Photo "Seirei Gensouki" Episode 5 Pre-cut (C) Yuri Kitayama / Hobby Japan / "Seirei Gensouki" Production Committee
"Seirei Gensouki" In Rio's dream, Miharu Ayase, a childhood friend of the previous life, appears ... Episode 5 Pre-cut
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Then, Rio, who entered a prestigious academy where aristocratic children gather in the wake of a certain incident, crawls up from the bottom of the class society and breaks down the harsh fate while meeting and parting.
From the TV anime "Seirei Gensouki", the outline and preceding scene cut of the 8th episode "Seirei no Mori" broadcast from Monday, August 2nd ... → Continue reading
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Social class(Shakaikakyu,British: Social class),Class society (class society) or justclass (class) isSocial science,Political philosophyInSocial stratification It is a concept based on the (social stratification) model, in which social members have a pyramid-shaped hierarchical relationship with each other in each group (social stratification).hierarchy) When classified into the conceptSocial groupRefers to.
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In most societies around the world, some sort of class system has historically existed due to the difference between rich and poor and the differentiation of power that accompanies the development of society.PrewarEven in JapanlawThere was a class (class) system recognized by, and even now there is a class consciousness due to social customs and economic disparities.
Most of the social classes are sorted based on various indicators such as the race and family of origin of the person, the religion to which they belong, and the ideas they follow, and they are established by being recognized by others.Historically, classes were often fixed by birth and family and rarely fluctuated significantly during their lifetime, but in modern society they contribute to a generation of society and are relatively free to do so. It can fluctuate due to marriage, conversion, etc. across the classes that have come to be known.
In addition, since modern times, the class disparity by assets has been global.資本主義It has continued to expand in the course of economic development, but at the same time, economic development貴族Even if it is a historic class such as, it cannot maintain its position as a superior class without the backing of assets, and new entrepreneurs and luxuryOfficialsHas been replaced by an emerging class such as.In modern society, it is not only the origin but also the high to get a high rank in the business world and the government world.EducationIt became desirable to receive, and hereditarypropertyIt has also been pointed out that a substantial hereditary succession of the asset class has been realized in the sense that it has the resources to provide higher education than the position itself ().
Discrimination and discrimination by social class
Discrimination / discrimination by class is mainly divided as follows.These can be divided into those stipulated by law and those that are practiced as a custom accepted by society.
- Social aspirations (treatment as a celebrity)
- Treatment received in society (right, Authority and differences in various treatments)
- Prestige and trust in society (investment,marriage,Finding employmentPreferential treatment or discriminatory treatment in such situations)
The class treatment obtained by occupation and received based on job rank is originally based on occupation and job, and is allowed only within the scope of occupation and job, but in reality, it is as shown in (1). It can be a hierarchical benefit with fame and even prestige like (3).
Globally, discrimination / discrimination based on (2) tends to be abolished except for disparities in treatment and authority due to job rank, but (1) is welcomed as an honor. Many, and (3) tend to persist.However, regarding (1), conventionallyHereditaryAlthough it was inherited by, it is sometimes considered preferable that it is not inherited now.
Class struggleWhat is (Class conflict, class warfare, class struggle)?Means of productionPrivate property社会In the class society that is the basis ofclassOccurs between the class andSocial disparityThe struggle to overcome.By this strugglerevolutionIs supposed to occur.As an antonymClass collaborationIs mentioned.
Social class of each country
The United Kingdom
The United KingdomIs historically considered to be a class society.
With the royal family and hereditary peers at the top,KnighthoodIt is also a major feature of Britain that the titles and honorary classes based on the above have survived on a large scale.The hereditary peers, who were historically representatives of the upper class, are being deprived of their privileges, but those who have been active and contributed in various fields of society are the life peers.KnightAnd given social honor.The title of knight is just abroadBritish Royal FamilyAlthough it is only a medal given by the government, it is possible to receive some privileges such as the title of "Sir" in the United Kingdom.
