DiCaprio was also used?Uncovering the reality of the highest-priced paintings in history "Who smiles at Da Vinci" will be released
If you write the contents roughly
A painting sold by an art dealer for 13 yen was endorsed as Da Vinci's work, and as a result, a collector of unexpected identity, an intermediary who cheats fees, a marketing man who operates an auction with a clever presentation, international politics The prince of a certain country, who is rumored to be in the dark, and all kinds of marketing and marketing are flocking.
The documentary film "Who Smiles Da Vinci" about a painting that was sold for 510 billion yen, the highest price ever, is 1 ... → Continue reading
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Art dealer(Bijutsusho), orArt dealerWhat is (Art Dealer)?ArtistPurchase a work of art fromコ レ ク タ ーIt is a trader who sells to customers such as. Also, other vendors and collectors,auctionBuy art from such as, and then to another companyresaleSome also do. The scale isDepartment storeArt clubtrading companyFrom big things such as system galleries to ancestral generationsAntique dealer, Art loversbuildingOwnerThere are various sizes, including galleries operated by individuals.
The art dealer who handles paintingPainterAlso called. In addition, art dealers can display and sell their own works ( ) If you haveA gallery, OrGalleristSometimes called (Gallerist) etc. (In Japan, the art dealer who had his own shop was called "Hakoshi" as opposed to the art dealer who does not have an art gallery.) .. The gallery owner is his ownspaceTo train contract writers who have found themselves and display them in the best condition at the gallery.riskWhile holding an artistpromoteIt is an entity that nurtures art by walking with artists, and simply aims to buy works cheaply and resell them at high prices.broker,dealerIt is an existence that should be distinguished from. Galalists want to sell art with customers who want good art作家As a result,社会It can be said that it is a job to develop the art world together.
Each art dealer has specialized fields such as fields, times, and regions. For example, there are art dealers who deal with antique art and art dealers who deal with relatively recent works such as existing writers and deceased writers.Tea utensilsThere are few art dealers who deal with different fields at the same time, such as contemporary art. In order to maintain quality, specialty, and reliability, it is also important to appeal to customers by deciding the specialized field as an art gallery, the artists who handle it, and their insights, and by holding planned exhibitions in line with them.
Art dealers should look at a lot of excellent art and train their "eyes to see" in order to see the value.Also, with the eyes to see資金It is desirable to suppress high-quality sales channels such as customers with.
Obtaining the work
Antique dealer / deceased artist
In the case of antique dealers, opportunities to purchase antiques include sales requests from owners such as collectors, purchases from peers, exchanges, and auctions.In addition to these, there are also methods such as appraisal, purchase, and resale for art dealers and art dealers who handle the works of the deceased artist who died relatively recently as an art work whose author is obvious.Let go of the traditional goods you ownコ レ ク タ ーAnd the famous family ask the art dealer who trusts from the history of art purchase until then to sell it.In transactions with individuals, if the authenticity or value is appraised and purchased at a price, or if it can be deposited and sold as a consignment product, a commission is received from the price and a profit is obtained.There are also art dealers who are close to appraisers who offer fees for the appraisal itself.In extreme cases, due to the fact that they do not have a continuous relationship with such customers and are not well-known to other sources.Old houseIf you are present at the dismantling site and sort out what came out of the warehouse, or if you buy it from a collapsed house in two bundles and three sentences, or conversely it will be dismantledOld houseThere is even a sales method called embedding that sells the products owned by antique dealers, pretending to be out of the warehouse.Forgery,FakeCreate,Grave robbery,theftIs out of the question as a means of obtaining antique art, but there are endless examples of scandals being discovered.
When obtaining an antique work of art, it is vitally important to determine whether the work of art is genuine and how much it sells. For this reason, art dealers have "eyes" to judge the details and quality of works, works of art, etc.Art historyKnowledge of,tea ceremonyIn addition, it is necessary to investigate and judge the aesthetic sense of the field, the price trend of the art market, the history of the past owners of the art, and the person who brought in the art (some people sell stolen goods and collateral). In particular, it is said by art professionals that it is important to see as many good works and real things as possible in order to cultivate an eye to see the real thing and a sense of choosing good works... Even if a person falls in love with a work at first glance, behind it lies the many works he has experienced and his own aesthetic sense cultivated from it. Therefore, art dealers often become independent after working for other art dealers in order to have the experience of touching many real works.
Also, even antique art hundreds of years ago21st centuryThe evaluation is still undecided, for example19st centuryWas rediscoveredJohannes Vermeer,20st centuryWas rediscoveredGeorges de la Tour,1970 ToNobuo Tsuji"The Genealogy of Wonders" was published and was re-evaluated.Ito Jakuchu,Nagasawa Rosetsu,Soga whiteSince there are examples such as, the discovery of unknown artists is also an important role of the art dealer as a connoisseur.
