An actor who married an uproar singer notices a "flimsy" life Opening his eyes in the role of "father" in the drama
If you write the contents roughly
And when David saw his character "grow up into a father," he knew it was "obviously my subconscious coveted."
Actor David Harbor's life is "thin ..." thanks to the drama "Stranger Things Unknown World" → Continue reading
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無意識(Unconscious,alone: das Unbewusste,British: unconscious) Is a state of unconsciousness (usually)Psychology,PsychiatryUsage in), orPsychoanalysisFoundedSigmund FreudThis is the area of the mental process that begins with the discovery of the ego that cannot be grasped (unconscious) by the ego.later,1950Announced in the United StatesL. Ron HubbardByDianeticsFor the first time in humans無意識The mechanism of was structurally revealed.
Existence of consciousness
What is unconscious must be understood as what is consciousness on the premise. "Consciousness" is generally regarded as "something that is self-evidently understood when I am conscious, when I am conscious" (Cartesianof"I think, therefore I am. "哲学For a long time in the field of consciousnessselfWas equated).
In this way, consciousness has been subjectively grasped, but it was established in modern times.科学However, it was not appropriate as an objective rule, ambiguous, and difficult to grasp quantitatively.so thatHeartIs the study ofPsychologyEven in the heart魂Or, as consciousness is not scientifically definedstimulateとreactionTryed to build psychology inBehavioral psychologyEtc. have appeared.Even nowconceptSimilarly, the concept of consciousness is only subjectively grasped, and some psychological schools find it difficult to objectively grasp its existence.
However, even if it is difficult to objectively grasp it as a scientific object, "the existence of consciousness is obvious to those who are conscious of consciousness."propositionAlsotruthBecause it is considered to be (subjective grasp), scientifically and objectivelyObservationEven if it is not done, many psychology presupposes that the concept of consciousness exists as well as the concept of mind from the beginning.At least few people think that the general public is unconscious.Therefore, even if it is not scientifically proven, consciousness is treated as self-evident.Of course, some schools think that consciousness also does not exist, and it has not been confirmed.
Meaning of unconscious 1
|Memory||State of consciousness[Source required]|
Loss of consciousness
Unconsciousness has two main meanings: "unconsciousness" and "a certain area of unconsciousness in the mind."
"Unconscious alone: unbewusst, bewusstlos, British: unconsciousIn a strong sense, "" means a state in which the cerebrum has almost no function.However, the work of the cerebrum does not stop completely as long as human beings are alive, and the objective standard is ambiguous as to how far "almost none" is.
On the other hand, when we say "unconscious" in a weak sense, it also means "not aware".For example, when reading a book while listening to music, both the content of the text of the book and the music are conscious at first.However, when I am concentrating on reading and suddenly interrupted by something, I sometimes hear "music suddenly".The music was playing all the time, but because I was so focused on reading, I was "unaware" of the progress of the music.
Humans receive numerous sensory and semantic stimuli over time and are conscious of many of them.However, from psychological experiments on memory, it can be said that the amount that the cerebrum perceives and engraves in memory as "unconscious / unaware" sensory stimuli and semantic stimuli is even greater.
Consciousness and memory
Human beings are conscious of various things, but "things to be conscious" are "things to be conscious" in a broad sense other than "the pattern of sensory and semantic stimuli here and now".Memory".In the reproduction of memory, certain words and knowledge may be reproduced, but in the form of an internal image, past scenes (visual, auditory, etc.) may be recalled.
Memories are reproduced on a daily basis, and even tasks that require complicated procedures can be performed mechanically without being "conscious" of each procedure.For example, when writing a complicated kanji, it is not written by tracing the memory one by one, such as which line to draw, which line to add next, where and how.Procedural memory).
Without "awareness of recalling memory", so many things are recalled in this present and composed of images, emotions and meanings.Stream of consciousnessIs continuing.
However, there are cases in which other people try to remember something and cannot remember it even though they should know it. At this time, the smooth flow of consciousness stagnates and efforts are made to regenerate the memory. Rise to consciousness.
Memories that require effort to remember did not exist in the "smoothly flowing area of consciousness" until the recall was successful.So where was such a memory?Of course, it existed in the pattern of the structural relationship of nerve cells in the cerebrum, but as a subjective experience, such memory is outside the "current conscious area" and "PreconsciousIt is said that it was in the area called.
Meaning of unconscious 2
There are various "objects of consciousness" in the consciousness that flows on a daily basis.The object of this current consciousness is the pattern of sensations, meanings, emotions, etc. that are present, but also the content of memory that is natural and "unaware" is recalled without delay. is there.
The word "consciousness" itself is in the "area" where the "whole object" that the subject is aware of exists, in addition to the usual meanings of "having awakening consciousness" and "noticing something". It has meaning.It can be said that "awareness" of something or "awareness" of something means that the object enters the "realm of consciousness" and rises to consciousness.
