Photo Gorgeous cast for suspicious guests! – Movie “Masquerade Hotel” Poster Visual – (c) 2019 Movie “Masquerade Hotel” Production Committee (c) Keigo Higashino / Shueisha
"Masquerade Hotel" starring Takuya Kimura will be broadcast tonight!Gorgeous cast gathered in a row
If you write the contents roughly
Kosuke Nitta (Kimura), an elite detective in the Investigation Division of the Police Agency, found out that the super-class hotel "Cortesia Tokyo" would be the next place of crime while investigating the serial murder case, and infiltrated as the front clerk of the hotel. To do it.
To commemorate the release of the latest work "Masquerade Night", the previous work "Masquerade Hotel" will be released today from 18 pm on the 9th ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Confidential investigation(It looks like Mibun,British: undercover, undercover operation, be (go) undercoverWhat isinvestigationIn the process of, in order to gain information or evidence, in order to gain the trust of individuals or groups who are in a position to obtain confidential information,IdentityTheCamouflageTo do something, or to take something that creates a fictitious identity.Secret investigationIt is also said. As a ruleSting operation(British: sting operation) Around the worldLaw enforcementThe secret investigative method adopted by the investigators, and the person who plays the central role in such an investigation is usually a secret investigator (British: undercover agents (police, officers, detectives)) AndspyIs called. Investigators engaged in covert investigations often conceal their true identity and often do more than just disguise themselves as criminals.That personBecomeIllegalHands on various activities,mafiaSometimes infiltrate the target organization such as. Because of this, the secret investigationUndercover investigationAlso called. Of investigators exposed to this kind of harsh missionstressIs relatively large, and it often becomes a psychological and psychological burden later.
The United States of AmericaLaw enforcement agencies tend to make heavy use of secret investigations However, in other countries, the strict application of laws may be required for operation in order to limit the endless use.Germany, NetherlandsThen.Criminal procedure codeThere are provisions related to operation above. In the case of Japan, it may be limited to sting operations and prescribed by various laws and regulations ("Laws regarding sting operationsAs of 2011, the Criminal Procedure Code does not provide for any provision. On the other hand, it allows sting operations under certain conditions.PrecedentThere is usually an investigation based on this.
Secret investigationOrganized crimeMeasures (Illegal drug/arms trading,Money laundering,tax evasion,prostitutionDetecting mediation etc.),terrorism(I.e.,Counter intelligencePlay a part in. InsideExample of U.S. local police injecting masked detectives to arrest a salesclerk who sells alcohol to underage ,ProstituteUse a disguised policewoman英国Example There are even cases where it is thrown in even for relatively minor cases such as.
The term "undercover" is otherNews reportAnd also used in the field of journalism,Gonzo JournalismOne ofInvestigation report(British: investigative journalism) Is an extension of(British: immersion journalism) And(British: undercover journalismIn some cases, it may refer to an interviewer with an infiltration into the target organization and an infiltration journalist engaged in it..
There have been various secret investigation methods since ancient times, but the first secretive investigation method was created.19st centuryFrance OfEugene Francois Vidoc(Eugène François Vidocq).EnglandIn1883,"Special Irish Branch" was established for the purpose of conducting intelligence activities targeting the (Irish Republican Brotherhood)... This laterScottish Yard OfIt has been renamed ("Special Branch") and still exists.CommonwealthDepartments with the same name have also been established in police organizations in each country and region. In the United States, before the federal agency planned and launched its own secret investigation, the "Italian'Squad" secret investigation agency1906Is established in.
The United States of America
Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) secret investigation is "Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations"(" Regarding the FBI undercover investigation activitiesAttorney GeneralGuidelines") Standards for its operation are set in.. This guideline shows the criteria for investigators to be allowed to engage in illegal activities when they are inevitable..
