40. ^ "Kamiko Fisheries Cooperative”. Kamiko Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  41. ^ "Sarah Fisheries Cooperative”. Sarah fishing cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  42. ^ "Highwater Fisheries Cooperative-Home”. Highwater Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  43. ^ "Narai River Fisheries Cooperative-Welcome to the Narai River Fisheries Cooperative”. Narai River Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  44. ^ "Hata Fisheries Cooperative Official Website”. Hata Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  45. ^ "Shiga Kogen Fisheries Cooperative”. Shiga Kogen Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  46. ^ "About Fisheries Cooperatives-Niigata Prefecture Homepage”. Niigata Prefectural Office. NovemberBrowse.
  47. ^ "Igarashi River Fisheries Cooperative”. Igarashi River Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  48. ^ "Business Information | Uonuma Fisheries Cooperative”. Uonuma Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.

References

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