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🎥 | "What If" Episode 9 Review Finally the final episode!Goosebumps in the development where episodes intersect and hints are collected!


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"What If" Episode 9 Review Finally the final episode!Goosebumps in the development where episodes intersect and hints are collected!

 
If you write the contents roughly
This is somewhere in the universe where the Multiverse intersects, and it is no exaggeration to say that if you control this place, you have won the Multiverse!
 

Marvel Studios' first original animation series "What I ..." has been waiting for Marvel fans all over the world. → Continue reading

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"Movie Square" is a site that publishes movie introductions, news, and reviews.We will actively take up not only the latest works but also old works.


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Multiverse

Multiverse(Tagen Uchuron,British: multiverse) Means multipleSpaceAssumed the existence ofTheoretical physicsIt is an editorial by.It is one of the physics theories predicted along with known observations and observations by constructing theories of various physically unobservable phenomena based on mathematics and physics.

Often spoken in various science fiction and more theoretically unsubstantiated interpretations.

Overview

Multiverse[1]Is the theory of multiple possibilitiesSpaceIs a set of.The Multiverse is allexistincluding.This is in addition to the historic universe we have consistently experienced.空间,Time,material,andEnergyThe whole of, and describe themThe laws of physicsandPhysical constantEtc. are also included.The word was an American philosopher and psychologist in 1895.William jamesMade by[2]..Each universe included in the MultiverseParallel universeSometimes called.

The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe contained therein, and the relationships between those universes depend on the particular multiverse hypothesis being considered.The reason for thinking that there is more than one universe (meaning that there is a multiverse) varies depending on the hypothesis.宇宙 論,physics,astronomy,Religious,哲学,Trans personal psychologyandfiction,In particularScience fictionとFantasyIn, the hypothesis of the multiverse has been established.In these contexts, the parallel universeAlternative universe[3],Quantum universe[4],Interpenetration dimension[5],Parallel dimension[6],Parallel world[7],Substitutional reality[8],andAlternate time series[9]It is also sometimes called.

Simply by distance

The current cosmologyinflationAs long asObservable universeThe above space is inevitably included.

つ ま りArea born from the same big bangYou can select multiple areas within which you can never physically interfere or observe.This is a kind of alternative universe, a parallel universe, because it cannot physically interfere.However, it is basically only ultra-distant, and it is considered that the basic physical laws, physical constants, and types of elementary particles match.

Due to multiple bubbles

According to some physics theory, multiple in the process of inflation泡May be completed.The above multiverse is what we call hereAnother place in the foamThere is a commonality between physical constants and elementary particles, but in this caseAnother bubbleThen, the physical constant and the elementary particle may be different.

Multi-world interpretation

Quantum mechanicsIn one of the interpretations ofWave functionIt is assumed that there is a world corresponding to all solutions without assuming the contraction of.

Multidimensional

The universe we live in is infinitedimensionhaveBulkOnly three-dimensional floating in (space)BrainWhat is supposed to be (membrane).Of course, it is permissible to have multiple brains in the bulk.

Due to the freedom of everything theory

If a theory of everything exists (apart from what it takes) and it contains some physical constant, the question arises as to why the physical constant could not be another value.The simplest explanation is that all possible values ​​exist in the universe, which happens to be that value in our universe, otherwise we were not born.Human principleIt is due to.

Another universe exists in the black hole

Black HoleMathematically特異 点There is a region called, but there is no physical infinity, and the theory is that another universe is created in a black hole.[10]In other words, our universe is also surrounded by black holes, and there is a larger universe,Event horizonIt is said that it is separated from our universe.

big BangIt is said that the substance was packed in the center of the black hole so that there was no more substance, and the substance pushed in by the rotation of the black hole was twisted and compressed, causing an explosion so that the spring would pop at a certain moment.In this theory, the event horizon is one-way, and matter cannot pass from the universe inside the black hole to the larger universe outside.

Multiverse hypothesis in physics

Tegmark classification

Cosmologist OfMax TegmarkIs well knownObservable universeOf the universe beyondTaxonomymade.Tegmark's classification level becomes an expanded concept as it goes up, and includes the lower level universe.[11][12].