Galalist / Existing Writer
In the case of art dealers dealing with existing writers, the relationship between the artist and the art dealer is often an exclusive contract. The art dealer selects an artist who wants to sell his work or an artist who matches the tendency and policy of the gallery from among many artists, and makes a contract or oral promise with that artist. The artist exclusively sells (or consigns) the produced work to a contracted art dealer (there may be more than one).
The art dealer (galalist) is an artistManagerIt is like. Galalists train and guide artists, and museums and museums give them greater opportunities for presentations.curatorIntroduce them to the artist, visit customers who are likely to buy the work, and pay the artist the funds necessary for sales and production.
The reason for the contract with the gallerist was
- Solo and group exhibitionsOpen call for participants exhibitionOrArt UniversityWhen contacting the artist by seeing the works exhibited at the graduation exhibition etc.
- When bringing into the gallery from an artist
- When a writer who has already contracted introduces another writer (friend, student, writer of interest, etc.)
and so on. Here, too, in addition to knowledge of art history and production methods and trends in the art world, it is necessary to have the ability and intuition to identify people and qualities from unknown writers and works, and to do so, it is necessary to experience many high-quality works. It is said that.
The gallerist also has the role of fostering writers, such as judging the quality of the work produced by the artist, directing the production, and giving guidance. The driving force behind this is the joy of growing up a writer, and the expectation that the work of a writer who has grown up will sell well. On the other hand, there are times when guidance is given to create works that sell well and to match the ideas and trends that are in fashion, so there may be conflicts between writers who want to make what they want to make and gallerists who want to make things that sell.
In addition, gallerists may sell several artists at once, and as a result, set up an art movement or appeal the art of one country to the world. In a pioneering example,印象派Focused on introducing writers such as19st centuryThe second half of theParisPainterPaul Durand-RuelAnd at the end of the 19th centuryAmbroise VollardIs a painter who has worked hard to buy and sell paintings that are not selling but tend to be artistically important.20st centuryThe German painter who was in Paris in the first halfMontparnasseTreating painters from all over the world who gathered inCubism,School of ParisMade the painters famous.1950 eraIn the second halfニ ュ ー ヨ ー クOpened an art gallery in was popular at the time抽象 表現 主義I made a contract focusing on a painter who diverted a concrete image different from that, and laterポ ッ プ ア ー トHe gained a great influence in the art world by supporting the movement called.
The gallerist creates materials for the artist who has a contract with him,Museum,curatorIn addition to striving to give artists the opportunity to make big presentations such as large-scale international exhibitions, he will also hold exhibitions in his own gallery. First, transport, import / export, and import / export works that have been purchased or commissioned.customs clearanceMake arrangements for exhibitions and press releases of artists, publicize them to art magazines and the media, and display works in galleries.InstallationAfter deciding the selling price, the exhibition will be held. AndArt criticThe series of exhibitions is completed by selling the work to the audience or customers such as museums and collectors after receiving criticism from the audience. A gallerist takes a 5% commission from this selling price (this commission is lower for famous writers who can sell without the efforts of the gallerist), but selling new works in this way is called primary distribution (primary market). High and low fees can be a source of trouble, but gallerists have the trust of customers in their eyes.brandDue to the way it is advertised and its own customer channels, artists cannot sell their work well without a good gallerist. However, if the artist himself becomes a brand, or if the growth of the artist does not match the growth of the gallery or gallerist, he may cut off the previous gallerist artist.
An art dealer may become an art collector in itself in the process of buying from an artist who contracts for a work or from another art dealer. In Europe and the United States, when these art dealers are old and close their business, it is said that it is a beauty to donate the collection to museums. For example, in France in the first half of the 20th century印象派からSchool of ParisPaul Guillaume, a painter and collector who collected masterpieces from the above, is one of them.Orangery MuseumHis collection occupies a large position.
It has little to do with the purpose of promoting art or fostering new artists, but rather to collectors and auctions.resaleAn art dealer whose sole purpose is to make a profitbrokerCalled. In fact1980 eraJapan in the second halfBubble economyIt was this broker-type art dealer who sometimes made a leap. Some malicious brokers exploited the ambiguity of art price formation to help companies and politicians acquire and dispose of art by buying and selling it for dozens of times more than when they bought it. Some even helped with profits, slush funds, and tax evasion... During the bubble era, they made works of artcollateralI got more loans to increase the number of transactions,Bubble burstDue to the sharp contraction of the art market, the market value of the works of art owned has fallen below the collateral price, and many of some brokers and banks haveBad debtWorks of art that cannot be soldSaltedI ended up holding a work of art.
