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📺 | Kento Nakajima "She was beautiful" I was very excited about the development of "Munekyun"! "Kyawawa"


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Kento Nakajima "She was beautiful" I was very excited about the development of "Munekyun"! "Kyawawa"

 
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And in the fourth episode, Sosuke flashes back the situation when his mother died in a motorcycle accident and gets stuck in the rain.
 

July 7th, Fuka Koshiba and "Sexy Zone" Kento Nakajima's W starring drama "She Was Pretty" (Fuji TV ... → Continue reading

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It publishes about 10 articles every day, and is mainly supported by men and women in their 30s and 40s who are concerned about rumors of entertainers!


Wikipedia related words

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Traffic accident

Traffic accident(Kotsuuji) is, in a broad sense, a generic term for accidents on land, sea, and air traffic. So in a broad sense,Road traffic accident,Railway traffic accident,Maritime traffic accident,Air traffic accidentIncluding all of. The existing encyclopedia "Japan Encyclopedia" also discusses land, sea, and air traffic.[1].

In addition to road traffic accidents, it may also be used in a broad sense, including road traffic accidents, railway traffic accidents, marine traffic accidents, and air traffic accidents, in traffic safety measures and statistics.[2].. Although,道路InAutomobile-Bicycle-PedestrianOccurred duringRoad traffic accident(As automobiles, motorcycles, and bicycles are most commonly used and most frequently used in society as a whole, the number of accidents is higher than that of ships and aircraft.)

In this encyclopedia,There is no other article in this article that gives an overview of traffic accidents in a broad sense, that is, with a view of all aspects of railways, seas, aviation, and roads, so at the beginning of this article OverviewThen,In the section below, we also describe the details of the most familiar traffic accidents, road traffic accidents... For details of other types of traffic accidents, I will leave it to a separate article, for exampleRailroad crossing accidentA railway accident involvingRailway accident, A ship accidentMarine accident-Water accident(River descentEtc.)Aviation accidentI will transfer it to the article.

Overview of traffic accidents in a broad sense

Traffic accidents are classified into "road accidents (car accidents)" and "railway traffic accidents (Railway accident)" "Marine accident (marine accident)""Air traffic accident (air traffic accident)Is roughly divided into[1].

1970 eraSince then, the means of transportation have become larger, more multifunctional, and faster, so once an accident occurs, it could lead to the death of many people and the loss of many goods. Became higher[1].. Traffic accidents are one of the modern social unrest[1].

Aging of simple statistics

For example, comparing the casualty statistics from wide-ranging traffic accidents in Japan by type, the results are as follows.[1].

  • Road traffic accident(死傷者):65万3582人(1984)、105万9403人(1999)、91万5029人(2009)、58万4544人(2017)[1].
  • Railway track traffic accident(Injured and injured): 1538 (1984), 689 (1999), 683 (2009), 561 (2017)[1].
  • Maritime traffic accident(Dead and missing): 252 (1984), 146 (1999), 142 (2009), 54 (2017)[1].
  • Air traffic accident(Civil aircraft only): 46 (1984), 26 (1999), 9 (2009), 28 (2017)[1].

Types of road traffic accidents

Traffic accidents include personal injury and property damage[3].. In addition, there are the following types of accidents (reference “Actual conditions of traffic accidents in automobile insurance data”)[3].

  • People vs vehicles
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle (vehicle-to-vehicle accident)
    • Head-on collision
    • Side impact
    • Meeting collision
    • Contact accident
    • Rear-end collision
    • Reverse collision
  • Vehicle alone accident
    • Off-road deviation
    • Structure collision
    • Vehicle rollover
    • Vehicle fall

In addition to this, there have also been "vehicle-to-animal" collisions (see detailsRoadkill # RoadkillSee).Japan Automobile Federation(JAF) is careful not to collide with animals, when it discovers a carcass of an animal that may interfere with the passage of vehicles following it, report to the police in case of collision and rescue / removal of the animal (if possible) ofRoad emergency dialTo report to[4].

Causes of road traffic accidents

Main factor, vehicle factor, environmental factor

Factors of traffic accidents include main factors, vehicle factors, and environmental factors[5].