Level I: Beyond the horizon of our universe

(English edition)The theory is infiniteErgodicUniverse is generally predicted.This universe is infinite and fulfills all initial conditionsHubble volumeShould include.

Therefore, the infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes.All these are the sameThe laws of physicsandPhysical constantHave, butmaterialFor arrangements such as the distribution of, most will differ from our Hubble volume.However, due to the infinite number of Hubble volumesSpace horizonBeyond, there can result in Hubble volumes with similar or even similar arrangements.About 10 Tegmarks have the same arrangement as the Hubble volume we live in10115(GoogolplexGreater number)mCalculate as far apart[13][14]..This estimation seems to assume a uniform distribution of Hubble volume states, but in practice any distribution would be possible.This means that our particular Hubble volume will be virtually the only one.

Level II: Universe with different physical constants

Space inflationA variant of theory(English edition)The theory is that the Multiverse is expanding as a whole, and that expansion will last forever.However, some areas of the universe stop expanding and take different foam forms.Such bubbles are the undeveloped Level I multiverse.Andrei lindeAnd Vitaly Vanchurin have 10 of these universes1010000000Calculated to be the scale of[15].

Different bubbles are differentSpontaneous symmetry breakingWill experience.As a result, it is differentPhysical constantHas different properties such as[13].

This level is alsoJohn Wheeler OfVibration cosmologyandLee Smolin Of(English edition)including.

Level III: Many-worlds interpretation in quantum mechanics

Hugh Everett OfMulti-world interpretation (MWI) isQuantum mechanicsIt is one of the mainstream with some interpretations of.One aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations are absolutely unpredictable.Instead, there is a range of possible observations with different probabilities. According to MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. 6 sidesdiceIf is shaken, each result of quantum mechanicsObservableMatches.The dice fall into six different universes that correspond to all six possibilities. (More precisely, in MWI(English edition)Only exist, but after splitting into many-worlds they generally cannot interact. )[16]

Tegmark argues that the Level III Multiverse does not contain more probabilities in the Hubble volume than the Level I-II Multiverse.Virtually all the different "worlds" created by "splitting" in the Level III Multiverse with the same physical constant can be found in some Hubble volumes in the Level I Multiverse.Tegmark states:The only difference between Level I and Level III is where yoursDoppelgangerIs the difference between living and living.At level I, they live everywhere in three-dimensional space.At level III, they are infinite dimensionsHilbert spaceLive in another quantum divergent world in.Similarly, all Level II bubble universes with different physical constants can be found as virtually "worlds" created by "splitting" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Level III multiverse.[13].Yasunori Nomura,and,Leonard SusskindAccording to this, this is because the concept of space-time that appears in the multiverse is redundant, which means that the multiverses from level I to level III are actually equivalent ( "Multiverse = Quantum Multiverse" Hypothesis)[17].

Many worldsThings related to the idea ofRichard Feynman Of(English edition)andH. Dieter Zeh Of(English edition)There is.

Level IV: Ultimate set

Ultimate setThe hypothesis was put forward by Tegmark himself.This level is differentMathematical structureI think that all the universes that can be described by are equally real.This is a different low energy that is not of our observable universeThe laws of physicsDoes not include.Tegmark advocates the following idea.Abstract mathematicsIs so common that any pure (independent of human vague words)Formal languageCan be defined byTheory of everything (TOE) is also a mathematical structure.For example, a mathematician has a TOE that includes different types of entities (expressed in words) and their relationships (expressed in further words).Set-theoretic modelIt is nothing but what is called, and generally constitutes the set-theoretic model.Formal systemCan be found.This implies that any imaginable parallel universe theory can be described at the level IV stage.Level IV Multiverse is all other sets[18]Since it includes, it becomes the upper limit of the hierarchy of the multiverse, and there is no room to consider the level V multiverse.[19].

(English edition)However, he argues that the "set of mathematical structures" is not even well defined.He,(English edition), IeComputer programOnly the representation of the universe that can be described by is allowed.To do this, the output bits converge within a finite time, but the convergence time itselfKurt GodelExplicitly contains a representation of the universe that can be described by a non-stop program that would be unpredictable by a program that stops due to its limitations.[20][21][22]..He also clearly discusses a more restrictive, quickly computable set of universes.[23].