On the other hand, the class in Britain is the vastness of the hereditary aristocratic class authority.ManorIt is regulated by culture, occupation, lifestyle, and recognition by the person and others, as in the case of old money and lifestyles based on it.Therefore, being honored is usually not considered a member of the upper class.Furthermore, at present, the class does not necessarily reflect economic power, and economic conditions are often reversed, especially in the lower upper and upper middle classes and the lower middle and upper middle classes.
In the past, there was little discrimination between those classes, and there was a tendency to respect other classes.Schools and curriculums were separate for these classes, but when education became standardized, the order of schools like Japan was completed, and there was a tendency for this to lead to discrimination in occupational classes. Yes.
Although there is no direct hereditary succession in the hierarchy, there is little movement and it is fairly fixed.In addition, after the reunification of the former East and West Germany, a new hierarchy was born among the former East and West German people due to the difference in their economic power.Furthermore, as a result of inviting foreign workers as simple workers, this has become a new hierarchy.
CasteBrahmin-Kshatriya-Vaisha-PseudoraIt is said that they are roughly divided into four statuses, but in reality, innumerable classifications are made within each status according to hereditary occupations.Furthermore, it is not even allowed to be included in the four statuses.Untouchable people(Untouchable) exists.These identification systems are inseparably linked to religion and life, and are pointed out as a major obstacle to the modernization of India as a whole. It is said that.
ThailandIs a society in which the title system exists.People called Rachawon (royal family) are classified according to this title system, and there are five in total.While people called Rachawon have privileges such as pensions depending on their class, there are also restrictions on political involvement depending on the class (for details, seeRachawonSee).
on the other hand,Ayutthaya dynastyFor bureaucrats called made in the timesBandersackThere was a class called.Bandersacks were originally classified according to the cultivated area to be rented,Chakri DynastyDuring the period, it gradually changed to an honorary class, and became a class showing how influential the person was.this is,Constitutional revolutionSometimes the new bandersack was abolished, but he could give his name unless deprived by the king.20st centuryUntil the mid-term, bureaucrats with bandersacks were active.If a bandersack is actually alive as someone who was given it before the Constitutional Revolution, the bandersack is also used officially and can be regarded as an existing class system depending on the viewpoint.
またPolicemen,軍隊Also holds a rank (general, sergeant, etc.), and this rank is always used in official situations.If you hold this, the honorific title of the commoner, etc. is not used.Once you own it, you can continue to use it as long as it is not promoted or deprived, and you can continue to use it even if you retire.For example, the past Prime Minister of ThailandPlaek Phibunsson KlamHas retained the rank of Marshal even after retiring from Marshal, and is still called along with the rank of Marshal.
The United States of America
AmericaIn the southern states, onceRacismWas legislated. Discrimination laws have been abolished since the civil rights movement in the 60s.On the other hand, the distinction by assets tends to be more intense, and the asset class may benefit in various ways, such as responding to crimes and repairing roads leading to residential areas.
In reality, it is necessary to obtain achievements, high educational background and exam qualifications in order to get a high-paying profession and a high post position as a quick way to become a bourgeoisie.It is difficult for the poor (mostly minorities) to get the profession in the sense that they spend money on their education.In addition, minorities are closed to career advancement in a certain position, even if they have a track record and educational background (Glass ceiling) Often.On the other hand, asset formation by launching venture companies andCelebrityThere is also a way to become a celebrity, but investment in some minority venture companies is often invisiblely restricted.It is also pointed out that the possibility of becoming a celebrity is a new form of minority discrimination because it requires outstanding ability and the probability is very small compared to other methods of becoming an asset class.
AustraliaWas once, like AmericaWhite AustralianThere was racial discrimination called, but this system was abolished.In recent years, it has been recognized that economic ties with Asia are important, and class discrimination based on race is disappearing.However, it is an indigenous peopleAboriginalThe problem remains.
- Bourgeoisie(10% of working population) --Upper class entrepreneurs, managers, politicians, self-employed, etc.