  • Human factors
  • Vehicle factors
    • Poor maintenance
      • Braking device failure[5]
      • Defective steering device (improper handle adjustment, deformed handle, small handle, etc.)[5]
      • Tire failure (puncture, burst, wear, etc.)[5]
      • Bad wheel[5]
      • Poor lighting[5]
      • Engine failure[5]
      • Transmission failure/defective[5]
      • Defective fuel/lubrication system[5]
      • Failure/defective windshield, wiper, etc.[5]
      • Mirror misalignment/damage/missing[5]
      • Bad remodeling[5]
    • Poor condition
  • Environmental factors
    • Road factors
      • Linear failure (steep slope, etc.)[5]
      • Poor intersection shape[5]
      • Road structural obstacles (road surface defects, ruts, etc.)[5]
      • Traffic obstacles (road construction, etc.)[5]
      • Inadequate traffic safety facilities (curve mirrors, road lighting, railroad crossing facilities, etc.)[5]
      • Deficiencies such as signs[5]
    • Traffic environment factors
      • Road condition obstacles (snow, freezing, wetness, puddle, etc.)[5]
      • Traffic obstacles (congestion, lane constriction due to accidents, falling objects, etc.)[5]
      • Visual disturbance (parking/stopping vehicles, moving vehicles, congested vehicles, buildings, signs, trees, weather, lighting of roads, lighting of stores, etc., dazzling by headlights, etc.)[5]
      • On the roadAnimalPopping out-fences to prevent invasion, animal tunnels (dedicated underground tunnels for animals), animal pathways (a dedicated bridge built in the air for animals) and other workarounds are often taken.

Deterring dangerous acts by law

In many countries, acts that cause traffic accidents are prohibited or regulated by law, and caution is required.

Japanese traffic accidents

Definition of traffic accident

The laws and regulations that define the definition of traffic accidents include:

  1. Road Traffic Law: Vehicles on the road (Automobile,Motorized bicycle,BicycleSuch asnon-motorized vehicle,trolley bus,Tram) Traffic damage or damage to persons (Article 67, Paragraph 2 of the Road Traffic Act)
  2. Car Safe Driving Center Act: Including those that occur outside the road in the items specified in Article 67, Paragraph 2 of the Road Traffic Act
  3. Automotive Damages Protection Act: A person who provides a car for his/her own operation shall be liable for the damage caused by the damage of the life or body of others due to the operation. (Article 3 of the Compensation Law)
  4. Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareDisease, injury and death cause classification: Basic classification code V01-V99

and so on. Generally speaking, “traffic accident” refers to a traffic accident under the Road Traffic Law.

Scope of traffic accident and liability for damages

The road traffic law does not include traffic accidents as follows.

  • Accidents outside the "road" under the Road Traffic Act
    • "Road" in the Road Traffic Act isRoad lawStipulate in道路,Road transport lawStipulate inThe motorwayAnd all places used for general traffic. Therefore, it will not be issued for accidents outside the “road” under the Road Traffic Act.
    • However, the term "road" under the Road Traffic Law here does not mean that it is not covered by simply saying that it is a private land or a parking lot.Road # Japanese legal definitionSee). Except for land that is almost purely occupied by people (houses, condominiums, companies, etc.) and roads that are restricted to the public such as factory roads, it is possible to roughly correspond to "roads" under the Road Traffic Act. It is necessary to note that there is a possibility. It is also a point that there are disputes in myths and precedents, so caution is required in the case of an actual accident.
  • In addition, the fact that the presence or absence of issuance of a traffic accident certificate and the presence or absence of a duty to notify the police of a traffic accident (Article 72 of the Road Traffic Act) have not been verified (due to judicial precedents or myths).[Annotation 1]Therefore, this also requires caution in the case of an actual accident.
  • In addition, whether or not a traffic accident certificate is issued and whether or not there is a liability for damages to the victim is irrelevant, and the presence or absence of a liability for damages is not affected by the presence or absence of a certificate (see below).
  • Driver's licenseAs a requirement of the above, a "lethal injury outside the road" was newly established, and it came to have a certain effect on the Road Traffic Law.
  • Accidents not caused by vehicle traffic (driving on the road and parking/stopping)
    • For example, if a car that had its engine turned off spontaneously exploded and burned, or if a person who is boarding a regular place such as a car gets caught in the door or window of the car, For example, when a vehicle parked in a parking lot is damaged by a disaster such as a landslide. In addition, if an accident occurs due to the fact that there is a danger of contact with other people or vehicles on the road by opening or closing the door, a traffic accident will occur ((Door open accident). A traffic accident also occurs if an accident occurs due to an external factor such as an explosion, a flame, or a landslide while driving a vehicle.
    • Incidentally,Automobile liability insuranceAnd the payment standard for arbitrary car insurance is unrelated to the above (described later)
  • PedestrianSingle accident or collision between pedestrians

Whether it corresponds to a road accident under the Road Traffic Law and the legal liability for damages (Automotive Damages Protection ActArticle 3,Civil law709) and moreAutomobile liability insuranceAnd the payment criteria for voluntary car insurance are largely unrelated.