Cyclic cosmology

According to some theories, the universe has an infinitely continuous and self-sustaining cycle ( big Bang-Big crunch Of永遠Circulation etc.).

M-theory

Something a little different from the Multiverse mentioned above,M-theoryKnown asString theoryConceived in the multidimensional extension theory of[24].. In M-theory, our universe and other universes are in 11-dimensional and 26-dimensional spaces (the number of dimensions is the observer's).ChiralityDepends on)p brainCreated by collisions between each other[25][26]..And eachSpace TheD-braneTake the form of[25][26]..Objects in each universe are essentially trapped in the D-branes of those universes, but are probably forces that are not restricted to D-brane.重力Can interact with other universes through[27]..this is"Quantum universeAlthough different from the universe in ", both of these concepts work together.

Human principle

The notion of the existence of other universes is why our universe has conscious life as we are experiencing, why physical constants are so.TweakIt has been suggested to explain what it looks like.If there are universes that correspond to a large number (possibly infinity) of physical laws or fundamental constants, some of theseCelestial body,惑星AndlifeWill have the proper laws of physics to exist.Weak anthropic principleThen draws the conclusion that we are conscious because we are in a universe fine-tuned for a conscious being.In this way, the probability that life exists in many universes is extremely small, but the fact that life-holding universes are rare is a reason for explaining conscious existence like us.Intelligent designDoes not imply a theory.

Criticism

Non-scientific claim

Many of these theoriesExperimentbyVerifiabilityThere is criticism that it lacks.The reason why many multiverse claims lack experimental evidence and testability is that other universes are different.SpacetimeThis is because it is assumed to be in the framework of.So in principle they should not be observable.

Indirect evidence

The logical basis of modern science is the logic of hypothetical deduction.This allows us to propose an unobserved reality by theory.Predictions (of future observations) or (of observations that have occurred in the past) if they help explain the observable results.RetroductionCan use a theory based on[28].

Occam's razor

To hypothesize that there are an infinite number of unobserved universes just to explain our universeOccam's razorThere is criticism that it seems to be contrary to[29][30].

Tegmark's answer:

Skeptics are worried about all the information that needs to identify each of these unobserved worlds.But the whole set is actually much simpler than one of its elements.This principle isAlgorithmic information theoryCan be spoken more formally using the idea of ​​context.The amount of algorithm information contained in a number is, roughly speaking, the shortest that produces that number as output.Computer programIs the length of.For example, allInteger Ofsetthink of.Which is simpler, then all sets or just one number?Naively, you would think that a single number is simpler.However, while the entire set can be generated by a very short computer program, a single number requires a very long program.Therefore, the whole set is simpler than the substance.SimilarlyEinstein equationThe set of all solutions of is simpler than a particular solution.The former is described by a small number of equations, while the latter requires detailed information on a huge amount of initial data on a hypersurface.The teaching is that focusing on a particular element in a set increases complexity, thus losing the symmetry and simplicity inherent in the wholeness of all elements.In this sense, the higher level multiverse is simpler.Going from our universe to the Level I Multiverse, we find certainInitial conditionsIs no longer needed.Specific when going up to Level IIPhysical constantNo longer requires any specific value in the Level IV Multiverse.

A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably the most sophisticated theory involves parallel universes from the beginning.To deny the existence of these universes, an experimentally unsupported process andad hocThe theory needs to be complicated by various assumptions.For example(English edition),Wave function collapseAnd ontological asymmetry[31]Etc. are required.Therefore, our judgment reaches many worlds or many words that we consider to be less wasteful and less sophisticated.Perhaps you will gradually get used to the supernatural nature of our universe and realize that its strangeness is part of its charm.[13].

Multiverse hypothesis in philosophy and logic

Modal realism

Possible worldIs one way to explain probabilities, hypothetical discourses, and the like.David LewisSome philosophers say that all possible worlds exist and are as real as the real world (Modal realismBelieve in a position known as)[32].

Transworld identity

The framework of the Multiverse, which assumes an infinite identical copy of any given universe, raises a metaphysical argument for the idea that the same object can exist in different possible worlds.David Lewis OfCounterpart theoryAccording to, the objects in different possible worlds should be considered similar rather than identical.[33][34].