Secret Investigator in Germany (alone: verdeckter Ermittler, VE) Is usually police orCustomsBelong to law enforcement agencies such asCitizenWhile pretending to be a fakepersonal informationIs a state or federal official who carries out a long-term investigation using. VE isArticle 110a and below (§§ 110a ff. StPO) In addition to the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Home Affairs of each state, orJudicial counselor[Translation question][Annotation 1] as well as the [Annotation 1]Within the criminal prosecution frameInformation provider(alone: Informant, "Informant") andAnd the common guidelines for the input of secret investigators will be put on the legal basis. The latter common guidelines are almost the same in each state.(Verwaltungsvorschriften) and state administrative regulations (Landesverwaltungsvorschriften) exist (section "外部 リンクThe input is only to supplement the investigation and is allowed in case of "serious crime".Requires consent of (Staatsanwaltschaft). ""(alone: Gefahr im Verzug[Annotation 2]In the case of), after the fact, the consent of the public prosecutor's office must be obtained within 3 days, and in addition, the approval of the police for the matter is also required. In reality, it's rather obvious, but court consent is only required if the VE enters a dwelling that is banned from dispatching or entering certain suspects. In such cases, the consent of the public prosecutor's office is sufficient at the time of an emergency, and in addition, the consent of the court must be obtained within 3 days after the fact.
VE is Article 110a, Paragraph 2 of the Criminal Procedure Code (§110a Abs 2 StPO) own fictitious identification[Annotation 3] UnderExercise of legal authorityIs allowed, for example,Basic LawIt is stipulated in Article 13,one ofAccess to certain dwellings authorized by the authorities to restrict the right of§ 110c StPO), and Article 136 of the same (§ 136 Based on StPO)Silent right(Self-guilty denial privilege) Etc., "examination to witnesses" is permitted without any notification of the right to refuse testimony... However, unlike undercover agents in the United States today,Illegal activityIs not allowed.
VEs are treated separately from informants and spies and V persons. Unlike VE, these are allprivateAnd a confidentiality or confidentiality pledge with the Public Prosecutor's Office (Vertraulichkeitszusage or Geheimhaltungszusage) And often provide information about their identities to law enforcement authorities for financial purposes. For this reason, the information provider presents the information individually, but on the other hand, there are cases where the information provider cooperates with the V person and works for a long time. In addition, the VE is an “informal police officer with a so-called description”, whose so-called description does not exist in the Criminal Procedure Code (nichtöffentlich ermittelnder Polizei beamter, noeP, NOEP) and "unofficial investigators" (nicht offen ermittelnde Beamte, noeB).. In contrast to VE, NOEP imposes a requirement to notify suspects of rights, and so VE is particularly useful in terms of "evidence use" (Verwertbarkeit von Beweisen).
Personal information protection of investigators
Criminal Procedure Code, 110b, paragraph 3, sentence 3 and 96 (§ 110b Abs. 3 Sentence 3, § 96 The personal information of the investigator in the prosecution procedure because it is recognized as the right to carry out further duties under the disguised status and to protect the body and life of the staff (under the true status of life) based on StPO). Are usually kept secret. In order to validate the evidence resulting from the VE's covert investigation, the Act provides a "hearing-based personal identification" (witness from Hörensagen) Affirmatively support the evidence ability ofExamine evidenceIs valid, and in this regardProhibition of evidence(Beweiserhebungsverbot) Is an exception. However, in consideration of the above-mentioned principle, a further hearing will be conducted at the trial on behalf of the VE to the "hit based witness". And VEs that are exempt from court if so offered will also be questioned in court. However, in that case, interrogation in the form of video relaying only audio and images to the court using audiovisual equipment after performing technical processing so that the voice and facial expression are not recognized using video recording equipment (audiovisuelle Vernehmung , §247a StPO)[Annotation 4].
SchraderFar rightist party under governmentGerman National Democratic Party OfUnconstitutionIs an information agency for sex researchConstitutional Defense AgencySecret investigators were dispatched, but a scandal was discovered in 2003 when an excessive amount of secret investigators was discovered (V-Mann Skandal, Faumann Skandal). For this reasonConstitutional courtThe party's anti-association procedure has been suspended.. For details, see the article""See.
In the netherlands(Wetboek van Strafvordering) At"If there is," special investigation authority such as infiltration investigation, operation of information provider, secret investigation etc. (Orchid: Bijzondere bevoegdheden tot opsporing) Is given to investigators.
There are two main issues that can have a significant impact on agents involved in covert missions. One is about the "maintenance of identity" with close people and investigators, and the other is about returning to normal duty.
