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Stories(Koji) is an event or thing that existed in ancient times.Also, a venerable matter that has been passed down from the distant past to the present.特にIn particularChugoku OfclassicAmong the anecdotes written in, those that are often used in everyday conversations and sentences as "Chengyu" and "Chengyu" even today.
Chengyu/Eventual phrase(Kojiseigo / Kojiseiiku) is a group of people whose etymology is a story.IdiomsGeneric term for.In the original Chinese, just "idiomHowever, in Japan, the etymology of the story is otherIdiomIt was called this way to distinguish it from idioms and idioms.When suggesting euphemisms that are difficult to say face-to-face, such as the saying (origin) of things, parables (metaphors), ideas (ideas), and slogans (slogans), or when expressing complex content in a straightforward manner. Convenient words, some of which are completely assimilated as Japanese words (such as "perfect" and "contradiction"), and Japanese words.こ と わ ざMany of them have become established as ("I don't know the frog ocean in the well", "The fox that borrows the power of the tiger", etc.).
The following is a list of the main chengyu words that are often used in Japan in alphabetical order.
Made in ancient ChinaOfficialOf the promotion testFamilySo, I always put it at the top so as to overwhelm the answer (volume) of the person with the best grade, so the best poetry in the bookA masterpieceIt came to be called, and it came to be used for other than books.
Frog in the well
wellBe infrogThought he was the biggest creature.しかし、それをBut itsea turtlePeeks in.His body was many times larger than a frog, and he mysteriously asked the frog, "What are you doing in such a small space?"The frog doesn't abandon it, teaches the sea turtle how comfortable it is to live here, and recommends him to enter the well, but replies that the sea turtle is too narrow to fit in.続けて海亀が自分が住んでいる海の広さを語ると、蛙は驚いたThe frog was surprised when the sea turtle continued to talk about the size of the sea in which he lived..
This isConfucianBut,ShokoAfter hearing the teachings of, I was worried that my thoughts would not be accepted in the world, and when I approached a friend for consultation, it was a parable that the talented friend gave me.In other words, the man implied to the Confucian scholar, "The way of thinking is still narrow, so look at the scholarship from a wider perspective."
From this, the insight is narrow, and such a personFrog,View of the frogIn JapanI don't know the frog ocean in the wellIt came to be known by the saying.Furthermore, it is said that the continuation "Knowing the depth (blue) of the sky" was added after it was introduced to Japan..
Karasui no Shu
A crowd or army that is useless, with no order or control, just by getting close to each other.CrowEven if the number of herds is large, they are always disjointed and uncoordinated, and even if they are threatened once, they will be scattered.After the end of the new HanDuring the upheavalEmperor GuangwuIn the honor ofBack HanBecame one of the key players in the foundingPi TongIs hostileOroNamed after the fact that he described the power of..ただし、同じ頃に同じく光武帝の功臣で後漢創業の立役者の一人となったHowever, around the same time, he was also a vassal of Emperor Guangwu and became one of the key players in the founding of Eastern Han.Geng BiHowever, there is also a way to describe the power of Wang Lang in the same way, and this is the first appearance of this phrase in the literature..
The pity of the salt car
happy life partnership
Repeated hardships and hardships (trying to defeat the sword).
Southern Court Beam OfEmperor WuIt is,BuddhismI have a strong faith intempleThe decorative painting of the templeZhang SengyouI had the painter draw it.Zhang is the capitalJinling4 animals in AnrakujiDragonI drew.However, none of those dragons have eyes drawn, and when he hears, Zhang says that when he draws his eyes, the dragon pops out of the picture.People didn't trust it and asked to give it a try.Zhang drew his eyes on only two dragons.Then, outside, thunderstorms struck, thunder rang, thunder smashed the walls of the temple, and two dragons with their eyes drawn jumped out of the picture.People were surprised and admired Zhang's drawing power.残った瞳のない2匹の龍は今も安楽寺に描かれたままであるThe two remaining dragons without eyes are still depicted in Anrakuji..  From thisfinishing touchRefers to the importance of the finishing touches, or things that deserve it.しばしばoftenLacking a painting dragonIt means that there is no final finish and lacks the final stuffing.睛は「ひとみ」、睛 is "Hitomi",clearIs a different character from.