Fictional realism

Then, the existence of creation means that the character of creation also exists.Aside from philosophical discussions here, there is a creative reality in the same sense that there are people, Mondays, numbers and planets.[35][36].

footnote

  1. ^ British: multiverse,meta-universe or metaverse
  2. ^ James, William, The Will to Believe, 1895; and earlier in 1895, as cited in OED's new 2003 entry for "multiverse": "1895 W. JAMES in Internat. Jrnl. Ethics 6 10 Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe. "
  3. ^ British: alternative universes
  4. ^ British: quantum universes
  5. ^ British: interpenetrating dimensions
  6. ^ British: parallel dimensions
  7. ^ British: parallel worlds
  8. ^ British: alternative realities
  9. ^ British: alternative timelines
  10. ^ "Are we in a black hole?”(Japanese). natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  11. ^ Tegmark, Max (May 2003). “Parallel Universes”. Scientific American. 
  12. ^ Tegmark, Max (January 23 2003) (PDF). Parallel Universes. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2006, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20060304203052/http://www.wintersteel.com/files/ShanaArticles/multiverse.pdf NovemberBrowse.  (
  13. ^ a b c d "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations.", Tegmark M., Sci Am. 2003 May; 288 (5): 40-51.
  14. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0302131v1
  15. ^ Zyga, Lisa "Physicists Calculate Number of Parallel Universes",, 16 October 2009.
  16. ^ Tegmark, Max, The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Many Worlds or Many Words?, 1998. Deutsch, David, David Deutsch's Many Worlds, Frontiers, 1998.
  17. ^ http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/cosmicvariance/2011/05/26/are-many-worlds-and-the-multiverse-the-same-idea/#.VWtNSB29Dak
  18. ^ British: sets
  19. ^ Tegmark, Max (January 23 2003) (PDF). Parallel Universes. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2006, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20060304203052/http://www.wintersteel.com/files/ShanaArticles/multiverse.pdf NovemberBrowse.  (PDF).
  20. ^ Schmidt Hoover (1997): A Computer Scientist's View of Life, the Universe, and Everything. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 201-208, Springer: IDSIA-Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence
  21. ^ J. Schmidhuber (2000): Algorithmic Theories of Everything arXiv.org e-Print archive
  22. ^ J. Schmidhuber (2002): Hierarchies of generalized Kolmogorov complexities and nonenumerable universal measures computable in the limit. International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science 13 (4): 587-612 IDSIA-Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence
  23. ^ J. Schmidhuber (2002): The Speed ​​Prior: A New Simplicity Measure Yielding Near-Optimal Computable Predictions. Proc. 15th Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory (COLT 2002), Sydney, Australia, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pp. 216-228. Springer :: IDSIA-Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence
  24. ^ Steven Weinberg (2005) "Living in the Multiverse"
  25. ^ a b Richard J Szabo, An introduction to string theory and D-brane dynamics (2004)
  26. ^ a b Maurizio Gasperini, Elements of String Cosmology (2007)
  27. ^ Paul Halpern, The Great Beyond 2005
  28. ^ Craig Rusbult, Ph.D
  29. ^ Trinh, Xuan Thuan (2006). Staune, Jean. Ed. Science & the Search for Meaning: Perspectives from International Scientists. West Conshohocken, PA: .p. 186. ISBN 1599471027 
  30. ^ Baird, Eric (2007). Relativity in Curved Spacetime. Chocolate Tree. P. 241. ISBN 0955706807 
  31. ^ British: ontological asymmetry
  32. ^ Lewis, David (1986). On the Plurality of Worlds. Basil Blackwell 
  33. ^ Deutsch, Harry, "Relative Identity", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer '02), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
  34. ^ Paul B. Kantor "The Interpretation of Cultures and Possible Worlds", 1 October 2002
  35. ^ IngentaConnect Home
  36. ^ The Australian National University

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Multiverse

Multiverse(Tagen Uchuron,British: multiverse) Means multipleSpaceAssumed the existence ofTheoretical physicsIt is an editorial by.It is one of the physics theories predicted along with known observations and observations by constructing theories of various physically unobservable phenomena based on mathematics and physics.

Often spoken in various science fiction and more theoretically unsubstantiated interpretations.