Keeping an investigator living in a double environment in a completely different environment creates many problems. Stealth investigation is one of the most stressful investigations even for investigators undertaking special tasks..
The most probable cause of the stress is that investigators work away from friends, family, and the normal environment. Even such a minor separation can lead to depression and anxiety. No data are available on investigator divorce rates, but they are a major obstacle to relationships... This may occur as a result of the confidentiality of the work required and the inability to reveal work issues to the cohabitant. Moreover, sudden work schedules that can not be scheduled, forced to change personality and lifestyle of individuals, and being separated for a long time have a bad influence on human relations. Result in.
Investigator stress can also result from a clear lack of direction for an investigation, or in other words, an undecided investigation activity. Careful planning, risks, and considerable self-sacrifice can put pressure on investigators to make the investigation a success, and can cause considerable stress later... The stress faced by covert investigators, in contrast to them, is critically different from those normally engaged in missions. This is because the main sources of stress for investigators engaged in regular duties are the administrative department and bureaucracy... Secret agents are usually kept away from bureaucracy, and in some cases present a completely different problem than other agents. They are not under constant supervision by uniforms, insignia, fixed bosses, etc., so on the contrary, when they are given a fixed workplace or are engaged in (frequently) routine work,Organized crimeCoupled with his constant involvement withcorruptionThere is also a theory that the possibility of.
Some investigators have been triggered by such stressSubstance abuse,Alcohol abuseCan cause. They are under more stress than other police officers, they are isolated, and they are in an environment where they can easily get drugs, etc.Drug addictionWill fall into.. Compared to many other occupations, many police officers in generalAlcoholismIt is said that many people suffer from.. The environment in which investigators work is obliged to expose them to alcohol.As a result, it is more likely to induce alcoholism due to stress and isolation.
Even if an investigative person has come to trust the investigator, there are cases in which the credibility of the investigator is betrayed. As a result, investigators are somewhat punished by conscience. Such guilt may be a concern for the investigative subject, or, in a very rare case, even reminiscent of their compassion... In the case of infiltration into a politically oriented organization,Social hierarchy,Age group,Ethnicity, ま た はView of religionIt can be said that there are cases where investigators need to be familiar with the personality of the infiltration target organization, but in this case the case described above is particularly applicable. And this kind of sympathy sent some of the investigatorsAmbitionCan also be made to.
Return to normal duty
The lifestyle that secret investigators send is very different compared to law enforcement officers in other areas, which makes it very difficult to return to regular duty. Working hours of personnel involved in covert investigations are discretionary, they are kept away from direct command and supervision, and in some casesDress rulesAnd exemption from ritual rules.. Therefore, in order to settle them back into their regular police missions, it is necessary to abandon their habits, wording, and attire, etc., of previous investigative activities. Since he has been working under a free-living habit, he may have discipline problems or show signs of nervous reaction immediately after the investigator returns. They may feel uncomfortable, and in some cases, become cynical, suspicious, or even paranoid, and in some cases remain alert..
Law enforcement by plainclothes investigators
The undercover agents areLaw enforcement officers in plain clothes(plainclothes) Should not be confused with. The investigation method by plain clothes staffPolicemenOrganization orInformation agencyIs a possible method. "Wearing plain clothes" means "uniformTo wear ordinary clothes instead of wearing," the purpose of which is to prevent being identified and identified as a law enforcement officer... Unlike undercover agents, plainclothes police officers usually have the same equipment and status as police officers. Instead of investing in uniforms and sleeves as usual, an investigator's colleague may occasionally ask the investigator to wear plain clothes. The main difference between the two is that secret investigators often hide or disguise their identities when they perform their duties, while plainclothes police officers do not particularly hide their identities..
A work dealing with confidential secrecy
- "" Series 2nd "" (Professional channel : National Geographic Channel）
- "" Series 4th "Outlaw Biker" (Specialized channel:Discovery channel）
- "Betrayal days'
- "wild speed'
- "Wild Speed X2'
- "Infernal Affair"series
- "PunisherIn 2004, it was changed to the FBI undercover agent.