Fellowship of abalone
A woodcutter living in a mountain village had a proud ax.However, one day, he loses the ax.At that time, he suddenly remembered what happened last time.I think my son next door saw the ax and said what he wanted.So he was curious about the child and approached him, and by chance he ran away saying he remembered the urgent need.He became more and more suspicious and wanted to confess, but then he remembered something again and was relieved.To tell the truth, I left the ax in the mountains because I had a lot of luggage.そして、山中を探してみると案の定、斧はそのまま置き去りにされていたのだったAnd when I searched for Yamanaka, as expected, the ax was left as it was..
This is a kind of parable described in Liezi, which means that "if you have a suspicious mind, you will feel suspicious to anyone."Also, as a paradoxical catch of this lesson, "Seven warmths and doubts people" (remembering yourself seven times and then doubting people, that is, searching for people well before doubting them) ) There is a saying.
杞There was a person in the country who was so worried that he couldn't sleep at night because the heavens and the earth would collapse and he would lose his place.From this, it refers to unnecessary worries and troubles to move.QiTo say.
A third party benefits while two powers are fighting for one thing. It is also called "the battle for sandpipers".During the Warring States period in China, Zhao was trying to attack Tsubame.Sudai of Tsubame, who sensed this, headed for Zhao and told King Huiwen, the king of Zhao, the following story. "蚌When (Clam) is opening the shell and basking in the sun,鷸(Sandpiper) came and tried to beak.The sandpiper closed its shell and sandwiched the beak of the sandpiper.The sandpiper says, "If it doesn't rain today and tomorrow, there will be dead sandpipers," and the sandpiper says, "If it stays like this today and tomorrow, there will be dead sandpipers."While fighting, both fishermen (Fisherman) I got caught.Zhao and Yan (clam and clam) fight only to create an opportunity for both to be destroyed by the powerful Qin (fisherman). ”Huiwen of Qin stopped attacking Yan. It has become.
Move Mt. Fukong
To praise you for your hard work.
Jin DongOf the eraCarWas studying with firefly light because his house was poor and he couldn't buy kerosene.同様に、同じ頃のSimilarly, around the same timeSun KangWas studying at night with the moonlight reflected by the snow that had piled up outside the window.そして、この二人はその重ねた学問により、長じて朝廷の高官に出世しているAnd these two people have been promoted to high-ranking officials in the imperial court for a long time due to their repeated studies..
XNUMX steps and XNUMX steps
The world was in the Warring States periodWei OfKing HuiIt is,MenciusAsked. "I'm always going to take good care of the people's peasants, but I don't see the people of other countries adoring Wei. What does this mean?" Mencius said. "First, ask the king. On the battlefield, two people were scared and ran away. Some escaped 2 steps and stopped, and some stopped in 100 steps. Then 50 steps escaped 50 steps. Suppose you laugh at the fleeing as a coward. What do you think of the king? "" That's strange. It must have fled. "
"That's right," says Mencius.そして魏王の政策も他国と比べてAnd Wei Wang's policy is also compared to other countriesXNUMX steps and XNUMX stepsPoint out that it is, and advocate the royal road recommended by Mencius.
In other words, there is no big difference.
The old man is a horse
The old man who lived near the fortress near the border was, above all, his own.(I.e.I was petting.The horse was a horse that was well received by the people around it, but one day suddenlybeeIt pops out in the time signature stabbed by.I felt sympathy for the horse who never returned, but he kept waiting patiently, saying, "This may be the trigger for something good."Then what about?After a while, the horse brought back another white horse.Moreover, Hakuba was as good as he was, and the people around him whispered how lucky he was, but he said, "This may trigger another bad thing." I warned him and never rejoiced.
Then my beloved son fell from the white horse and crushed one leg.The people around him gave the same comforting words, but the old man also said, "It may be a sign of good things."Shortly thereafter, a war with a neighboring country broke out.All the young men were killed in action in the war.However, because his son was injured, he was not drafted and died.そして、戦争も終わり、翁は息子たちと一緒に末永く幸せに暮らしたというAnd the war was over, and the old man lived happily with his sons for a long time. .