Secondary distribution is the redistribution of things that have been handed over to humans, whether they are works of existing artists that were just created a month ago, deceased artists, or antique art.
Art dealers sometimes buy from individual customers and sell them to others, but a major role is highly transparent buying and selling where prices are set in public.auctionIs.. The auction company receives a bring-in from a person who wants to sell the art, and after appraising the authenticity and price by an expert appraisal committee, decides the expected bid price and puts it up for auction that is held regularly. Before the auction, there is a detailed explanation by an expertCatalogsIs created, and participants see this and decide whether to participate in the winning bid. When a successful bid is made by an auction, the auction company receives a commission from both the seller and the winning bidder.
For famous auction companiesChristie's,Sotheby'sThese companies have the advantage of having a high winning bid rate and having wealthy customers all over the world. The catalogs produced by these companies are also first-class materials for the art market and art research. The auction company handles all kinds of old tools and memorials, not limited to works of art, and since there are large and small companies, there are also auctions of a scale that even ordinary people can participate.
Entering the late 2000s, Jean-Philippe Raynaud andDamian HurstDue to the fact that they sold their works directly at auction without going through art dealers, the number of artists who put up for auction from the primary distribution stage is increasing.
There is an opportunity for art dealers to gather at one venue from all over the world to display their works at the booth, and for the audience to see many works at once and purchase them directly.Trade fair,Art fairIs.. In addition to being a place for artists to announce their latest works, it is also a place for customers and art dealers to exchange information on trends in the art world, and for art dealers to buy and sell. With these things1970 Started onスイス OfBaselArt Fair ("Art Basel”) Is huge in scale and visitors, and is world-famous. In addition to holding related projects such as exhibitions, symposiums, and excellent customer parties, art events are held in the city of Basel at the same time. Museums and wealthy collectors from all over the world can board private jets to purchase works here, and non-wealthy men and women of all ages can easily visit and purchase works of art. Art BaselMiami,Hong KongBut in addition to being heldUK,Paris,Cologne,Bologna,Seoul,BeijingEuropean and Asian cities are enthusiastic about fostering their own art market and promoting their own art by holding their own art fairs. In Japan, it has been held every April since 2005. In recent years, the number of art fairs has increased too much, and the quality of exhibitions has declined, calling for a return to value judgments in galleries and museums.
"Art dealers get together to bring art and buy and sell by bidding."Exchange meetingThere is.. This corresponds to a market between peers such as a fish market and a fruit and vegetable market. The art dealerCooperative(In addition to the Japan Western Painting Cooperative Association, there are associations for each field of art that are handled in various places), and those who are approved by the members will invest money and buy and sell at exchange meetings.joint guarantorMust be.
However, the significance of the exchange meeting is for art dealers金融There is a function. If the sale is successful, the sold art dealer will be paid immediately, but the bought art dealer can postpone the payment until several months in advance. Rebuilding during this period is funded by the members. This is probably a form unique to Japan, and unlike auctions, prices are not set in public, so it is sometimes pointed out that it is closed.It was established for the purpose of helping each other by art dealers whose management structure is unstable and cannot receive bank loans.
Most art dealers are privately-owned because of the large factors of the owner's judgment and taste for the work of art and the individuality of the owner for the customer (mostly individuals). Even if the scale is increased and it develops into a joint-stock company, the owner's individuality is basically strong... However, in the case of Japan, a company that sells a large amount of prints (Art student scamな どBad business lawThere are also companies related to (commonly known as "Eurian" etc. on the Internet),Department storeArt club,trading companyThere are exceptions such as system galleries.
There are many small businesses with capital, employees, and sales, and there are many cases where there is only one owner. With this small number of people, we are engaged in negotiations with artists, sales and sales, exhibition work, transportation, accounting, and research on art. In addition, few companies have their own real estate, and most of them rent a room in a store or building. There are many young people who want to work in the arts, but these small industries have few jobs and few opportunities to work. However, there are also young gallerists who have been lucky enough to have their own gallery after joining the gallery as a part-time job or employee.
No license or permit is required for primary distribution, but if you are involved in secondary distribution, where you sell things that have been handed over again, you can use the prefectures in Japan.Public Safety Commissionからcurio dealerMust obtain permission from. (This permission can handle not only works of art but also used books, used CDs, used cars, used tools, etc.)
