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🎵 | Asaco Nasu to release double A-side single "Breathing Omamori / Steel Tower"


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Asaco Nasu to release double A-side single "Breathing Omamori / Steel Tower"

 
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Since 2020, while the new corona has been rampant, this "breathing grace" has resonated with the hearts of people who spend uneasy days with the corona, and many people have said that they are "relieved" and "healed." It arrived, and a request was received requesting that it be made into a sound source.
 

It was revealed that Asaco Nasu will release a double-sided A-side single "Breathing Omamori / Steel Tower" on November 11th (Wednesday) ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Corona

CoronaWhat is (Corona)2019 From the endEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Is a term that refers to disasters and crisis situations caused by[1].

Of the "corona bruise", "コ ロ ナ"Is"New coronavirus'[2],MisfortuneIs a word that means "disaster" or "disaster" or "unfortunate event"[3]Then, it is a compound word that is put after various nouns[4](Other examples: water damage, war damage, etc.). "Coronavirus disease","New Corona","COVID-19There is also a notation such as.

As the epidemic of new coronavirus infection spreads,2020 (Reiwa 2nd year) It has been widely used in newspapers and online since the middle of March.[5][Annotation 1][Annotation 2].

The word "corona bruise" is often misrepresented.A typical mistake is to mistake "worse" for "vortex" and "Corona vortex(Corona vortex, corona?) "[6].

New Word Award 2020 selected by Daijisen

Shogakukanby"New Word Award Selected by Daijisen In "2020", "Corona Sorrow" was selected as the runner-up,DaijisenA commentary by the editorial department was posted on the announcement site.

Served as a special selection committee member regarding the reasons for selectionMeiji UniversityMakirō Tanaka, a professor of the Faculty of International Japanese Studies, said, "It is a word that expresses the current situation in the world, and it has become an important word for sharing the desire to overcome this, find a new lifestyle, and manage to survive. We made it the runner-up with support for that feeling. "In addition, TanakaJapanese languageFrom this point of view, it is worth noting whether "○○ 禍" will be derived as a coined word component in the future.[7].

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ In the online transmission by the administration, etc.
  2. ^ In newspaper reports,National newspaperAppeared on all 5 papers. etc.Block paperThen, etc.Prefectural paperThen, in what is evaluated as being equivalent to block paper, Such. In general prefecture paper,etc.

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References

Related item

SARS coronavirus 2

SARS coronavirus 2[Note 1](Thirds Coronavirus Two,English: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Abbreviation: COVID-2) IsNew Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) [2]CausesSARS-related coronavirus Belongs to (SARSr-CoV)CoronavirusIs[3].Japan OfNational agencyAnd majorNews agencyIs "New coronavirusIs called[4][5],New coronaOr simply "コ ロ ナMay be abbreviated as[5][6][7][8].

January 2019People's Republic of ChinaHubei ProvinceWuhanOccurrence was confirmed for the first time in the vicinity[9],afterwards,COVID-19 pandemic(Pandemic) Is causing.There are different fashion images depending on the country[10].

This virus isSevere acute respiratory syndrome Not the causative virus of (SARS),SARSIs named after SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of SARS that prevailed between 2002 and 2003.SARS coronavirus(SARS-CoV, orRetro NimThis is because it is the same species as SARS-CoV-1) and is considered to be one of the strains of SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV).[11][12].

Name

The international official name for this virus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (abbreviation: SARS-CoV-2), and the name of the disease is coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviation: COVID-19).[1].

2020 May 1,who (World Health Organization; WHO) is the virus that causes the disease in Wuhan, China.2019-Ncov(2019 novel coronav(Abbreviation for irus) tentatively named[1][13][14][15][16][Note 2]..This name isMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareBesides the official website[17],National Institute of Infectious DiseasesCreated `` Pathogen Detection Manual 2019-nCoV''[18], Also used in the "2019-nCoV genetic testing method" based on this[19]..For this reason, it can be found in the names of in vitro drugs and websites created before the official name was decided.[20][21][22][Note 3].