From this, it becomes a metaphor for human beings, there are good things and bad things, so it is a word that can be used as a lesson to be unhappy and not to be happy.Man is a horseAnd so on.
Empty lunch of the president
If you go ahead, you will win the general
At the end of the Qin dynasty, the rebellions that occurred in various places were increasing rather than being suppressed.ここで会稽の県令Here is the prefectural ordinance of KuaijiYin-dori"If you go ahead, you will control the general (if you start things before others, you will take the initiative)," he said, because he decided to do things before the rebels rushed in.ちなみにこの後殷通は、一緒に反乱を起こそうと誘った会稽の実力者By the way, after this, Yin-dori was an influential person in Kuaiji who invited him to revolt together.Xiang LiangWas killed by. 
Whip to the dead
When a man was working in farming, he was jumping in front of himrabbitHit the stump and died as it was.He was delighted to show his unexpected prey to his family, who all said, "Sells high."Then, from tomorrow, the man will stop cutting trees and earning steadily, and will wait for the rabbit to make a lot of money.He cut down all kinds of trees and waited for the rabbit to die day after day.ところが、そんな偶然など滅多に起こるはずもなく、いつしか男は周りの笑いものにされ、そして自分が耕していた田畑は荒れに荒れてしまい、以前にも増して貧乏になってしまったというHowever, such a coincidence should rarely occur, and one day the man was laughed at by the people around him, and the fields he had cultivated became rough and became poorer than before..
This meant that the lesson that things don't always work is that they're all old-fashioned, with no progress, or do stupid things that happen to happen.今日、日本ではToday in japanProtect the stock and wait for the rabbitIt is a saying.またAlsoNursery rhymeof"Await] Is based on this story.
Boys tend to get old and learn
The index finger moves
"Shunju Sajiden』The story.
ZhengWhile the child was visiting Reiko, the companion saw the index finger of the child move and said, "It's a sign of a feast." The "index finger" is the index finger.
From this, it became a meaning to want and be interested in things.
宋A man from the country was worried about the slow growth of the seedlings he had planted, so he went to the fields every day to take care of them, but there was no sign of any growth.So the man pulled the tips of the seedlings up one by one to help the seedlings grow.The tired man went home and told his family about it.それを聞いた息子があわてて家を飛び出し、畑へ向かうと、やはり苗の根が土から浮き、弱って枯れてしまっていたWhen my son heard it and rushed out of the house and headed for the field, the roots of the seedlings were still floating from the soil, weakened and withered..
From thisPromoteHas come to be used to mean doing more harm in an attempt to help things grow, but today it is also used simply to mean "a third party helps things."
Fellowship of water fish
Former HanEmperorThe era was tainted with corrupt politics by Mr. Wang, and security was disturbed.中でも自らを学者と騙るAbove all, deceive yourself as a scholarZhang YuIntervened in politics,Prime MinisterI was doing my best every day to improve my position.そんな状況を見かねた臣下のA vassal who could not see such a situationZhu YunOne day, he says to the Emperor Cheng, "I will decapitate Zhang Yu for the future of the country and the Emperor."However, that touched the emperor's rebellion, and he was ordered to be beheaded.However, he was prepared to die, clinging to the cage (parapet), and desperately continued to make suggestions so that the clinging cage would break.この状況を一部始終見通していた側近のAn aide who had foreseen this situation from beginning to endSin Gyeong-giWas impressed by the true intentions of Zhuyun, and tearfully complained to His Majesty that he had suffered such rudeness because he really thought of the country, and at the same time pleaded for forgiveness of his sins.Then, when even a spicy adult took such an attitude, the Emperor Cheng of Ryuishi also converted and decided to do good politics.同時に自らへの戒めとして、折れた欄干をそのままにしておくよう部下に伝えたというAt the same time, as a commandment to himself, he told his subordinates to leave the broken balustrade as it was..