History of art dealers
The origin of art dealers in JapanEdo PeriodGo back to.Tea utensilsAnd calligraphyantiqueThose who excel in knowledge ofDamingIn addition to being invited to become an exclusive art dealer,CalligraphyA calligraphy shop that handles ukiyo-eUkiyo-eShop, etc.armorAnd a person called a tool shop that handles old toolsEdo,AboveIt was open in other big cities.
For these tool storesMeijiTo enter the,Abolition of Buddha,Abandoned DomainExhausted byTempleCollecting works of art leaked from DaimyoJaponismeSome people suddenly made huge fortunes by exporting to Europe and the United States. Looking at these exports of art, there was a group that tried to utilize the production and export of art for foreign currency acquisition and the image of a first-class civilized nation. Including painters and sculptorsTsunozumi Sano,Ministry of Finance-Ministry of InteriorBureaucrats such as, export art dealers gather1878 An art group formed inRyuikekaiIt is.
Sano is an institutional magazine, and is an art encourager (official), creator (artist), and seller (artist).Art dealer) ・ Four enthusiasts (collectors and spectators) preached that it was essential to promote art, and entered an art dealer in the Ryuikekai. laterMiyauchi,royalBy the time the name was changed to "Japan Art Association" with the help of the above, many art dealers and tool shops joined the members and sold contemporary art and antique art. From here, Japan's oldest art dealer organization, "Tokyo Art Club"But1907 It is thought that it was born in Japan, but the details are unknown. Against the loss of materials due to the earthquake and war, the weakening of the Japan Art Association with the loss of power of the royal family after the war, and the RyuikekaiErnest Fenollosa,Ministry of EducationAn art organization that was established by bureaucrats to gather innovative artists.KangakaiIt seems that the people involved in the Ryuikekai side were forgotten because "" later became the mainstream of Japanese art..
The number and power of Japanese art dealers has increased,Taisho,ShowaAn era of drastic changes in the early daysOfficial houseAnd oldDamingIn addition to serving as a fudamoto in a big bid for arts and crafts released by the house and getting a huge commission, he went in and out of various people from emerging conglomerates and Chinese to merchants and sold arts. During this period, there were people called "furoshiki painters" who peddled among the rich with works of art in the furoshiki. Since the furoshiki painter buys the artist's work directly and then peddles it, the risk is greater than the art dealer who has his own store (gallery), which was increasing at that time, and it requires better connoisseurs and financial strength. He was in a stronger position in the art world.
またDepartment storeAlso, it provided a place for presentations to related artists and their groups through the production of kimono designs, and functioned as a place for presenting works when there was no museum. For department stores and their customers, the works of these groups and artists are the works of living artists, unlike antique art, which may be counterfeit, so it was a great advantage to be able to trade and purchase with confidence. The department store's art department has maintained a connection with artists and has many collections in-house.
today,Japanese painting,Western paintingIn the fields where the art gallery has been established, there are relatively many sales through such art dealers due to the introduction of senior writers, but in the case of contemporary art, the art dealers are underdeveloped, so the artists announce at the rental gallery and sell by themselves. Or, I often live in other professions instead of selling works. But1990 eraSince then, the number of "planning galleries" that are gallerists in contemporary art has increased, and young artists are actively exhibiting at overseas art fairs. In addition, after the recession after the bubble, there is a movement to increase the number of fans and purchasers of art works by cooperating with antique art, Japanese painting, Western painting, and contemporary art beyond the standpoint, and even in Japan, "Art Fair Tokyo" etc. There are several fairs that are aimed at traditional art fairs.
In Japan, there were two enthusiastic painting booms, one in the early 1970s from the end of the high growth period to the oil crisis and the end of the 1980s during the bubble economy... The resulting scandal and market collapse have left a deep scar on the Japanese art industry. Currently Japanese art輸入Has dropped sharply since the bubble era, but the amount is large, especially the proportion of French art is unusually high... On the contrary, arts and crafts from JapanOutputIs less than imports, and contrary to the dreams of Meiji people such as Sano Tsunetami, Japan's art balance is in a large deficit and lacks transmission power.
originallyFrance,イタリアAnd so on, the painter and his studio貴族・ A handful of churches, large merchants, trade associations, etc.patronI was held by the company and was producing according to the order. In addition, painters closely related to large collectors such as courts and aristocrats provided information on masterpieces for sale and works to buy now, and brokered the sale.18st centuryFrom around that time, as city capitalists and merchants emerged as customers, art dealers who acted as customers and painters among antique dealers and art supplies dealers have appeared. The appearance of a professional painter in France1820 eraMid.. Also early on, a small merchant class developed NetherlandsThen.17st centuryIn the middle, there was already a professional painter who sold paintings to the general public... Paintings are a status symbol in the Netherlands, and it is said that poor houses had several paintings. These painters began with side jobs in adjacent fields such as clothing, textiles, art supplies, and antiques, or when a painter changed jobs, and gradually expanded in scale and power.