- White collarMiddle class(17%)  --Middle class workers who are not manual labor, etc.
- cityPetite bourgeois(14%)  --Store ownerSmall businessEntrepreneur, self-employed, etc.
- Rural Petite Bourgeois (10%)  --Small entrepreneur / real estate owner engaged in agriculture and forestry in the countryside
- Urban working class (37%)  --People engaged in manual labor in the city
- Rural working class (9%)  --People engaged in primary industries such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing
in Japan,Article 14 of the Constitution Equality under the lawIs stipulatedroyalWith the exception of (with some exceptions)PeopleIt is said that there is no hereditary privileged class between them.However, social ranking is done by combining several elements.
Job rank, etc.
Although it is different from the so-called class, various job titles and job titles may have a certain authority not only within the organization but also in the general society.for example,Chief,MemberPoliticians, etc.judge,Under Secretary-OfficialsAnd the school directorTax Office ChiefPublic officials, such asmartial arts-flower arrangement,Go-ShogiSkill titles such asShrineIn a higher position withinPriesthood,Entertainment-Sports-HonorAnd various賞Winners,Doctor,Lawyer,Certified public accountantThose who passed the most difficult national examination, such as, andHuman national treasureThose who have received the official certification system such as, and even prominentEvery woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness..large company OfThe president， A handful of global companies (egGAFA.McKinsey)ofEmployeeWidely社会Tends to be the object of respect, which may be customarily accepted as a class.However, this isCelebrity,eliteThe order of seats, the order of greetings, the order of honorific titles and the order of voice within the organization does not lead to universal distinction / discrimination, and direct hereditary succession is not carried out.But IemotoUniversityIn a closed organization such as, the title (or job title) may be absolute, and some people may also wield authority to the outside (this is due to their personality). However, it can be said that the system / organization is vulnerable).
In addition, in companies, etc., job titles and job titles that indicate responsibilities according to the degree of duties (Manager,Manager,Board MemberEtc.), not only the authority of command and command in the job, but also the disparity in various treatments within the organization (separate dining room, presence of driver and private office room, etc.).This system of ranks is the responsibility for dutiesRemunerationHowever, the class system within Japanese organizations often extends to non-business treatment disparities and command authority (so-called abuse of authority), which lacks legal grounds.Commercial lawIt has also been pointed out that it is a serious human rights act that violates (so-called).Power harassment).For example, while the rules of employment stipulate that the business orders of higher-ranking positions be complied with, there are cases where the scope of the business orders and disciplinary action against non-compliance are not clear, and the company wins the dismissal for non-compliance violators in the trial. There is a judgment case.Also, personnel affairssalarySince the assessment of is the authority of the upper position, and depending on the position, there is also the authority to place an order with the affiliated company, the employee, the employee of the affiliated company or his / her family can be placed in a position outside of work so as not to offend the feelings of the upper position. You may have to obey.The characteristics of these Japanese companies are that theyShareholderIt is also pointed out that this is a phenomenon caused by the fact that the management is for the management and the external audit is not functioning.In fact, senior executives and their families privatized the authority of the post,trialAnd it has become a social problem.Furthermore, even outside the organization and its direct stakeholders, the name of the organization to which the individual belongs and the title of the individualincomeBut,bankLoan limit,Golf clubMembership andCredit cardIt is not uncommon to affect the type of family and even the marriage and employment of the family.For this reason, the authority and ability of the organization to which they belong, their job titles,incomeAffirmation may have become a substantive social class.However, this tendency is政治家It is also seen in people who are considered to be "famous people" such as, and it is not necessarily a phenomenon limited to Japanese private companies.
Before the Meiji era
8st centuryCompleted inRitual systemUnderImperial courtFor citizens who serveBantianWhile it was decided that rice fields would be given equally by the state based on the above, those who served the imperial court and those who had merit in the state were only for one generation.RankWas given, and the de facto aristocratic system was maintained.