From the above narrative, the original meaning of this story isStrongly give up to superiorsAnd the cage is a balustrade and a handrail.However, it was later derived to mean "severe scolding", and today it has come to be understood as "punishing with corporal punishment".
Wife of 糟糠
Soseki pillow style
Sun ChuOne day, the man approached a friend () for consultation.I'm an official, but I'm really tired of the annoyances of the world.Seven Sages of the Bamboo ForestHe suggested that he want to live away from the world, and involuntarily told him that he wanted to live like "Rinse with stones and pillow in the flow."Then my friend laughed and said, "If you say that,Pillow on a stone and rinse in the flow(That is, living in harmony with nature, using stones as pillows and rinsing your mouth with the flow of water). "Then, the man who had pride in his studies thought, "No, that's not wrong.Rinsing stones means brushing your teeth with stones and pillowing them in the stream means washing them all with water, including the hassle of the world.Insisted.
From that point on, Soseki Pillow style, "Rinse on stones and pillow on the flow," came to be always stubborn.Meiji era writer,Natsume SosekiIt is said that the name of is also associated with this event.
Stones from other mountains
"Even inferior stones picked up in an unnamed mountain are useful for polishing the balls (jewels) that you own," so even the trivial words and actions of others can help you improve yourself...It is wrong to use it as a model.
Thoughts of intestinal failure
"A New Account of the Tales" is derived from the story of "A New Account of the Tales".
Jin WarlordHuan WenWhen he crossed the Three Gorges to attack the 蜀 by ship, his servant caught the monkey child and put it on the ship.The mother monkey cried and mourned, and jumped after about XNUMX ri, but suffered in agony and died.When the mother monkey was incised in the abdomen, the intestine was torn to pieces.
From this, it meant a very painful feeling.
As early as three
very(I.e.There was a man who liked to play with.This man loves monkeys, leaving his family alone, so when it's time to feed, monkeys always come by.However, due to that, one day his wife said, "If you don't reduce the monkey food, you will run out of food for the children."The troubled man managed to entangle the monkeys and called out all at once.From now on, he says, "I can only do three nuts in the morning and four in the evening," but all the monkeys are dissatisfied.それならば「朝は四つ、暮は三つならどうだ」と言うと、合計七つと変わらないにも係わらず猿は皆、納得してしまったのであるThen, when I said, "How about four in the morning and three in the living?", All the monkeys were convinced, even though the total was seven..
From thereAs early as threeHas become a term for a stupid person who, from the standpoint of a monkey, is unaware of the fundamental difference in things, as well as deceiving people by cleverly deceiving them.
No garment sewing
A fox that borrows the power of a tiger
tigerIs a lotAnimalEat it in search of.At one point狐I caught.The fox said, "You must not eat me. Heaven has made me king of beasts. If you eat me, it will disobey heaven's command. If you do not believe, I will walk in front of you. Let's see. There will be no beast that can't escape looking at me. "So the tiger let go of the fox and followed him.Then the beast saw the party and ran away, because he was afraid of the tiger, not the fox.しかし当の虎自身は自分を恐れて逃げているとは思わず、狐を恐れて皆逃げているのだと思い、狐の言を信用したHowever, the tiger himself did not think that he was afraid to run away, but thought that everyone was afraid of the fox and was running away, so he believed in the words of the fox..
From thisA fox that borrows the power of a tigerHas come to mean that a person who is not a big deal wears the majesty of a person in power and the like in a hat.
Crying and slashing the horse
Gimlet in the sac
Many historical generals, such as Katsuie Shibata in the Battle of Tedorigawa and Fu Jian in the Battle of Fei River, have taken this formation and have been defeated.Only the onlyChu-Han WarAt times, Han Xin took this formation as a mimicry and succeeded in distracting attention to the separate corps and won.
漢 OfLiu GuoWas servingHanshinHas 20 troopsZhaoFaced with a difficult situation in which about 3 soldiers had to capture.In order to win with a small number of troops, Han Xin set up with a small number of troops behind the river, pretending that a small number of troops who were ignorant of military law had attacked.This led to Zhao's total attack on military law, and Han Xin won by occupying the empty castle and stockpile.The reason why Han Xin's backwater army was not destroyed was that the larger the enemy, the more he knew that if he held up for a while, his army would win.