  • Automotive Damages Protection ActArticle 3 "A person who provides a car for his/her own use shall be responsible for compensating for the damage caused by this when the life or body of another person is harmed by the operation." The following precedents are related to the provisions of.
    • Lumber Works When unloading a log of raw wood loaded on an ordinary freight car parked on a road in a private property site from the freight car, the fork of the forklift pushes it from the cargo bed of the freight car to the ground on the opposite side to unload it. However, the accident in which the children who were present together died due to the underlayment of the log was caused by "using the freight car according to the usage of the device." (Positive, June 63, 6 Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment, Showa 16 (e) 59)
    • When a large truck loaded with lumber is parked on the road and the timber of the truck is being unloaded using another forklift, the forklift should be placed in an open space outside the road to adjust the height of the fork. Although the fork part was stopped, the fork part was protruding on the road, and the fork part collided with another car that had been traveling on the road from the time of the accident, and the driver of the car was injured. It is not caused by "use according to the usage of the device", but there is still a liability for damages under Article 709 of the Civil Code. (Positive for compensation, Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment, June 63, 6, Showa 16(e)61)
  • For accidents where a traffic accident certificate is not issued, basicallyNot covered by liability insurance. However, in the car insurance,NormallyCompensation target (Limited to compensation for damages. In some cases, exemption, that is, not covered by compensation. Intentional or earthquake-induced)

Perpetrator's responsibility

Initial support

Article 72 of the Road Traffic Act imposes the following obligations on drivers of vehicles, etc. related to traffic accidents.

  1. Obligation to stop driving immediately (do not leave the site immediately after an accident, etc.)
  2. Obligation to rescue the injured (moving the injured to a safe place and receiving medical treatment as soon as possible)
  3. Obligation to prevent road hazards (duty to prevent secondary accidents)
  4. Obligation to report to police officers the date and time of occurrence, the status of casualties and damage to property, post-accident measures, and loads.
  5. Obligation to obey an order to stay on-site until the police officer arrives if he/she deems it necessary (usually by all means)

In addition, in order to fulfill its civil responsibilities, it is necessary to:

  1. Identification of the other person
  2. Contacting a voluntary insurance company (responsibility for insurance contracts)

It is generally said that about 60% of drivers do not know the initial response to a traffic accident.[6]

Criminal liability

Criminal responsibility isAct on Punishment for Acts that Cause Death or Injury to People by Driving a CarViolation of the Penalty Act for Driving and Injuring Cars,Road Traffic LawViolation (not an administrative sanctionSpecial criminal lawIs stipulated as a penalty- Criminal penalty).

Irrespective of the definition of a traffic accident, if a driver of a vehicle injures or injures a person, the following crimes may be prosecuted depending on the behavior.

In the event of a traffic accident as a result of an offenseTraffic foul notification systemDoes not apply (Road Traffic Act, Article 125, Paragraph 2).

If a person is intentionally injured or damaged by using a car, etc.Murder,Crime of injury,Crime of property damageEtc. In the case of accidents involving accidental property damage, excluding accidents resulting in personal injury or damage to buildings, no criminal penalties will be imposed on the actor.

Civil liability

Occurrence of an accident, including a traffic accident, that intentionally or negligently infringes the rights (life, body, or property) of another personRestitution for DamagesResponsible (Civil law OfTortresponsibility).All of personal injury accidents, building damage accidents and property damage accidents are applicable.

Car orMotorized bicycleIn the event of infringement of a person's life or body due to the operation of the vehicle, the perpetrator shall be liable for the damage caused by this (limited to the life or body of another person) unless the perpetrator disproves the victim's negligence. Most of them bear serious liability (for details, seeAccident rate of traffic accidentsSee).

Administrative sanctions

Administrative lawOn the road traffic lawAdministrative punishment for driver's licenseDepending on the weight of the accident and liabilityDriver's licenseThere are cancellations, suspensions, etc.

In administrative punishment for personal injury, if the perpetrator's negligence is found,Violation of safe driving obligation(2 points) and additional points for traffic accidents related to injury and death (minimum 2 points, maximum 20 points), totaling at least 4 additional points.

The driver will not be subject to administrative sanction in the case of property damage accidents, except personal accidents and building damage accidents.

Impact of traffic accident

Physical impact

When the impact of a traffic accident on the mind and body is the lightest, it is intact (not only is there no injury or bone fracture,WhiplashThere is also no aftereffects such as), but in the worst case, the collision with a running vehicle has a large impact, and if it is hit, there is a case where the whole body or the head is struck and instant death occurs. If you are hit by a vehicle without being hit, the body may be cut or squeezed by being caught in a wheel or trampled, causing rupture of the internal organs, orbrain,内 臓,Blood vesselThere is a situation where the prototype does not stay, such as popping out or being scattered at the scene of an accident resulting in injury or death, and it may lead to death in a tragic state.