Overview

Multiverse[1]Is the theory of multiple possibilitiesSpaceIs a set of.The Multiverse is allexistincluding.This is in addition to the historic universe we have consistently experienced.空间,Time,material,andEnergyThe whole of, and describe themThe laws of physicsandPhysical constantEtc. are also included.The word was an American philosopher and psychologist in 1895.William jamesMade by[2]..Each universe included in the MultiverseParallel universeSometimes called.

The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe contained therein, and the relationships between those universes depend on the particular multiverse hypothesis being considered.The reason for thinking that there is more than one universe (meaning that there is a multiverse) varies depending on the hypothesis.宇宙 論,physics,astronomy,Religious,哲学,Trans personal psychologyandfiction,In particularScience fictionとFantasyIn, the hypothesis of the multiverse has been established.In these contexts, the parallel universeAlternative universe[3],Quantum universe[4],Interpenetration dimension[5],Parallel dimension[6],Parallel world[7],Substitutional reality[8],andAlternate time series[9]It is also sometimes called.

Simply by distance

The current cosmologyinflationAs long asObservable universeThe above space is inevitably included.

つ ま りArea born from the same big bangYou can select multiple areas within which you can never physically interfere or observe.This is a kind of alternative universe, a parallel universe, because it cannot physically interfere.However, it is basically only ultra-distant, and it is considered that the basic physical laws, physical constants, and types of elementary particles match.

Due to multiple bubbles

According to some physics theory, multiple in the process of inflation泡May be completed.The above multiverse is what we call hereAnother place in the foamThere is a commonality between physical constants and elementary particles, but in this caseAnother bubbleThen, the physical constant and the elementary particle may be different.

Multi-world interpretation

Quantum mechanicsIn one of the interpretations ofWave functionIt is assumed that there is a world corresponding to all solutions without assuming the contraction of.

Multidimensional

The universe we live in is infinitedimensionhaveBulkOnly three-dimensional floating in (space)BrainWhat is supposed to be (membrane).Of course, it is permissible to have multiple brains in the bulk.

Due to the freedom of everything theory

If a theory of everything exists (apart from what it takes) and it contains some physical constant, the question arises as to why the physical constant could not be another value.The simplest explanation is that all possible values ​​exist in the universe, which happens to be that value in our universe, otherwise we were not born.Human principleIt is due to.

Another universe exists in the black hole

Black HoleMathematically特異 点There is a region called, but there is no physical infinity, and the theory is that another universe is created in a black hole.[10]In other words, our universe is also surrounded by black holes, and there is a larger universe,Event horizonIt is said that it is separated from our universe.

big BangIt is said that the substance was packed in the center of the black hole so that there was no more substance, and the substance pushed in by the rotation of the black hole was twisted and compressed, causing an explosion so that the spring would pop at a certain moment.In this theory, the event horizon is one-way, and matter cannot pass from the universe inside the black hole to the larger universe outside.

Multiverse hypothesis in physics

Tegmark classification

Cosmologist OfMax TegmarkIs well knownObservable universeOf the universe beyondTaxonomymade.Tegmark's classification level becomes an expanded concept as it goes up, and includes the lower level universe.[11][12].

Level I: Beyond the horizon of our universe

(English edition)The theory is infiniteErgodicUniverse is generally predicted.This universe is infinite and fulfills all initial conditionsHubble volumeShould include.

Therefore, the infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes.All these are the sameThe laws of physicsandPhysical constantHave, butmaterialFor arrangements such as the distribution of, most will differ from our Hubble volume.However, due to the infinite number of Hubble volumesSpace horizonBeyond, there can result in Hubble volumes with similar or even similar arrangements.About 10 Tegmarks have the same arrangement as the Hubble volume we live in10115(GoogolplexGreater number)mCalculate as far apart[13][14]..This estimation seems to assume a uniform distribution of Hubble volume states, but in practice any distribution would be possible.This means that our particular Hubble volume will be virtually the only one.

Level II: Universe with different physical constants

Space inflationA variant of theory(English edition)The theory is that the Multiverse is expanding as a whole, and that expansion will last forever.However, some areas of the universe stop expanding and take different foam forms.Such bubbles are the undeveloped Level I multiverse.Andrei lindeAnd Vitaly Vanchurin have 10 of these universes1010000000Calculated to be the scale of[15].