July 2st of the same year,International Virus Classification Committee (ICTV)COVID-2(Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavVirus 2 OfAcronym) Officially named[3][28][29][30]..As this Japanese translationSARS coronavirus 2[31][32]In addition,SARS Coronavirus-2[33][34],Third Coronavirus 2[35],Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2[36][37],Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus Type 2[38][39]It may be called or written as such.

As of the same year, Japanese national and major media outlets simplyNew coronavirusIs called[4][5][6][16][40].

On the other hand, WHO was affected by this virus on February 2, the same year.diseaseTheCOVID-19(Coronavirus disease 2019 (Abbreviation of)[41].

Controversy over naming

The United States of AmericaIn such cases, give the name of the place of originWuhan virus (Wuhan Virus),China virus There is controversy such as the opinion that it should be called (Chinese Virus) etc.[42][43][44][45].

発 見

SARS coronavirus 2 was confirmed to occur in Wuhan, China in November 2019, and was first confirmed on December 11, 12.who Reported to (WHO)[46]..After that, it occurred from 2019 to 2020.Outbreak in Wuhan, ChinaInpneumoniapatient'sNucleic acid testWith a positive patient samplegenomeThe sequence was determined[47][48][49].

August 2020, 1,PathogenIs investigatingChugoku-National Hygiene and Health Commission (NHC) ExpertZhong NanshanThe group leader isGuangdongAnnounced that human-to-human transmission (human-human transmission) was confirmed in[50]..There is no specific cure for the new coronavirus, but existingAntiviral drugCan be diverted[51].

However, March 2019スペイン OfUniversity of BarcelonaResearch teamBarcelonaAnnounced that a new type of coronavirus was detected in the wastewater sample collected in[52].

September 2019イタリア OfMilanAccording to a study by the National Cancer Center in Tokyo, antibodies to the new coronavirus were detected in blood samples in September 2019 at the earliest.[53].

Classification and lineage

SARS coronavirus 2genomeAsPositive-strand plus RNAhave,CoronavirusBelongs to.This companion includes a large number of species that infect mammals and birds, but even those that cause infectious diseases in humans are serious.pneumoniaCause ofSARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), seasonalcoldcauseHuman coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229)HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1 and so on. SARS-CoV-2 will be available in 2019Human capitalAgainstPathogenicityIt appeared as the 7th coronavirus with.

This virusInternational Virus Classification Committee (ICTV) considers it to be the same species (sister line) as the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and belongs to the genus.SARS-related coronavirus It belongs to the species (SARSr-CoV)[3]..However, it is not a direct descendant of the SARS coronavirus[54].. originallyBatSuch asWild animalsIt is believed that the carriers of humans independently transmitted to humans and acquired the ability to infect humans.[54].

On January 2020, 3,Sunda pangolinCoronaviruses with 85-92% of the genome have been found in SARS-CoV-2, which are considered to be closer to the ancestors of SARS-CoV-XNUMX.[55][56].

In July 2020, SARS coronavirus 7 belongsSalvecovirusBat virus in evolutionary history analysis by Maciej Boni et al. Using subgenus genomic dataRaTG13Is the most closely related virus that shares a single ancestral lineage, and SARS-CoV-2 was estimated to have genetically diverged from the bat salvecovirus in 1948, 1969, and 1982.[57].

Genome sequence

Thisウ イ ル スFull ofGenome sequenceIs the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center,Wuhan City Central Clinic,Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan City Disease Prevention Control Center,China sickness deposit control centerInfectious Disease Control and Prevention Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,University of SydneyDeciphered in collaboration with the University of Sydney, with the cooperation of Professor Edward C. Holmes of the University of Sydney, by Professor Zhang Yongshin of the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center on January 2020, 1.Virological.orgPublished above[58].

Then, on January 1, the International Nucleic Acid Sequence DatabaseGenBankOfficially published at[59]..China compared to other coronavirusesZhejiang ProvinceZhoushan City OfBatFound fromSARS virusClosest to, bat SARS virus, human SARS virus,CivetHaving a similarity of nearly 80% with the SARS virus,Hong Kong universityReported by Professor Yuen Kwokoku, who specializes in infectious diseases in the Department of Microbiology[60].

The estimated base substitution rate is 0.00084 / base / year, which is about 1/6 to 1/2 times the base substitution rate of influenza.[61].