The problem of mental sequelae other than the injuries such as the anxiety of the injured suffering mentally immediately after the accident has increased, and the qualification system for emergency medical emergency doctors, doctor helicopters, etc. have recently been enhanced, but the frequent occurrence of traffic accidents is a problem. In Aichi Prefecture (also described in the table below), Kasugai City conducted the first nationwide test as a "doctor car" model, promoting communication with the standby doctor at the main hospital while flying the vital signs of the injured by radio waves. A national qualification for emergency paramedics centered on firefighters who can use defibrillators (ambulators) in the field has been established. The car was jointly developed with Toyota Corporation. Can be done without medical qualificationAEDContributed to the development of the installation. While consideration is being given not only to the body of the injured but also to the mind and spirit, there are many human, equipment, and budget barriers. General recognition required an awareness and cooperation system with the media such as NHK and other media.

Effects on the body

Listed in order of severity,Cervical cord injury, Chest injury, airway obstruction (face injury, neck injury, etc.), abdominal cavitypelvisSuch as damage. Compared to these, deaths from limbs are less likely to occur.

In particular, cervical spinal cord injury, even if it survivesQuality of lifeIs significantly reduced. Immediately after the injury, even if there is no damage, it is likely to occur even if the victim inadvertently moves the neck. It is necessary to thoroughly ensure that if you encounter a traffic accident, do not move your head, neck, or shoulder carelessly. (JPTEC-JATEC(See also section)

Accidents under similar conditions will differ greatly depending on the condition of the collision, the victim's belongings, condition, physical and mental condition at that time, and the weather. When a pedestrian or a person who rides a bicycle collides with a very low-speed car or motorcycle, or when the pedestrian has a large bag and hits the bag, there is no human injury or it is close to it. In some cases.

Compared to accidents due to other factors such as occupational accidents and natural disasters, it is more likely that the victim will be severely impacted on the head and waist,Persistent consciousness disorderBeginning withSequential disabilityThere are quite a few examples in which there remains. Also, if you have a strong impact on your brain,Higher brain dysfunctionMay lead to(Head injury,Traumatic brain injurySee also).

Pedestrian

Pedestrian TheBicycleA collision with or even a collision between pedestrians may cause a fatal accident by hitting the head on the road surface.

In recent years, automobile manufacturers have taken the following measures in consideration of safety for pedestrians.

  • bumperPosition of the adult from the position of the thigh/pelvis of the adult to the position of the lower leg.
  • Even if the upper body collides with the front of the passenger car using the above-mentioned part as a fulcrum, the head should hit the hood instead of the windshield.(By making the bonnet member a shock absorbing type, fatal injury to the chest and head may occur. Make it harder)
Car passenger

Seat beltNot installedMobile phoneCrackdown on use,AirbagEquipment ofLaminated glassAdoption ofCrushable zoneAdoption ofMonocoqueHigh rigidity of the body,ABSThe number of cars that have adopted safety equipment, such as the spread of vehicles, is increasing, which is helping to reduce the deaths of passengers. However, it is impossible to prevent fatal injury with any safety equipment. For example, in the rib cage心 臓-大動脈Is upsetAortic dissectionOr due to impact on the headBrain contusion・TraumaticSubarachnoid hemorrhageThe air bag has a limited effect, and excessive speed, drug use, and drunk driving will cause a serious accident.

Motorcycle/bicycle passengers

オ ー ト バ イA car accident can be a major accident because it is not covered by the body. Detail isMotorcycle accidentchecking ...

BicycleHas the same danger,Exclusive helmetSafety equipment such as is encouraged.

Psychiatric effects

Matsuoka et al.[7]According to him, many of the people who experienced the traffic accidentMood disorder,Anxiety disorder,Obsessive-compulsive disorderSomehowPsychiatryIt is said that the sequelae will occur.

Social impact

entertainer,SportsIf an athlete causes an accident, it will lead to a bad image and will have to discontinue commercials and dramas. Of course, there are cases where entertainers become victims of the accident (Sakurazuka yakun,Hagiwara fashionIs dead in a traffic accident).