Strictly speaking, aristocrats are ranked fifth or higherOfficial positionThat is, with the rankOfficial officeIt is the one that was sung by.Heian periodThe aristocratic family is becoming more and more fixed in Japan.Kamakura PeriodIn the imperial courtLordAsEmperorCondolencedOfficial houseA group called was formed.On the other hand, due to the early collapse of the group system, social differentiation progressed, and martial arts became a family profession.samuraiPeople called have come to have power.Since the Kamakura periodsamuraiIt is a group that has the same ruling class as the Kuge.However, the social class was not constant among the samurai families,Postwar eraUps and downs were seen before.
Edo PeriodThen, the final form of the hierarchy between the Kuge and the samurai will take root.KugeFamily-Seika family-Daijinke-Urinke-Famous-HankeThere is a family character such as地下There is a low-ranking official house called, and among them, there are family members such as officials, parallel officials, and subordinate officials, and they are stratified based on the difference between the direct line and the collateral line in the same lineage and the official position given to them from generation to generation.On the other hand, the samuraiGeneralThe naomi is at the topDaming,Flag book,LordIt is roughly divided into the vassals of the daimyo and below (陪 虪) Also formed various family characters.In addition to the bloodline of the samurai family, complex reasons such as territories, powers, and special forms recognized for their achievements became factors that determine the family character.In addition, the samurai had a rise and fall in their family character.
Status structure after the Meiji era
Meiji Era(More accuratelyImperial Japanese ConstitutionSince its establishment), the classes in the feudal social status society up to that point have been centered on the imperial family, the Kazoku family, centered on the Kuge daimyo, and the samurai class.Samurai, Farmers, etc.civilianIt was divided into.The names of these classifications are called.People of each class classified into four ethnic names were issued by the new Meiji government.Four people equalityUnder the policy of, it was basically equality before the emperor.
This is aimed at dispelling the image of a country with an unreasonable system in building Japan, which is world-class as a modern nation, and centered on the emperor.Wealthy soldiersWhile it had the effect of correcting discrimination between classes, it also left a strong feudal element.
Especially for the Kazoku, there was a risk that the world would be confused by depriving them of their vested interests as the ruling class up to that point, and it was necessary for them to play a role in the imperial clan toward the construction of a nation centered on the emperor. It treats the ruling class up to that point as a special status.KazokuMember of the House of LordsElection to bureaucracy, promotion to bureaucracy,GakuinI enjoyed various privileges by studying at.
For the middle class, the ban on mageAbandoned sword,SacrificeMeasures to deprive vested interests, such as the abolition of the vested interests, were implemented in stages, and in the end, there was almost no place to replace the commoners.
In addition to the fact that commoners are given free status, those with excellent academic ability go on to university to obtain a degree.OfficialsWas promoted tosoldierThe way to get up and running was opened by means such as becoming.In addition, if it was a high-paying taxpayer, it was possible to be elected as a member of the House of Lords.
Those who became bureaucrats or military personnel among the samurai and commonersRankOrder etc.Enjoy the status, title, and privileges of a military officer, and if you are a soldier, by military serviceOrder of the Golden KiteI also received the honor of being given.In addition, if the achievements to the nation were recognized as tremendous, there was a possibility that he would be newly awarded as a Kazoku.
However, on the other hand, there are also some who say that the value of family traits since the Edo period remains strict, and that the social structure after the Meiji era has only changed the social status from strict to slightly looser.Furthermore, although the discriminated people before the Edo period were incorporated into the commoners, discrimination against them remained severe.
- ^ Grant, J. Andrew (2001). “Class, definition of”. In Jones, RJ Barry. Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy: Entries AF. Taylor & Francis. P. 161. ISBN 978-0-415-24350-6
- ^ Brown, DF (2009). “Social class and Status”. In Mey, Jacob. Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics. Elsevier. P. 952. ISBN 978-0-08-096297-9
- ^ Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-50520-1
- ^ a b c d e f g "Italy-Poverty and wealth”. Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2013/1/30Browse.