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Guts(Watering can,British: die hard spirit, never-give-up spirit) Does not succumb to hardship精神= The idea is that if you have the guts, you can solve any problem or reach any goal.,Psychological theory / spiritualismone of.Tokyo Olympics(1964 ) GirlsvolleyballJapan national team (so-called ""Oriental witch』)gold medalLed toHirofumi OmatsuIt is thought that the theory of guts permeated society..
In postwar Japan, the theory of guts1964 OfTokyo OlympicsAs an important opportunity to become popular, as a dominant view of sports, orHigh economic growthThere is a view that it has become established as a spiritual pillar of the Japanese people who supported..The guts in sports were found as the mental tone of athletes at the Tokyo Olympics, and were targeted for training and strengthening by the Psychology Subcommittee of the Sports Science Research Committee...In the "Tokyo Olympic Games Athletes Strengthening Countermeasures Headquarters Report" (1964) edited by the Japan Athletic Association and the "Tokyo Olympic Sports Science Research Report" (1965) edited by the Sports Science Research Committee, guts are "spirit to achieve the goal of victory." It is a strong will to concentrate and continue without giving in to difficulties. ”In order to train them, hard training and hard training were emphasized.
Physical education magazines since the Tokyo Olympics have published articles on sports and guts, and guts are not only needed by athletes, and people can survive in difficult situations in society with strong will and ability to execute. It was thought to be what was required as power..In these articles, guts are generally regarded as having the same meaning as mental strength, and guts in sports are reflected not only in top athletes who are athletes in the Olympic Games and world championships, but also in school sports, especially in sports club activities. It is thought that it was done..He also led the women's volleyball "Oriental Witches".Hirofumi OmatsuThe belief and philosophy of the coaching by the scholarship was persuasive by winning the world championships and the Tokyo Olympics, and was expanded and interpreted as a meta-idea that guides the way of life of people at that time. It is thought that it was an important opportunity to make it popular..Omatsu sees guts as intense continuous behavior, attachment to purpose, and the resulting mental power in his personality... The guts in sports in the 1960s have the purpose and goal element of victory, and the continuous approach to the difficult tasks found in hard training and hard training as the method element, and as a result, a human being called an athlete is formed. It was thought that it was a strong will and mental strength necessary for training..
As the "sports guts theory" became popular after the Tokyo Olympics, it was effective as a norm and idea that justified the principle of victory, and it is thought that it brought about guidance and passive obedience accompanied by ironing and violence... "Sports guts theory" regulates withdrawal, interruption, and disconnection from the competition space when placed in a closed situation in the pursuit of vigorous competition and victory under the victorious supremacy. It is inferred that it functions as a norm that promotes connection..
However, there were leaders who criticized guts in the people of the same era.Ichiro HattaCriticized "bamboo guts" and "losing dog guts", and players and leaders who were supposed to aim for victory emphasized only the mental aspect without aiming for a certain victory with "true ability" However, he criticized that it was not rational to aim for "in the unlikely event" victory, and insisted that "true ability" was "physical power and mental power."..Hatta considered "guts" to be "physical and mental"...Hatta's theory of "guts" had a spiritual element and a physical element evenly..
The "sports guts theory" that was established and became popular in the 1960s has been taken up with critical discourse since then...For example, the guts in sports are nothing but the mental strength to endure and work hard according to the superiors, no matter how painful or irrational, "Gut" is regarded as "a strong word of spiritual color that Japanese people like", and the problem of guts and ironing in sports is mentioned, and the view related to the problem of victorious supremacy is shown...In addition, it was pointed out that the generation of guts in physical education and sports is deeply related to the prewar military order, and that modern guts are linked to victorious supremacy while retaining such a character... A critical editorial of guts in sports since the 1960s points out the harmful effects associated with victorious supremacy, and the soil is attributed to prewar military order and spiritualism...Behind the generation of these critical discourses was the deaths of athletes and practitioners since the Tokyo Olympics (Tokyo University of Agriculture Wandervogel Department Death Shigoki Incident,Kokichi Tsuburaya(Self-death, Takushoku University Karate Club Lynch Incident, etc.) occurred one after another, and it is speculated that sports criticism erupted from all directions..
Pros and cons of guts
The theory of guts has been around for a long timeSportsIt has been used in scenes to encourage players and frustrated people.In modern timesSalesIncludingAdvance Your CareerIt is also used in the world of business books, and the color of guts is strong in business books.