In the past, actresses were hired by the office, ordriverMost of them used to be picked up by a car with a car, but in recent years it has decreased due to cost reductions, and it is possible to drive to work place or even privately.[8]Get a driver's license to make a role in a drama, movie, or commercial[9]The number of cases is increasing. Also, of the entertainment reporterNashimoto wins"In the past, there were many people with attendants who were supposed to pick up and drop off, and now there are many talented talents in the entertainment industry," he said.[10].

statistics

Of the worldDisease burden(WHO, 2019)[11]
Rankingcause of deathDALYs (XNUMX)DALYs (%)DALYs
(Per 10 people)
1Neonatal disease20,182.18.02,618
2Ischemic heart disease18,084.77.12,346
3stroke13,942.95.51,809
4Lower respiratory tract infection10,565.24.21,371
5diarrheaSexual illness7,931.13.11,029
6Traffic accident7,911.63.11,026
7COPD7,398.12.9960
8Diabetes mellitus7,041.12.8913
9tuberculosis6,602.42.6857
10Birth defects5,179.72.0672
11Back and neck pain4,653.21.8604
12depressionSexual dysfunction4,635.91.8601
13Cirrhosis4,279.81.7555
14Trachea, bronchi, lung cancer4,137.81.6537
15Kidney disease4,057.11.6526
16HIV / AIDS4,014.71.6521
17OtherDeafness3,947.71.6512
18Death3,821.61.5496
19malaria3,339.81.3433
20Refractive error of the naked eye3,198.11.3415

As of 2019, an average of 10 people per 17.08 were killed in traffic accidents worldwide. The countries with the highest number of deaths per 10 in the same year were:Zimbabwe(About 41.22 people), and thenベネズエラ(About 39.02 people),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(About 38.90 people) and manyAfricaCountries tend to be high. Conversely, the lowest countryバ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダIs 0, thenミクロネシア 連邦(About 0.20 people),Maldives(About 1.63 people) and manyEuropeCountries tend to be low[12].

Also, in the case of Japan, it is about 3.60, which is the sixth from the lowest,AsiaamongMaldives-SingaporeIt is the third lowest country after[12].. vice versaKingdom of ThailandHas recorded about 32.21 people, which is the highest risk rate in Asia.[12][13][Annotation 2], Especially the year-end and New Year holidays and the Chinese New Year (SongkranDuring the period of ), there was a lot of traffic and frequent fatal accidents,Disaster Prevention and Mitigation BureauFrom the announcement of2021 May 4From 2021May 4In the last 7 days, 2,365 accidents occurred frequently, injuring 2,357 and killing 277.[14]..In the case of Japan, 2021May 4~May 4の10日間に交通事故が1日平均で862件(10日で8,619件)発生し、負傷者が1日平均1,013人(10日で10,130人)出ており、56人が死亡し、その間のMay 4Was out of Songkran vacation, but had zero deaths[15].

As of 2016, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death (per 10 population) is the worst 3.America684 cases,Australia440 cases, South KoreaAlthough it was occupying 431 cases in a country where automobile traffic is widespread, in South Korea, the number of occurrences was higher than the number of popular vehicles in the United States and Austria.[16][17](The number of vehicles per 1,000 people is 424 in the United States, 804 in the United States and 725 in Australia, compared to XNUMX in South Korea)[18]On the other hand, the number of deaths (the same) within 30 days after the traffic accidentSouth Africa25 people,MalaysiaThere are 23 people and 20 people in Iran, which shows the influence of medical conditions.[16]AsiaFocusing on the number of fatal accidents (the same) South Korea・Japan 393 cases・(I.e.Following 365 are manyトルコ233 cases,Hong KongThe order is 219.[16]

Also, when accident deaths are classified by means of transportation, countries with a high proportion of pedestriansメキシコ·Korea·ポーランド-リトアニア・In Japan and other countries, the driver's consciousness of giving priority to the weak is low, and the ratio of pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles is high due to reasons such as the maintenance of pedestrian roads because there are only roads.[19].

Japanese traffic accident

Number of deaths

The statistics of fatalities in accidents are mainly used when the victims of an accident that were collected by the police died within 24 hours after the accident occurred, and the number of people below is also basically the number of deaths within 24 hours. is there. Other police statistics include deaths within 30 days. Furthermore,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfDemographic statisticsからlandIt is clear from the number of deaths within one year after the accident caused by the traffic accident in道路The number excluding those who are not judged to be the above-mentioned traffic accident is included as "dead in the welfare statistics"[21].

2020 The number of fatalities in traffic accidents within 24 hours is 2,839[22]As of the end of September 2021, the number of automobiles owned in Japan was about 1 million.[23]By comparison, the number of cars owned was about 38 shortly after the war.[24]1950 Less than 4,202 people, showing how the death toll has dropped dramatically. this is,1949 Less than 24 deaths within 3,790 hours of1948 It is the smallest number since the start of statistics. Also,Emergency medical careThere is a misconception that the number of deaths has not decreased so much just by surviving for more than 24 hours due to the development of2020 The death toll within 30 days is 3,416[25], The death toll within one year of 2019 is 1[26]And both have decreased as well as the death toll within 24 hours. Within 30 days the number of deaths began to collect statistics1993 Since then, the number of deaths within one year has started to be collected.1965 It has been the smallest number since then[27].

