amazarashi, in charge of the second cool OP theme of the TV anime "86-Eighty Six-"
If you write the contents roughly
When I read the original story of "86-XNUMX-Eighty Six-", I felt that the contradictions and conflicts that we, who live in this world at this time, are facing in the present progressive tense, were caught in the neck and confronted.
Amazarashi's new song "Borderline" will start broadcasting in October on the TV anime "10-Eighty Six ..." → Continue reading
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Progressive(Shinkoukei) isEnglishIndicates that the operation / phenomenon is in progress or ongoing at a certain point in time and is not completed.verbIt is an expression form of.In English "be… ing (Present participle) ", Especially in education, in the form of" present progressive tense "," past progressive tense ", etc.tenseHowever, "progress" itself is not tensephaseSince it is (aspect), the "progressive phase" is appropriate.
The progressive phase is more strictlysubject"Continuing phase" (representing the state of being actingJapaneseIn other words, it is divided into two parts: "...") and "progressive phase" ("... going" and "... going"), which represent the dynamic nature of an action / phenomenon (in progress toward completion). Be done.Some languages distinguish between them.
The progressive tense does not exist as a unique form in every language, it is simplepresent tenseThere are many languages that do not distinguish from.Also, even in a progressive language, the range of defense varies greatly depending on the language.For example, in English, the present progressive tense is also used to mean "... trying" in the near future.On the other hand, in Japanese, the habit / repetition may be expressed by "...", which corresponds to the progressive tense, but this is distinguished as a phase, and in English, the progressive tense is not usually used.
As a concept that contradicts the progressive phase, the movement / phenomenon is regarded as a one-time operation regardless of the passage of time.Perfective aspectThere is.However, since this originally indicates the state at the reference time, it does not necessarily conflict with the progressive phase (for example, the perfect progressive tense).
The origin of the progressive phase of English isOld englishIt is said that it is in the form of beon / wesan (to be / to become) + present participle (-ende), but it is predominant that this represents only the continuous phase and not the progressive phase.The origin of the progressive phase isGermanicnotCelticThere is also a theory that it is in (reference).
The progressive form of modern English is all tensesLawCan be applied to, and in some cases even combined with the perfect phase (Perfect progressive tense).
- We had been talking for hours. "We were talking for hours (by that time)" (realis mood, active voice, past tense, perfection phase)
The continuation phase is commonly used for actions that are actively taking place at the time of attention.For example, “John was playing "Tennis when Jane called him." Just says "what John was doing when he was called by Jane."When we say how long or how often it happened, we don't use the progressive tense (in this case the simple past tense) "John played "Tennis three hours every day for several years." The perfect continuation phase ("have been doing") suggests that the act expressed at the time of the problem was interrupted, whether or not it was resumed. For example, "John had been playing "Tennis when Jane called him." Indicates that "he interrupted tennis because Jane called him" (then she may have stopped playing tennis just because something important happened).
Stative verbs (have, wear, etc.) do not use the progressive tense just to mean continuation of the state.However, the temporary state is sometimes used to distinguish it from the general (usual) state (both are expressed as "are" in Japanese, and it is difficult to distinguish them).
- She Wore a yellow ribbon. She wore a yellow ribbon (at that time, by habit or at that time).
- She was wearing a yellow ribbon. She wore a yellow ribbon (at that time).
Furthermore, as an expression using a stative verb, the progressive form is also used when it is desired to emphasize a nuance that does not belong to either the continuous phase or the progressive phase.For example, “Your grandpa is always having "coffee." Expresses "Your grandfather always drinks coffee (as a habit)."This example sentence is an act that is generally completed in a short time, but to emphasize the nuance (drinking coffee all the time) that there is a habit that is as frequent as it is done all the time. It is a progressive form.
In English, the present progressive tense can also represent the near future.In other tenses, the same thing can be expressed by "be going to + infinitive".This is not a pure phase but a tense-like expression.This is the progressive form of the instantaneous verb (start, arrive, etc.).
SpanishHas a form equivalent to the English progressive tense of "estar + present participle", but the present progressive tense is often expressed in a simple present progressive tense.In addition, the progress in the past is often represented by the line past (corresponding to the French semi-past form).
・ Estoy llorando. "I'm crying"
ItalianAlso "stare + GerundioThere is a form equivalent to the English progressive tense, but the present progressive tense is often expressed in a simple present progressive tense. Gerundio has the ending -ando or -endo, and is originally the present participle of Spanish. It is the same as, but Italian has a separate present participle (with the ending of -ante, -ente). Like French, the meaning of the progressive tense in the past can be expressed in the semi-past form. There are many.
・ Sto piangendo. "I'm crying"
FrenchHas no progressive tense (there are phrases like "être en train de + V" "in the middle of V"). venir The verbs "come" and aller "go" are used as auxiliary verbs. Proximity past venir + de V "I just did V" ・ Proximity future aller + V "I'm trying to V, I'm going to V" is there.Regarding the past, a form called the semi-past (or line past) (to be exact, the "imparfait":LatinThere is also a corresponding form) to express the act that was continued, progressed, repeated, or habitualized.
StandardGermanThere is no progressive tense, but some dialects (RhinelandEtc.) has the phrase "sein + am or beim + gerund".For example, "ich bin am Lesen" or "ich bin beim Lesen" means "I'm reading".This is called the "rheinische Verlaufsform" and is becoming more popular in slang.
The phrase that corresponds to the progressive tense in Japanese is "...".This may represent habits / repetitions (unlike English) as well as continuation / progression.
Furthermore, the Japanese word "..." may indicate "state of the result of the end of the act" or "completion" in some cases.However, manyWestern Japanese dialectIn (generally west of Kobe City), the progressive form "... Oru (... Yoru)" and the perfect form "... Oru (... Toru, ... Choru)" are distinguished.It is considered that "wearing" indicating the state also represents the result of the momentary movement "wearing".
Before the retail price, the verbSuffix(OrAuxiliary verb) "Fu" is widely used, which expresses continuation, repetition, etc.Even now, some parts such as "going" and "living" remain.The auxiliary verb "ri" (derived from "ari") was also used to express continuation and persistence, but it was often used to mean completion after it was used.
KoreanThen.verbIt appears with "-고 있다" after the root of, and is used for purposes other than continuation / progress as in Japanese.There is also a form of "-는 중이다", which has a meaning closer to the progressive form of English.
ChineseThen, in general, the continuation phaseArrived", And the progressive phase is"positive], [On], [Being] To distinguish between them.