However, in the popular world, this important strategy was not transmitted, and he dared to ignore the tactical formula, set up an army in front of a river with no escape, and realized that the soldiers had no escape and could not reconstruct the formation. It is misunderstood that he will win in order to fight hard with preparedness, and he dares to put himself in a corner and try to maximize his power.Backwater campI came to say.
The momentum of the broken bamboo
Lamentation of flesh
Fellowship of the neck
Ming mirror still water
People do not mirror running water, but mirror stationary water.鏡がはっきりとものを映すのは塵垢をとどめていないからであるということからThe mirror clearly reflects things because it doesn't retain the dust.A clear feeling without any inconvenience.
Three Moves of Mengmu
Enter the illness
Jin OfDuke Jing of QiWhen I get sick秦The sick spirit who knew that the famous doctor, Zhao Kuo, was coming, became two children, Zhao Kuo and Zhao Kuo, and escaped to the plaster (under the heart) and the 肓 (above the diaphragm).高緩は「薬も鍼も届かない部位に病が入ってしまっているので治すことはできない。」といったことからTakayasu says, "I can't cure the disease because the disease has entered the area where neither medicine nor acupuncture can reach."..The analogy of a serious illness that is unlikely to be cured.Being absorbed in things and getting stuck.
Sheep dog meat
The butcher hangs the head of a sheep, which is the finest meat, on the front of the store, but sells the poorest dog meat as if it were the best. Parable.. "Hold the sheep head and sell dog meat."
Kimiko on the beam
Luoyang's paper price is high
Do not correct the crown under Lee
If you try to fix the crown under a plum tree, you are suspected of stealing the fruit, so it is used to mean that you should avoid suspicious acts, even if it is not confusing. "Yuefu PoemsIt looks like the early music prefecture "Kimiko line" in Volume 32.In the same poem, "I can't put my shoes on Urita" is also used with the same meaning.
Turn disaster into good fortune
Take advantage of disasters and make arrangements to your advantage.
Source / Supplementary Note
- ^ "Shoko』\ Akimizu
- ^ ""I don't know the frog ocean in the well" actually had a positive continuation! / Daily trivia". Da Vinci. KADOKAWA (September 2020, 10). 2020/12/30Browse.
- ^ "Book of the Later Han" Retsuden 11 / Pi Tong
- ^ "Book of the Later Han" Retsuden 9 / Jizhuanti
- ^ "Successive masterpieces』Volume seven beams
- ^ WikiquoteChinese sayingThere is a description based on the water balance.
- ^ "Liezi』\ Explanation
- ^ "Liezi』Tenrui Hen
- ^ "Sengoku measure』\ Yan plan
- ^ "Jinsho』\ Car
- ^ "Mencius』\ Wei King
- ^ "Huainanzi』Volume XNUMX Human lessons
- ^ "History" Xiang Yu
- ^ "Han Feizi』Five 蠧 hen
- ^ "Chun Qiu Sajiden" Huan of Qi 12 years --National Diet Library Digital Collection Haruaki Sajiden (Japanese translation) Page XNUMX
- ^ Duke Huan of Qi. Duke Huan of Qi / Duke Huan of Qi # Duke Huan of Qi XNUMX. - Wiki sauce.
- ^ "Mencius』\ Gongsun Chou
- ^ "Kanji』\ Zhuunden
- ^ "Jinsho』\ Son Soden
- ^ "Poetry』\ Miyavi Tsuruning edition
- ^ "Shoko』\ Simultaneous theory
- ^ "Liezi』\ Yellow Emperor Hen
- ^ "Sengoku measure』Chu plan-Chu's宣王A parable told by his vassal, Eoto.他国がOther countriesPrime MinisterTo explain that he is afraid of (Chancellor) Akira, because he is actually afraid of the army of King So.
- ^ "Shoko』From the virtue sign
- ^ From "Zuo zhuan"
- ^ "The Gateless Barrier" "Rokunori"
- ^ "Sengoku measure』From" Yan plan "