Looking at age, the percentage of elderly people aged 2020 and over in 65 in the number of fatalities in traffic accidents was about 56.2%, the highest percentage ever.This is due to the increase in the elderly population and the higher case fatality rate of the elderly than in other age groups.[28].. In addition, according to a survey by the Traffic Accident Analysis Center in June 2016, the number of pedestrian casualties (including cases where pedestrians did not violate) was significantly higher at 6 years old.[29], 2.5 times that of an adult[29], About twice that of the elderly[29]Is. The cause is that there are more opportunities to act away from parents such as going to and from school, without having acquired sufficient traffic rules and the ability to detect danger.[29].

The number of deaths within one year per 2019 people due to traffic accidents in 10 was 1, which is compared to other causes of death.fire0.8 people,murderMore than 0.2 people,EarthquakeOf 14.9 (Great East Japan EarthquakeThe number of 2011 that there was[30]),suicideLess than 15.7[31][27].

Occurrences

Due to the increase in the number of cars owned in Japan, the number of traffic accidents will increase proportionately,2004 Recorded 95 cases.Since then, the number of automobiles owned in Japan has stabilized at about 2709 million, and in 8000 the number of automobiles owned was the highest at about 2020 million, but the number of accidents decreased to 8,231.0 for the 30th consecutive year. doing.This was less than half the current number of cars owned, about 9,178 million.1979 This is the smallest number after 47 cases.[32]

Number of injured

事故発生件数と連動して1990年代より増加し、1999年から2007年までは連続して年間負傷者数100万人を突破し、2004年には118万3,616人を記録した。その後、事故発生件数と共に減少傾向にあり、2020年の負傷者数は36万9,476人となっている[32].

History

Post-warHigh economic growthThe number of traffic accidents increased during the period1959 Has reached a situation where the number of traffic fatalities per year exceeds 1. Because it is not a war but a huge number of people are sacrificedTraffic war(First traffic war)" became a metaphor. Especially1970 The number of vehicles owned was about 1652 million, and 1 people were killed annually (about 6765 people died within a year) due to a traffic accident, making this the number one year in history. The number of traffic accidents,1969 Was the largest number up to the end of the First Traffic War with 72 cases.
  • 1970 era End of the First Traffic War Decrease in the number of accidents and fatalities due to the start of traffic accident countermeasures
Policemen,Road manageretcEducationAnd worked on the measures,Seat beltThe safety of automobiles has improved due to the spread of automobiles, the traffic environment has been improved such as widening roads, separating pedestrians, installing and expanding traffic lights at pedestrian crossings and intersections, and owning automobiles. Also the numberOil shockThe accident rate and mortality rate decreased due to the recession caused by the accident, and the number of accidents and deaths decreased once. The number of fatalities in traffic accidents is1976 Again divides 1 people,1979 Has been the lowest since the beginning of the First Traffic War with 8048 people. The number of traffic accidents,1977 Has been the smallest since the beginning of the First Traffic War, at 46.
  • 1980 era ~ 1990 era The beginning of the second traffic war The number of accidents and fatalities increased due to the end of the decline in the accident rate and the increase in the number of automobiles owned.
1980 eraSince the safety measures started from the First Traffic War have become widespread, the rate of traffic accidents, which had been decreasing, has stopped declining. Casualty rate, which is an index of traffic accident rate, which takes into account the number of vehicles owned and the distance traveled[Annotation 3]It is,1970 Was over 300 (cases/XNUMX million km),1980 Has dropped to around 120 (cases/XNUMX million km). But then2010 About 30 years until then, the accident rate leveled off in the range of about 120 to 100 (cases/XNUMX million km).[33].
for that reason,1970 eraEven though the accident rate did not decrease from the second half,Bubble economyAs the number of cars owned increased, the number of traffic accidents began to increase again, and the number of fatalities increased accordingly.1988 Once again, the number of people exceeded 1, and the situation became known as the "second traffic war."1992 Has reached 1, the highest number since the end of the First Traffic War. The number of accidents was 1452 in the same year.
  • 1990 era ~ 2000 era End of the Second Traffic War End of the Second Traffic War due to a decrease in the number of fatalities in traffic accidents, increase in the number of traffic accidents
With the increase in the number of cars owned in the Second Traffic War, the majority of traffic accident victims were car occupants, and in the 1990s the number of deaths during riding increased to 1.7 times the number of pedestrian deaths, In the 1990sCar assessmentIs started,Airbag,Shock absorptionbody,Pretensioner(Tightening at the time of collision) With functionSeat beltEfforts are being made to improve safety equipment on the vehicle side, such as2008 Has fallen below the number of pedestrian deaths. Also, due to severe punishment, dangerous driving such as drunk driving decreased, leading to a decrease in the number of fatalities.
Death toll1996 The number of people was reduced to 1 again, and in 2004 the number dropped to 7425, and the situation called the Second Traffic War ended. On the other hand, although the mortality rate around the accident decreased, the accident rate itself did not decrease, so the number of accidents increased conversely, reaching a record high of 95 in the same year.
  • 2010 era ~ Decrease in the number of traffic accidents and decrease in traffic accident deaths due to the decrease in traffic accident rate itself
2012 For about 30 years, the casualty rate, which had been flat in the range of about 160 to 120 (cases/120 million km), fell below 2016 (cases/85.3 million km), and the traffic accident incidence rate began to decline. In XNUMX, it decreased to about XNUMX (cases/XNUMX million km)[34].. As a result, the number of traffic accidents and the number of traffic fatalities continue to decrease.
The reason why the traffic accident incidence rate, which has been flat for about 30 years, has begun to decrease is to reduce the damage caused by accidents such as airbags during the Second Traffic War.Passive safetyBecame popular as a safety measure, but in the 2010s the accident itself was prevented.Active safetyThe fact that has begun to spread is mentioned. From around 2010Anti-skid device,Collision damage reduction brakeなどが普及しだしており、2014年には自動車アセスメントに予防安全性能アセスメントが追加されている。2016年には年間交通事故による死亡者数が1949年の67年ぶりに3000人レベルにまで減少して、飲酒運転の取り締まりと交通安全文化の普及で交通事故死亡者が最も多かった時期に比べると4分の1の水準に減少した。さらに全交通事故の発生件数も2015年より7.1%減の49万9232件だった[35].. In FY2017, the liability insurance premium was reduced because the accident rate fell due to the spread of technologies that reduce accidents such as automatic braking (collision damage reduction brakes).[36].. August 2019Higashiikebukuro car runaway accidentThe movement to return licenses for the elderly accelerated[37][38].2021 May 4Started collecting daily traffic accident statistics1968 The number of fatalities in traffic accidents for the first time since then has become zero.Furthermore, there were no fatal accidents on that day, and there were no deaths due to injuries due to the traffic accident the day before.[39][40].