Construction

Virus particles (Virion) Is 50-200 nm (nanometer)Is about the size[63]..Similar to common coronaviruses, S (peplomer) protein, N (Nucleocapsid) Protein, M (membrane) protein, E (envelope) It is composed of four proteins known as proteins and RNA.Of these, N protein binds to RNANucleocapsidS, E and M proteins that form and bind to lipids surround itenvelopeTo form.The outermost S protein in the envelope is on the cell surface.ACE2Bind to the receptor細胞Allows infection to[64]..The point of using the ACE2 receptor for infecting humansSARS coronavirus It is common with (SARS-CoV) andDPP-4Utilize receptorsMERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and(English edition Different from human coronavirus 229E using (APN)[65]..The viral genome is 29,903 baseso,Single-stranded plus-strand RNA virusIs[66].

The primary structure of the protein and the homology of the RNA sequence with SARS coronavirus are 76.0% for S protein, 90.6% for N protein, 90.1% for M protein, and 94.7% for E protein.[67], RNA is 80%[64][68]..On the other hand, another species in the same beta coronavirus[3]MERS coronavirus is 4.6%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 30.5%, respectively.[67], 50%[64]Only match.

Cleavage activation of peplomer

コロナウイルスのSタンパク質は、大きく分けてS1、S2という2つのサブユニットでできており、S1はACE2受容体との結合を、S2は宿主細胞膜と融合を担っている。Sタンパク質は宿主細胞内で合成された直後は1つの連続したタンパク質であるが、次の宿主細胞に感染するためには、どこかのタイミングで、S1サブユニットとS2サブユニットの境界であるS1/S2部位と、S2内部にあるS2'という2箇所の部位が、宿主の持つProteaseIt is believed that it needs to be cleaved by.

Unlike SARS coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 enhances infectivity and pathogenicity to S protein.FoorinThere is a cutting site[69]..This is unique among salvecoviruses, but it is not uncommon in the entire coronaviridae family, and many (MHV-JHM, MHV-A59) and human coronaviruses (MHV-JHM, MHV-AXNUMX) and human coronavirus (MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43) Etc. have similar parts[70].

One of the distinguishing features of SARS-CoV-2 is the insertion of four amino acid sequences [PRRA] not found in the closely related coronavirus at the S1 / S2 site.As a result, the amino acid sequence at the boundary site is S [PRRA] R ↓ SVAS, and it is thought that immediately after the S protein is synthesized in the host cell, the "↓" part is cleaved by the host cell's furin. Has been done.

In viruses with S protein that have undergone S1 / S2 cleavage by furin, when the S protein binds to the ACE2 receptor of the next host cell, the TMPRSS2 protease of the host cell on the cell membrane near the receptor causes the S2'site. It is cleaved and the infection is established as it is.

In contrast, in normal coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV with S protein that has not undergone S1 / S2 cleavage, the virus itself binds to the ACE2 receptor of the next host cell after the S protein binds to the ACEXNUMX receptor in the next host cell.EndocytosisIs taken up into the host cellEndosomesThe cathepsin L protease in the cell cleaves the two border sites and fuses with the cell membrane of the endosome to infect. [71] [72] [73] [74]

In 2020, riceUniversity of TexasA research team led by the Faculty of Medicine to verify how much the amino acid sequence [PRRA] contributes to S2 / S1 cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 and, as a result, enhances the infectivity of the virus. , SARS-CoV-2 Wild type Synthesized a variant named ΔPRRA in which only the genetic information corresponding to [PRRA] of S protein was deleted from the original RNA sequence.Calu-3Using cells (human lung hematoma cells cultured for experiments), infection experiments with three types of viruses, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 wild type, and SARS-CoV-2ΔPRRA mutant strain, were conducted and comparative studies were conducted. bottom. [75]

According to this study, the S1 / S2 cleavage rate of daughter virus released from infected cells was 1.4% for SARS-CoV, 2% for SARS-CoV-87.3 wild type, 33.1% for ΔPRRA mutants, and ΔPRRA. In the mutant strain, it was considered that there is a mechanism to promote S1 / S2 cleavage other than [PRRA].Virus titerA comparison of infectivity based on the wild type showed that the infectivity was about 10 times higher than that of the ΔPRRA mutant strain.