- "Deep cover'
- "Dangerous Beauty'
- "Miami Vice'
- "デ ィ パ ー テ ッ ドHollywood remake of Infernal Affair
- "Detective detective Miami Vice'
- "NCIS:LA ~ Top Secret Undercover Investigation Team'
- "Detective colomboSeries 64th "Jigsaw Calling Death (Original title: Undercover)" --The main character himself conducts an undercover investigation.
- "en: The Beast (2009 TV series)'
- "Double face] Infiltration investigation (TBS,WOWOW)-Domestic TV drama remake of "Infernal Affair". "Crisis" (TV drama)
- "Song of the Dragon"(Product:Takahashi climb,Shogakukan)-The title of the movie is "Song of the Dragon Dragon Undercover Investigator REIJI".
- "California Dreaming" (written by:Koike, Picture:,Shueisha)-Comics book 14th to 16th volume.
- "Legal city"(Product:Hitoshi Tojo,Shueisha）
- "Driver infiltration! Car chase masterpiece war'
- "Need for Speed Undercover'
- "Sleeping Dogs Hong Kong Secret Police'
- ^ a b "die Justizsenatoren". Direct translation is "judicial counselor."Berlin,Bremen,HamburgCity stateInStateThere is no government or provincial minister, and the equivalent (city) council (Senate. Direct translationSenate)) and a (city) counselor (member)Senator) Is placed. Example: "". For more information""See.
- ^ (Luo: "Periculum in mora"). In this context "imminent danger" (British: imminent danger),"Emergency"(British: exigent circumstance). Destruction of evidence (disappearance of evidence)Current offenderA state of increased risk of escape. Under these conditions, in many countriesWritIs unnecessary (under Japanese lawEmergency arrest).
Such a "forged for the purpose of performing espionage"(generated backstory for spy) To folklorealone: "Legende", British: "legend"It is called "Legend".Applicable items in English WiktionaryCites references used (including fiction, non-fiction, etc.). However, the German word "Legende" is a formal term as described in Sections 110a and 110c (§110a und §110c StPO) of the Criminal Procedure Code.
The following are examples of official investigation materials. In 2010, the FBI was involved in espionage in the United StatesAnna ChapmanWaitRussian Foreign Intelligence Agency10 secret agents of (SVR) were arrested (). afterwardsIt can be seen that the word "legend" is used in this sense in the investigation-related materials released based on (Ghost Stories: Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) Illegals, Document Item 88 Part 01, p. 6-). In addition, in this document, the person who uses the "legend" including the immigration permit etc. made up is "illegals".Illegal stayPerson”).
- ^ In Japanese courtVideo link systemOr (There is a criticism against the "face-to-face clause" ) It corresponds to "videoconferencing testimony" in the United States.
- ^ a b Girodo, Michel (1991). “Drug corruptions in undercover agents: Measuring the risks”. Behavioral Science and the Law 9 (3): 361-370. two:10.1002 / bsl.2370090310.
- ^ Duke, Steven B .; Gross, Albert C. (2001 (Reprinted)). America's Longest War: Rethinking Our Tragic Crusade Against Drugs. E-reads / E-rights. Pp. 127. ISBN 9780759213524
- ^ "1 Overview of Major Organized Crime and Progress of Countermeasures-(1) United States". National Police Agency, 15 Police White Paper-Chapter 1 Fighting Organized Crime-Section 3 Current Situation and Countermeasures for Organized Crime Overseas. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ "The Case of the Undercover Missile Sting". FBI (September 2005, 12). October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ "Maryland Man Charged in Plot to Attack Armed Forces Recruiting Center". FBI (September 2010, 12). October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ "Mission police department goes undercover to deter underage drinking”. Www.valleycentral.com (August 2011, 8). October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ “Father tried to hire prostitute for 14-year-old”. The Independent(July 2009, 5) October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ “Father guilty of giving 14-year-old son a prostitute”. Reuters(July 2009, 5) October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ Netherlands OfExtreme rightismPolitical partyLiberal partyAn undercover journalist who sneaked into the site. "Undercover journalist infiltrates Freedom Party”(May 2010, 1). October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ Marx., P. 18OtherMichelle Foucaultof"Birth of a prison], the state of the investigation was recorded in Vidoc's Memoirs (Mémoires). "Mémoires de Vidocq"((French)), "Memoirs of Vidocq: Principal Agent of the French Police until 1827"((English)).