Industry with many traffic accidents

Accidents tend to occur in industries that use cars for business such as transportation and wholesale.

  • In case of commercial sales, traffic accidents occurred in 33.1% of wholesale business establishments and 34.7% of road passenger transportation business establishments (13.5% overall)
  • During delivery work, 53.3% of the road freight transport business establishments and 20.6% of the wholesale business establishments have traffic accidents (13.8% overall).

Source: “Occupational Safety and Health Basic Survey (2000)” (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)[41]

Prefectures with many traffic accidents

National Police Agency"Regarding the status of traffic fatal accidents during the two years of Reiwa and the status of crackdowns on violations of the Road Traffic Act"[32]

  1. Tokyo 25,642 of
  2. Osaka 25,543 of
  3. Aichi 24,879 of
  4. Fukuoka 21,495 of
  5. Shizuoka 20,667 of
  6. Kanagawa 20,630 of
  7. Hyogo 17,352 of
  8. Saitama 17,115 of
  9. Chiba 12,873 of
  10. Gunma 9,266 of

The number of traffic accidents per 10 population is as follows.

  1. Shizuoka 567.2 of
  2. Miyazaki 477.7 of
  3. Gunma 477.1 of
  4. Saga 461.1 of
  5. Fukuoka 421.1 of
  6. Kagawa 389.3 of
  7. Aichi 329.4 of
  8. Hyogo 317.5 of
  9. Yamagata 308.7 of
  10. Tokushima 297.4 of

Expressway with many traffic accidents

From the Traffic Bureau of the National Police Agency "Status of traffic accidents during 25"

Prefectures with a large number of traffic accident fatalities

The prefectures with the highest number of fatalities in traffic accidents are as follows. (National Police Agency "About the number of traffic fatal accidents during the second year of Reiwa"[42]Than)

1. Tokyo 155
2. Aichi 154 people-The worst 15 for 30 consecutive years from 16 to 1. →Nagoya running
3. Hokkaido 144
4. Kanagawa 140
5. Chiba 128
6. Osaka 124
7. Saitama 121
8. Hyogo 110 
9. Shizuoka 108
10. Fukuoka 91

In February 25Aichi Prefectural PoliceIt was announced that there was an omission in the number of traffic accident fatalities of 3 from 23 to 600, and as a result of recounting, the number of traffic accident fatalities was the highest in Japan from 15 to 30. Has been clarified[43].