"As a result of not being frustrated by the hardships and aiming for further improvement, we can do things that we couldn't do before. And suchProfitYou have to make an effort to get it.It is guts that are necessary to continue the effort, and it is the mental power that does not defeat anything that always makes peoplesuccessIt is a way of thinking that "leads to."This way of thinking is not always denied, and in situations where the mental aspect influences the result, mental factors such as "guts" and "feeling of absolutely winning" influence the outcome in sports games. It can be used to maintain motivation for proper training and improve skills and physical strength without harming health.ObservationIs done.
On the contrary, there are also efforts in the wrong direction. "Continue practicing without drinking water under the scorching sunheatstroke"Fall down" "joint,TendonsIs hurt orcoldThere are cases such as "I'm pulling, but I continue practicing outdoors in the cold, and I feel sick."
In addition, from the guts theory that "do not throw out in the middle and finish to the end" and "it is not cool to stop in the middle", it is disgraceful to give up in the middle, conceal the breakdown and force participation, endurance is required In the competition, some athletes may try to continue the competition even though they are in poor physical condition and their consciousness is stunned.However, there are many cases in which even after a forced entry, due to a breakdown, the performance is far from the original performance.
Also, it is unreasonable from senior students in club activitiesBullyingOr from an advisersexual harassment,corporal punishmentEven if you encounter, you can not stop halfway because of guts theory, in the worst casesuicideMay lead to (Detrimental effects of hierarchical relationshipsSee also).
- ^ "Guts". October 2021th, 6Browse.
- ^ "What is guts?-Japanese expression dictionary Weblio dictionary". October 2018th, 10Browse.
- ^ "What is Psychology?-Japanese Expression Dictionary Weblio Dictionary". October 2018th, 10Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Yusuke Okabe "A Study on the Problem of Victory Pursuit in Sports: Focusing on the Generation of <Victory Supreme Principle> and Its Social Meaning"Nature / Human / Society / Kanto Gakuin University Faculty of Economics / Faculty of Business Liberal Arts Society" Vol. 65, Kanto Gakuin University Faculty of Economics / Faculty of Business Liberal Arts Society, July 2018, pp. 7-15.
- ^ Yasuhiro Sakaue, Genealogy of Nippon Baseball, Seikyusha, July 2001, p. 7.
- ^ Kamekichi Takahashi, "Sports and Guts," "New Physical Education," Vol. 34, No. 11, Shin Gymnasium, 1964, pp. 130-135.
- ^ Shoichi Asakawa, "Learning and Mental Power of Physical Education," "School Physical Education," Vol. 21, No. 6, Nippon Gymnasium, 1968, pp. 22-25.
- ^ Hirobumi Daimatsu "Naseba Naru!Continued, follow me ”Kodansha, 1964, p. 104.
- ^ Yusuke Okabe "Rethinking <Sports Guts> -Transformation of" Guts "in the 1960s and" Now "and" Future "-(Report of the 65th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Physical Education Asada Academic Encouragement Award / Award Commemorative Lecture)" "Physical Education Philosophy Study, Vol. 45, Editorial Committee, Physical Education Philosophy Subcommittee, Japan Physical Education Society, 2014, p. 69.
- ^ a b c Kazuyuki Nagashima "A Study on the Uniqueness of Ichiro Hatta's Theory of" Gut ": Through the Criticism of" Gut "in the 1960s and the Analysis of" Training "Theory" "Sports Pedagogy Research" Vol. 39, No. 2, Japan Sports Education Society , 2020, pp. 13-26, two:10.7219 / jjses.39.2_13.
- ^ Shunnan Kan, "Postwar Japan's Sports Policy: Establishment of the Olympic System," Hitotsubashi University Annual Report on Economics, Vol. 14, Hitotsubashi University, 1970, p. 225.
- ^ Sadao Morikawa, "Historical and Social Background of" Gut "Theory," "Women's Physical Education," Vol. 16, No. 5, Japan Association of Physical Education for Women, 1974, p. 33.
- ^ Naomi Kusafuka, "Structure and Ideology of Contemporary Sports," Aoki Shoten, 1986, p. 42.
- Totsuka Yacht School - Nissei Gakuen - Private Tomakomai High School
- Sports Club
- Rabbit jump - Spo root
- Perfect attendance award - Non-regular employment
- corporal punishment
- Power harassment
- Black companies - Spartan Education
- Male discrimination - Life counseling,Psychological counselingIn the case where the counselor is a man, the counselor is rounded up by the guts theory and does not reach a fundamental solution, and in the worst case, the situation may become extremely worse (suicide, accidental death, heinous crime, etc.).
- Survivorship bias ――The reason why XX succeeded is that "if you make an effort (anyone) (everything) will succeed" because the existence of a person who cannot obtain sufficient results even if you make reasonable efforts is not observed for some reason. Sophism is sometimes used to say, "It is the effort of the person (only)" and "The reason why XX does not succeed is the lack of effort (only)".