- ^ Marx., P. 22
- ^ Marx., P. 25
- ^ "Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit-Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations, Revised 11/13/92". DoJ. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ a b "2 Organizational Crime Countermeasure Laws, etc.-(1) United States-A. Investigation methods for organized crime-(A) Undercover investigation and use of confidential information providers". National Police Agency, 15 Police White Paper-Chapter 1 Fighting Organized Crime-Section 3 Current Situation and Countermeasures for Organized Crime Overseas. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ "2 Organizational Crime Countermeasure Laws, etc.-(4) Germany-Oh Undercover Investigator". National Police Agency, 15 Police White Paper-Chapter 1 Fighting Organized Crime-Section 3 Current Situation and Countermeasures for Organized Crime Overseas. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ According to the following materialFederal Supreme Court(BGH)The investigative authorities pulled out the subject's remarks during the secret investigation.privateIf you do not understand the serious crime only by doing so,"(Beweisverbot) Does not hit (evidenceAbility is affirmed), and as a result, interrogation through a private person based on the arrangement with the police without giving a right notice (Hörfalle durch Privatperson nach Absprache mit der Polizei) Is "§ 163 a Abs. 4 auch § 136 Abs. 1 Satz 2 StPO"Right to counselIt is said that it does not violate the notification request). Dieter Meurer (2006). “Informal survey (Informelle Ausforschung)-From "Introduction of Klaus Roxin's Old Rare Celebration (2)""(Japanese). Ritsumeikan Law and Criminal Law Reading Group. Pp. 288-295. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ (2010) (German). Criminal Procedure Law (11 ed.). . pp. 176. ISBN 978 3811497443
- ^ “Hundert V-Leute sollen in der NPD aktiv sein” (German). The World(July 2011, 11) October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ "Wetboek van Strafvordering". October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ Piet Hein van Kempen. “The Protection of Human Rights in Criminal Law Procedure in The Netherlands”. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Rechtsvergelijking (Netherlands comparative law association). Pp. 7-8. October 2011th, 12Browse.
- ^ Girodo, Michel (1991). “Symptomatic Reactions to Undercover Work”. (US: Williams & Wilkins) 179 (10): 626-630. two:10.1097 / 00005053-199110000-00007.
- ^ a b c Marx., P. 162
- ^ Jennifer M. Brown and Elizabeth A. Campbell (10 1990). “Sources of occupational stress in the police”. (UK: ) 4 (4): 305-318. two:10.1080/02678379008256993.
- ^ Marx., Pp. 162-163. New York City PoliceThere are examples of vulnerable positions in the elite troops in the Drug Enforcement Bureau and mental exhaustion of members.
- ^ a b Marx., Pp. 165-166
- ^ Marx. & Fijnaut., Pp. 124-125
- ^ Marx., P. 160
- ^ Marx., Pp. 164-165
- ^ Girodo, Michel (1991). “Personality, job stress, and mental health in undercover agents: A structural equation analysis.”. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6 (7): 375-390.
- ^ Marx., P. 170
- ^ a b Fredrickson, Darin D .; Siljander, Raymond P. (2004). Street Drug Investigation: A Practical Guide for Plainclothes and Uniformed PersonnelCharles C Thomas Publisher. Pp. 77. ISBN 978 0398075323
- (1988). Undercover: Police Surveillance in America. US: . ISBN 978 0520069695
- ; (1995) (English). Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective. NL: (Kluwer Academic Publishers'imprint). ISBN 978 9041100153
- German, Mike (2007) (English). Thinking Like a Terrorist; Insights of a Former FBI Undercover Agent. US: Potomac Books. ISBN 978 1597970259
- Sting operation -Hidden identity and promote criminal activity with one of the investigation methods.Japanese lawRefer to the article for the definition, operational law and case law. It is controversial (or not considered) as to whether or not all investigation methods such as secret investigations in other countries are legal in Japan.