The number of traffic fatalities per 10 population is as follows (National Police Agency "Number of traffic fatalities during the second year of Reiwa"[42]Than)

1. Kagawa 6.17
2. Fukui 5.34
3. Kochi 4.87
4. Mie 4.10
5. Saga 4.05
6. Akita 3.83
7. Oita 3.79
8. Iwate 3.75
9. Ehime 3.58
10. Ishikawa 3.51

Traffic accident in china

In China, the number of traffic accidents has increased since the 1980s, reaching nearly 2002 a year in 80, but it decreased to about 2015 in 18.8. After that, it increased to the first half of the 20 generation, and it was about 2017 as of 20.3.[44][45].. In 2004, the Road Traffic Safety Law, which was the first traffic safety regulation in China, was established.[44].. The number of accidents due to traffic violations by road users is as high as 96% (2010).[44].. The death toll within 30 days has been on the rise since 2016, and was 2017 in 63,772.[46].

Indonesian traffic accident

In Indonesia, after the number of traffic accidents increased until the 1980s, the number of traffic accidents continued to decrease until 2002 (the number of traffic accidents in 2002 was about 1.2).[44].. However, due to an increase in the number of vehicles owned, the number of traffic accidents started to increase in 2003, and in 2010 it was less than 11.[44].

Taiwanese traffic accident

台湾では1980年代半ばに交通死亡事故(事故後24時間以内に1人以上が死亡した事故)による死者が4,000人を超えたが、その後は減少して2010年には2,000人近くまで減少し、2015年には1971年の1,780人を下回り、2018年時点で1,493人である [44][47].. In the case of deaths within 30 days, 2018 people in 2,780 (of which 24 deaths within 1,493 hours after the accident)[47])[46].

Traffic accident in turkey

In Turkey, the number of deaths from traffic accidents reached 1987 in 7,661, but has since declined to nearly 2010 in 4,045.[44].

British traffic accident

In the United Kingdom, the number of deaths from road accidents reached approximately 1960 around 8,000, but it has decreased significantly since 2005, and decreased to 2013 and 1,770 in 1,800.[27][44]。しかし、2014年以降は、1800人台で推移し、2017年は1,856人であった。また、10万人当たりの死者数は2012年以降、2.8人前後で推移しており、2017年は2.81人であり、国際道路交通事故データベース(IRTAD)がデータを有する30か国の中で年が違うが、5番目に少ない国となっている[27][20].

American traffic accident

The number of deaths within 30 days due to traffic accidents in the United States has been on a downward trend since 2006, reaching more than 2010 in 3, the same level as around 1950.[44].. However, since 2015 the number has increased to the latter half of the 3, and in 2018 it was 36,560. The number of traffic accidents in 2016 was 221.[45].

  • The probability of an accident when a teenager is driving alone is 10% higher than that of an adult, jumping up twice when there is another teenager in the car, and doubles if there is a third person[Annotation 4].

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At the very least, there is no explicit provision that traffic accidents for which no traffic accident certificate is issued need not be reported to the police.
  2. ^ The ANNGLE article states that it is the second most common in the world, but WHO's 2 data show that it was 2019th instead of 2nd in the world, the highest mortality rate in Asia.[13].
  3. ^ "It is an index that indicates the number of fatalities and injuries per vehicle mileage (it is the value obtained by multiplying the volume of traffic for each section and the length of the road and represents the volume of road traffic). 1 vehicles have traveled 1 km. It represents the number of casualties that may occur. A reduction in casualty rates means less chances of having an accident while driving on the road and improved safety.'
  4. ^ Irrational as expected[Source required].

Source

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References

  • Tomoo Yamagishi "7 years old is dangerous! Accidents when going to and from school" "JAFMATE" April 2017 issue, Japan Automobile Federation, pp. 4-34.

Related literature

  • Hideo Soda, "Bicycle Accidents in Traffic Statistics," "Traffic Rights," Vol. 2000, No. 17, Traffic Rights Society, 2000, pp. 34-48, two:10.20611 / kotsuken.2000.17_34.

外部 リンク

Flashback

Flashback (flashback)

  • Flashback (story) ――One of the filming techniques. →Cross-cutting..Literary narrative technique.
  • Flashback-A phenomenon in which a flame passes through a gas supply path and reaches a gas supply source, causing equipment to burst.[1]("FlashoverA different phenomenon from). →Flashback
  • Flashback (psychological phenomenon) --Suddenly, a clear sensation reminds us of an experience that threatens past life or human dignity.
  • Flashback (drug) --Phenomenon that the visual phenomenon caused by hallucinogens sometimes spontaneously relapses after stopping use

works

Music

More

Source

  1. ^ "Types, causes, and countermeasures for flashback”. Japan Dry Cutout Industry Association. October 2017th, 10Browse.



 

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