Different bubbles are differentSpontaneous symmetry breakingWill experience.As a result, it is differentPhysical constantHas different properties such as[13].

This level is alsoJohn Wheeler OfVibration cosmologyandLee Smolin Of(English edition)including.

Level III: Many-worlds interpretation in quantum mechanics

Hugh Everett OfMulti-world interpretation (MWI) isQuantum mechanicsIt is one of the mainstream with some interpretations of.One aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations are absolutely unpredictable.Instead, there is a range of possible observations with different probabilities. According to MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. 6 sidesdiceIf is shaken, each result of quantum mechanicsObservableMatches.The dice fall into six different universes that correspond to all six possibilities. (More precisely, in MWI(English edition)Only exist, but after splitting into many-worlds they generally cannot interact. )[16]

Tegmark argues that the Level III Multiverse does not contain more probabilities in the Hubble volume than the Level I-II Multiverse.Virtually all the different "worlds" created by "splitting" in the Level III Multiverse with the same physical constant can be found in some Hubble volumes in the Level I Multiverse.Tegmark states:The only difference between Level I and Level III is where yoursDoppelgangerIs the difference between living and living.At level I, they live everywhere in three-dimensional space.At level III, they are infinite dimensionsHilbert spaceLive in another quantum divergent world in.Similarly, all Level II bubble universes with different physical constants can be found as virtually "worlds" created by "splitting" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Level III multiverse.[13].Yasunori Nomura,and,Leonard SusskindAccording to this, this is because the concept of space-time that appears in the multiverse is redundant, which means that the multiverses from level I to level III are actually equivalent ( "Multiverse = Quantum Multiverse" Hypothesis)[17].

Many worldsThings related to the idea ofRichard Feynman Of(English edition)andH. Dieter Zeh Of(English edition)There is.

Level IV: Ultimate set

Ultimate setThe hypothesis was put forward by Tegmark himself.This level is differentMathematical structureI think that all the universes that can be described by are equally real.This is a different low energy that is not of our observable universeThe laws of physicsDoes not include.Tegmark advocates the following idea.Abstract mathematicsIs so common that any pure (independent of human vague words)Formal languageCan be defined byTheory of everything (TOE) is also a mathematical structure.For example, a mathematician has a TOE that includes different types of entities (expressed in words) and their relationships (expressed in further words).Set-theoretic modelIt is nothing but what is called, and generally constitutes the set-theoretic model.Formal systemCan be found.This implies that any imaginable parallel universe theory can be described at the level IV stage.Level IV Multiverse is all other sets[18]Since it includes, it becomes the upper limit of the hierarchy of the multiverse, and there is no room to consider the level V multiverse.[19].

(English edition)However, he argues that the "set of mathematical structures" is not even well defined.He,(English edition), IeComputer programOnly the representation of the universe that can be described by is allowed.To do this, the output bits converge within a finite time, but the convergence time itselfKurt GodelExplicitly contains a representation of the universe that can be described by a non-stop program that would be unpredictable by a program that stops due to its limitations.[20][21][22]..He also clearly discusses a more restrictive, quickly computable set of universes.[23].

Cyclic cosmology

According to some theories, the universe has an infinitely continuous and self-sustaining cycle ( big Bang-Big crunch Of永遠Circulation etc.).

M-theory

Something a little different from the Multiverse mentioned above,M-theoryKnown asString theoryConceived in the multidimensional extension theory of[24].. In M-theory, our universe and other universes are in 11-dimensional and 26-dimensional spaces (the number of dimensions is the observer's).ChiralityDepends on)p brainCreated by collisions between each other[25][26]..And eachSpace TheD-braneTake the form of[25][26]..Objects in each universe are essentially trapped in the D-branes of those universes, but are probably forces that are not restricted to D-brane.重力Can interact with other universes through[27]..this is"Quantum universeAlthough different from the universe in ", both of these concepts work together.