Painters and customers began auctioning and buying and selling works, and from around the 18th century, they began publishing a comprehensive auction catalog that categorized works of art. This is royalAcademy of ArtsIt is one of the origins of the current art catalog, along with the official exhibition catalog of. AlsoParisEdme Francois Gersan, a painter of the mid-18th centuryRembrandt van RijnHas published a list of works by the painter, which is a list of all the works of the painter.Catalog raisonneIs the first one. The catalogs for sale produced by the early painters in this way are now valuable materials for art research at that time.
A city where the French state promoted art and artists and collectors gatheredParisFor a long time, the painters of Europe played an important role in determining the value and price of European paintings and sculptures.Second World WarAfter thatニ ュ ー ヨ ー クThe center of art trading and value judgment has shifted to.
According to Art Tokyo, the estimated size of the global art market in 2019 is about $ 674 billion, and the size of the Japanese art market is estimated to be 2580 billion yen, which has increased every year since the start of the 2016 survey. It was the largest, up 2460% from the previous year's 4.9 billion yen. Purchases from domestic businesses were 2270 billion yen, of which 982 billion yen were from art galleries and galleries, and 567 billion yen from department stores..
- ^ Kazuhiko Satani pp.11-16
- ^ Takatoshi Misugi pp.124-133
- ^ Tomonobu Omiya pp.142-154
- ^ Kazuhiko Satani pp.53-55
- ^ Misa Shin pp.28-38
- ^ Kazuhiko Satani pp.55-59
- ^ Tomonobu Omiya pp.144-145
- ^ Kazuhiko Satani pp.92
- ^ Akira Yokoi "Where did the art dealer come from? Tracing the origin positioned in the art promotion policy" Nihon Keizai ShimbunOctober 2005th, 12
- ^ Tomonobu Omiya pp.128-160
- ^ Kazuhiko Satani pp.71-72
- ^ Shuji Takashina p178
- ^ Shuji Takashina p89-93
- Kazuhiko Satani "Art Management Gallery Management Feelings" Heibonsha,ISBN 4582286100
- Shuji Takashina "Of artpatronIwanami Shinsho, 1997,ISBN 4004304903
- Misa Shin "Art Industry In Search of the Ultimate Commodity" Aesthetic Publishing, 2008,ISBN-978 4902078176
- Tomonobu Omiya "Scandal Postwar Art History" Heibonsha Shinsho, 2006,ISBN 4582853455
- Takatoshi Misugi "Authentic Story" Iwanami Shinsho, 1996,ISBN 4004304512
- Junkichi Mayuyama"The world of antique dealer Mayuyama Ryushou and appreciation ceramics" "Kaneishikai and Mr. Kozo Moriya" Convenience Hall November 1998, 11
ChimimoryōWhat is (Chimi Moryo)?(I.e. Ofmonster,riverMonster.variousmonster,Apparitionchange.ChimimōryōIs a mountain mystery,MouryouIs a mystery of the river, Generally, it is often used in the name of Chimimoryō as a mystery of all mountains and rivers..
Chimimōryō is a forest strangeness (Aspiration) Is said to be a monster.FaceA human, The body looks like a beast and makes people confused.Heian periodMid-term dictionary "Japanese name Juju』In the Japanese name SudamaDemonAs a kind ofEdo PeriodEncyclopedia "Japanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society] InMountain godIt is assumed.
MouryouOf rivers and wood stonesspiritIs said to be.Mountain·Wed-Thu-stoneIt arises from the spirit of all natural things, and masquerades as a person.again,deadIt is also said to eatAn infantIt stands on two legs, has red-black skin, red eyes, long ears, beautiful hair and a human-like voice.These looksDemonReminds me of. In "Wakan Sansai Zue"Water god, Ancient Chinese book "Shunju SajidenIs considered to be the god of Mizusawa.
There are various theories about the etymology, but it is said to be a kind of ancient Chinese youkai or spirit. "History』(Five EmperorsAccording to Honki)tigerThe mountain god in the shape ofbeastIt is presumed that the image of a monster that also has the attributes of is swelling.
"Chimimoryō is scaredPoliticsThe world of politics, etc.Power gamePointing to the way it wriggles,Middle EastThe crowded world of Chimimoryō, etc.Islamic fundamentalism,Oil moneyRefers to the swirling state of elephant and non-elephant.