- Investigators inviting(Buddha: Agent provocateur, Agen Provocatur)
- (alone: V-Person, V-Leute, V-Mann, Faupelsohn, Fauroite, Faumann)-A spy hired by German police, customs and intelligence agencies for a fixed period of time. Abbreviation for Verbindungsperson or Vertrauensperson. Although distinct from the informants, who are pure civilians, he is a non-formal law enforcement officer like VE.
- (British: Counter Intelligence Program, COINTELPRO)-Aimed at causing disturbance within the organizationFBIIntelligence activities. The target wasBlack panther party,FAQ,Etc.RadicalPolitical group.
- secret police
- Secret operation
- 15 White Paper on Police-Chapter 1 Fighting Organized Crime - Section 3 Current Status and Countermeasures against Organized Crime Overseas,Same PDF - National Police Agency.. He touches on some of the laws and regulations concerning secret investigations and their operations as measures against organized crime outside Japan.
- The United States of America
- FBI Undercover Operation & Guidelines -FBI's secret investigation and investigation guidelines, which are partially disclosed.
- Dissemination and Control of Confidential Detectives (Undercover Operations)-Mainly Based on Research by Professor Gary T. Marx
- Basic structure of illegality judgment in sting operations: Based on the regulatory approach of the United States
- "I've Peeked Behind That Curtain and It's an Unholy Mess" -Former FBI undercover Mike German criticism of secret investigation.
- Richtlinien für das Strafverfahren und das Bußgel dverfahren (RiStBV) -
- Inanspruchnahme von Informanten, Einsatz von V-Personen und Verdeckten Ermittlern. Gemeinsamer Runderlass des Ministeriums der Justiz (4110-III. 15) und des Ministeriums des Innern (IV/2-2701) vom 21. Februar 1994 (Brandenburg) -Regarding "use of information provider, input of V person and secret investigator"BrandenburgJoint Code of Justice and Home Affairs
- Richtlinien über die Inanspruchnahme von Informantinnen und Informanten und den Einsatz von Vertrauenspersonen (V-Personen) im Rahmen der Strafverfolgung (Schl.-H.) -"Guidelines for information and use of information providers within the criminal prosecution frame, and input of V persons" (Schleswig-Holstein）
- Geisler, Claudius (Ed.): Verdeckte Ermittler und V-Personen im Strafverfahren.("Secret Investigator and V Person in Criminal Procedure") Wiesbaden: , 2001 (Kriminologie und Praxis; Bd. 31). ISBN-978 3926371508 PDF
- Taikai Naito "Undercover Investigation in Germany-Examination of organized crime countermeasure law and theory-Die Verdeckten Ermittlungen in Deutschland -OrgKG und Lehre-）"The Hokkaido Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 4,Hokkaido UniversityGraduate School of Law (Hokkaido University, School of Law), November 2005, 11, pp. 30-297.
- Taikai Naito "Research on Undercover Investigation (1): Based on the Development of German Law Theory (Eine Studie über die tatprovozierende Ermittlung stätigkeit (1): anhand der theoretischen Entwickelungen in der BRD）"Hokkaido Law Review, Vol. 58, No. 2,Hokkaido UniversityGraduate School of Law, July 2007, 7, pp. 31-41.
- Taikai Naito "Research on Undercover Investigation (2): Based on the Development of German Law Theory"Hokkaido University Law Studies, Vol. 58, No. 4, Graduate School of Law, Hokkaido University, November 2007, 11, pp. 30-105.
- Taikai Naito "Research on Undercover Investigation (3): Based on the Development of German Law Theory"Hokkaido University Law Studies, Vol. 58, No. 5, Graduate School of Law, Hokkaido University, November 2007, 7, pp. 31-65.
- Taikai Naito "Research on Undercover Investigation (4): Based on the Development of German Law Theory"Hokkaido University Law Studies, Vol. 59, No. 2, Graduate School of Law, Hokkaido University, November 2008, 7, pp. 31-293.
- Taikai Naito "Sting operation research (XNUMX): Using the development of German law theory as a clue"Hokkaido University Law Studies, Vol. 61, No. 4, Graduate School of Law, Hokkaido University, November 2010, 11, pp. 30-115.