Humans have a huge amount of memory in their lifetimeCerebrumEngrave in the physiological mechanism of.Some of them are consciously regenerated as memories again, but most of the memories are not regenerated and are maintained in the memory storage mechanism of the cerebrum.
Such enormous memories do not exist individually like a group of isolated islands.AssociationHas a sensory, semantic, and emotional association structure and group structure, as evidenced by the fact that it promotes memory recall.And, as long as it is engraved in the memory in such a structure, the possibility of reproduction and recall of any memory is not completely zero.
In a person's life, there is an enormous amount of memory that, if not zero, is likely to be recalled again, in fact, never rises to the "realm of consciousness" in a lifetime.When viewed subjectively, it is appropriate to express that such a memory, which is never recalled in a lifetime, exists in the "area outside the consciousness".
Scientifically, even if you say "out of consciousness"Cerebrum OfNerve cellIt is engraved somewhere in the network, and "out of consciousness" means that, for the subjectivity, there is a vast amount of memory in the "unconscious area" phenomenally.Such an "unconscious area" is the second meaning of the unconscious.
|Memory||Area of consciousness[Source required]|
Memories are not the only target of consciousness.In addition, memory is "structured" in some sense, and how the enormous amount of memory in the "unconscious area" is structured is also a problem.
In addition to the memories and knowledge gained through experience and learning, human beings have "knowledge" and "structure" that can only be said to be innately or innately possessed.One example is "human言语According to the current knowledge, only human beings can fully utilize human language.Noam Chomsky OfGenerative grammarClaims that the human cerebrum has the innate ability or structure to compose language.
As a child grows up, he memorizes a finite number of words.The word is stored with the sentence context in which the word appears.However, a child's ability to generate language lies in speaking sentences that he has never heard before, and therefore sentences that do not exist in his memory. When a child speaks "a sentence that he has never remembered", it is not a memory, so where does such a sentence come from?
It can be said that it springs from the "unconscious area" or "unconscious".Chomsky thoughtUniversal grammarThe structure of is an ordered structure that exists in the unconscious area.The natural generation of language, the generation of language flow, means that the order of words and meanings is performed outside the consciousness, that is, in the deep consciousness, the unconscious area (in generative grammar). I later avoided the expressions unconscious and deep conscious, but there is no change in the innate structural claims of language).
In this way, although it does not appear in the realm of consciousness, there are memories, knowledge and structures in the realm outside the consciousness, that is, in the unconscious realm, and such memories and structures are the contents of consciousness and its existence. The fact that it affects consciousness is not a hypothesis, but a fact that is scientifically substantiated.Without the brain, there is no language.
Although,The term "unconscious" is ambiguous in definition, highly popular, and has a high risk of being used in an arbitrary sense.[Source required]Currently,PsychoanalysisThere is a negative tendency to use the word / concept of "unconsciousness", including criticism of.[Source required]
Unconscious concept in deep psychology
Sigmund Freud ThePhenomenologyUnconscious area, which is a mental area that cannot be conscious of human beings, in order to interpret the internal experience (subjective experience) well and consistently.As there existsPsychoanalysisFounded.
Freud's unconsciousness is an area that cannot be consciously formed acquiredly by education, while Jung says that there is also an area that is innately universally shared and possessed by humans and cannot be consciousness. did.
Freud's concept of unconsciousness in psychoanalysis
University of ViennaAfter experimenting and researching neurotransmission as a neurologist in the Physiology Laboratory, he became a psychiatric clinician.Sigmund FreudThere is an area in the human mental process that cannot be conscious by the ego, and it is under the influence of the surrounding moral norms from childhood that the content of consciousness differs from that moral norm.suppressionIt was supposed to be formed by being done (driven to the unconscious area).
Freud, assuming the existence of the unconscious, argues that some of the mental illnesses of the time (such as hysteria) are internal experiences caused by the unconscious (suppressed content) that is different from the patient's ego. Insisted that it would be cured by releasing the oppression.Then, in order to grasp the unconscious content that cannot be acquired even by the person's introspection, let them talk in the form of a dream through hypnosis etc., and the content of the dream (alone: trauma, Trauma) as an unconscious content to grasp the patient's unconscious content (Dream judgment)Psychoanalysis(Psychoanalysis) was founded.
Jung's Unconscious Concept in Analytical Psychology
Freud's unconsciousness, which is formed by the oppression of moral influence from the surroundings in childhood, is limited to those with an infantile tendency from its origin...Also, if all the oppression of a human being is released, the memory of the oppression that the person once encountered for interpretation should be able to be associated with all the unconscious contents.
Initially an avid follower of Freud, he and Freud were fascinated by the unconscious world.Karl Gustav JungIt is,SchizophreniapatientFrom my observation experience, I gradually became skeptical of Freud's thinking.
For example, Jung once wrote the content of an internal experience described by a schizophrenic patient in the old Greek language that Jung was reading.MithraismI noticed that it resembled the contents of the prayer book..According to Freud's thinking, a causal interpretation should be interpreted as revealing what the patient had previously read the book but was unknowingly squeezed for some reason.However, the patient was unable to read Greek, and the publication of the book was after the delusion was stated in the first place, and it is unlikely that the patient had read such content first.