Human principle

The notion of the existence of other universes is why our universe has conscious life as we are experiencing, why physical constants are so.TweakIt has been suggested to explain what it looks like.If there are universes that correspond to a large number (possibly infinity) of physical laws or fundamental constants, some of theseCelestial body,惑星AndlifeWill have the proper laws of physics to exist.Weak anthropic principleThen draws the conclusion that we are conscious because we are in a universe fine-tuned for a conscious being.In this way, the probability that life exists in many universes is extremely small, but the fact that life-holding universes are rare is a reason for explaining conscious existence like us.Intelligent designDoes not imply a theory.

Criticism

Non-scientific claim

Many of these theoriesExperimentbyVerifiabilityThere is criticism that it lacks.The reason why many multiverse claims lack experimental evidence and testability is that other universes are different.SpacetimeThis is because it is assumed to be in the framework of.So in principle they should not be observable.

Indirect evidence

The logical basis of modern science is the logic of hypothetical deduction.This allows us to propose an unobserved reality by theory.Predictions (of future observations) or (of observations that have occurred in the past) if they help explain the observable results.RetroductionCan use a theory based on[28].

Occam's razor

To hypothesize that there are an infinite number of unobserved universes just to explain our universeOccam's razorThere is criticism that it seems to be contrary to[29][30].

Tegmark's answer:

Skeptics are worried about all the information that needs to identify each of these unobserved worlds.But the whole set is actually much simpler than one of its elements.This principle isAlgorithmic information theoryCan be spoken more formally using the idea of ​​context.The amount of algorithm information contained in a number is, roughly speaking, the shortest that produces that number as output.Computer programIs the length of.For example, allInteger Ofsetthink of.Which is simpler, then all sets or just one number?Naively, you would think that a single number is simpler.However, while the entire set can be generated by a very short computer program, a single number requires a very long program.Therefore, the whole set is simpler than the substance.SimilarlyEinstein equationThe set of all solutions of is simpler than a particular solution.The former is described by a small number of equations, while the latter requires detailed information on a huge amount of initial data on a hypersurface.The teaching is that focusing on a particular element in a set increases complexity, thus losing the symmetry and simplicity inherent in the wholeness of all elements.In this sense, the higher level multiverse is simpler.Going from our universe to the Level I Multiverse, we find certainInitial conditionsIs no longer needed.Specific when going up to Level IIPhysical constantNo longer requires any specific value in the Level IV Multiverse.

A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably the most sophisticated theory involves parallel universes from the beginning.To deny the existence of these universes, an experimentally unsupported process andad hocThe theory needs to be complicated by various assumptions.For example(English edition),Wave function collapseAnd ontological asymmetry[31]Etc. are required.Therefore, our judgment reaches many worlds or many words that we consider to be less wasteful and less sophisticated.Perhaps you will gradually get used to the supernatural nature of our universe and realize that its strangeness is part of its charm.[13].

Multiverse hypothesis in philosophy and logic

Modal realism

Possible worldIs one way to explain probabilities, hypothetical discourses, and the like.David LewisSome philosophers say that all possible worlds exist and are as real as the real world (Modal realismBelieve in a position known as)[32].

Transworld identity

The framework of the Multiverse, which assumes an infinite identical copy of any given universe, raises a metaphysical argument for the idea that the same object can exist in different possible worlds.David Lewis OfCounterpart theoryAccording to, the objects in different possible worlds should be considered similar rather than identical.[33][34].

Fictional realism

Then, the existence of creation means that the character of creation also exists.Aside from philosophical discussions here, there is a creative reality in the same sense that there are people, Mondays, numbers and planets.[35][36].

footnote

  1. ^ British: multiverse,meta-universe or metaverse
  2. ^ James, William, The Will to Believe, 1895; and earlier in 1895, as cited in OED's new 2003 entry for "multiverse": "1895 W. JAMES in Internat. Jrnl. Ethics 6 10 Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe. "
  3. ^ British: alternative universes
  4. ^ British: quantum universes
  5. ^ British: interpenetrating dimensions
  6. ^ British: parallel dimensions
  7. ^ British: parallel worlds
  8. ^ British: alternative realities
  9. ^ British: alternative timelines
  10. ^ "Are we in a black hole?”(Japanese). natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  11. ^ Tegmark, Max (May 2003). “Parallel Universes”. Scientific American. 
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  35. ^ IngentaConnect Home
  36. ^ The Australian National University

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