Freud's unconsciousness cannot be what he does not encounter and cannot know.So Jung is associated with the unconscious of human beings, such as Freud's unconscious, of the individual's life.Personal unconsciousBesides (personal unconscious), it has universality in common with other human beings.Universal unconscious(Collective unconscious) exists, and we think that they are layered, and based on that ideaAnalytical psychology(Analytical psychology) was founded.
Unconscious in a broad sense
Various interpretations have been made regarding the "unconscious area".Hypnosis"State of consciousness in the state, religious rituals and drug intake"Altered state of consciousness(Metamorphic consciousness) ”is also a state that is not normal consciousness.
In addition to such a broad sense of metamorphism,Subliminal"Unconscious states / areas" have been considered. Even if the existence of "unconscious areas" is certain, it is difficult to objectively describe and explain such areas that are subjectively grasped.
The "unconsciousness" in Freud's and Jung's theories turned out to be that the existence of the structure they theoretically assumed was not substantiated as a result.[Source required]It is also true that such an "unconscious concept", which was born in the first half of the 20th century, had a great cultural influence.thought,artIt still has an impact on.
However, expressing the unconscious indefinitely becomes a subjective grasp of each individual, and alsoTrans personal psychologyAs with the unconscious inThe unconscious, which is too hypothetical, is increasingly difficult and questionable to prove.[Source required]There are too many uncertainties about what subliminal is a concept.[Source required]For usages and concepts of such words that have too much subjective element or interpretation[Source required]It should be said that there is a question.
The unconscious is likely to be an unexplained area, and is being researched in the fields of psychology, brain science, and other fields.
In the field of brain scienceDefault mode networkA network of multiple regions in the brain called (DMN) is being studied.It is thought that the brain is active even in a dull state, and the function of that activity is due to the default mode network...Also, vaguely indulge in fantasyMind wandering(MW), which is said to have many constructive aspects.
- ^ To avoid the misunderstanding that "to be unconscious", the subconscious (British: subconscious,alone: Subconscious) Is often used.
- ^ The unconscious area is simply "unconscious (alone: Unbewusste,British: the unconscious) ”."Unconscious" here means "unconscious mind (British: unconscious mind) ”And so on.In addition, in the Buddhist idea of consciousness that appeared around the 4th century AD, "Thirty consciousness", it can be interpreted as unconscious in addition to the consciousness of the previous five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch).Manas-vijnana(Manaki),Eighth consciousnessI assumed two deep consciousness layers called (Arayashiki) (eight consciousness theory).
- ^ JungFriedrich Schering(The targeted self-consciousness is "unconscious" (alone: Unbewusstsein Unconscious,alone: unconsciousness (Unconscious state)) is said to be an unconscious discoverer in the West.
- ^ Hideaki Koizumi, "From the Brain Science Journal Freud to Brain Maps and MRI," Kakugawa Shinsho, 2011.
- ^ Relationship between the ego and the unconscious (1982) p.9
- ^ As an application of the theory of psychoanalysis, "conscience"社会InmoralThe origin of "" was explained as the cultural action of the unconscious oppressive structure.For examplehabitIn response to the seemingly accidental mistake, he will try to explain it later (Rationalization) However, since there are many cases where Tsuji does not match objectively, it is said that a personal oppressive structure can be seen there.This is Jung'sLanguage association methodIt is also inherited.
- ^ Relationship between the ego and the unconscious (1982) p.9
In other words, Freud's unconscious consists only of the content of the personality part that was suppressed so as not to go out in education, and the complicated content created by post-adult human beings who can no longer provide oppressive education. I can't have it.
- ^ Significant difference between external experience and internal experience
- ^ Kawai (1967) p.32
- ^ In addition, Jung named the complex (mental complex) because there is a complex of emotions and ideas that is not conscious of the subject from the language associative experiment.
- ^ According to Jung's ideamyth,Religious, Flying saucer, etc.occultThe content described by is nothing but the universal unconscious content that human beings have in common.Since it is an internal content that human beings have in common, it will be disseminated to the world regularly and sporadically in order to obtain an internal experience of such content in response to a specific trigger. It is interpreted as.
- ^ "The reason why "blurring" is important for the brain”. WIRED.jp (September 2014, 8). 2018/3/25Browse.
- ^ Michael Corvallis (December 2015, 12). “The brain works more actively than when you are absent-minded!What is "shadow brain activity" that fosters memory, creativity, and empathy?". 2018/3/25Browse.
- ^ Takahiro Sekiguchi et al. “Mind wandering! -A vague science of mind". 2018/3/26Browse.
- Nikkei Science June 2010 Issue The activity of the shadow of the brain that emerges
- CG Jung, "Relationship between Ego and Unconsciousness," Takashi Noda (translation), Jimbunshoin, 1982.
- Hayao Kawai "Introduction to Jung Psychology" Baifukan, 1967.