Report "THE ORIGIN OF COVID-2021: An Investigation of the Wuhan Institute of Virology" by the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee and Republican Party, released on August 8, 1. [76] So, citing this University of Texas-centered study and showing further circumstantial evidence, SARS-CoV-2 is from China.Wuhan Institute of VaseIt claims to be an artificially created virus by inserting [PRRA] and other genetic modifications using the bat-hosted coronavirus RaTG13 as a source.

Pathogen

Basic reproduction number

SARS-CoV-2Basic reproduction number (R0Many unpeer-reviewed studies on estimates in) have different numbers and different ratings, but R0Is estimated to be 1.4 to 3.9[77][78][79][80]..This means that in the unprotected state, SARS-CoV-2 usually gives rise to 1 to 1.4 newly infected individuals per infected person.This confirms that SARS-CoV-3.9 infects at least 2 people in a chain reaction.[81].

In other unpeer-reviewed studies, R0From 3.30 to 5.47[82], 2.13[83]To 4.82[84][85]There is something to do.

Infection of animals

ベルギーHealth officials from infectedCatThere was a case where the virus was transmitted to[86].. Other,dog[87],Dora[88]There is also a case where SARS-CoV-2 was detected from.

Cats are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and in some cases, droplet infections can cause cat-to-cat transmission, according to a report by a Chinese research team.Besides catsferretAlso sensitive, but dogs andDream Pork,Chicken,duckDid not multiply[89]..Being a virologistYoshihiro KawaokaIt is,mousethanhamsterThe result is that the symptoms of infection to[90].

Ability to infect immune cells

Healthy human(English editionIn in vitro experiments usingCD4PositiveT cellsWas suggested to be infected with a virus.No viral replication has been identified, the receptor is unknown, and the effects have not been evaluated.[91]..No other types of immune cells were found to be infected in this report.There was a similar report using a cell line, but this paper was withdrawn due to a defect in the method.[92].

Secondary lymphoid tissue of the deceased patient (Lymph node-spleen)ofMacrophageIs expressing the ACE2 receptor, and it has been reported that the nucleoprotein antigen of the virus was detected.It is unclear whether this is due to viral infection or uptake of infected cells.[93]..In this report, T cells andB cellsNo nucleoprotein antigen was identified.

Expresses human ACE2 receptor proteinTransgenicIn experiments using mice, it has been reported that viral antigens were detected in lung macrophages.[94].

Existence of multiple types

Report from China

In March 2020, this virus (3 cases in China and abroad) was released.Beijing UniversityChinese research teamgeneAs a result of analysisBatIt is called S type (3% of the total), which is close to the virus of origin and seems to have been around for a long time, and L type, whose virulence is unknown but seems to be high.Nucleotide sequenceIt turns out that it can be classified into two different types of[95][96][97][98].

It has been confirmed that many patients are infected with only one type but both types, and it is reported that once infected with the virus and the symptoms are cured, the other type is "re-infected". There is also[95][97], The possibility and cause of reinfection are debated and require further research and verification[99].

As of March 2020, 3, the following has been found.The major strains of this virus areL type(L subtype) andS typeDivided into (S subtype)[100][101]..28,144th and XNUMXth of viral RNAbaseThe amino acids specified by the difference inLeucine(L type)SerineDistinguished by (S type)[102].

L type

L-type is dominant in the early epidemic in Wuhan, China[102]..Initial reports stated that the L-type was more aggressive and spread more rapidly.[Note 4]..Therefore, it is thought that the selection pressure was applied and the proportion decreased due to human intervention by epidemic countermeasures.[101]..However, the point that "strong infectivity" was later corrected, and the expression was changed to "high frequency".[103].

S type

It is evolutionarily old and is considered to be pre-mutated (ancestral).Since the aggression is low, the selection pressure is weak, and it seems that the ratio has increased relatively.[100][101].

Type K

S-type mutated virus.Although it was not detected and spread by infectious disease surveillance in China, the influx of K-virus was observed due to the large lack of the influenza epidemic curve in Japan.

G type

A type that is thought to have caused an explosive infection in the United States and Italy after many deaths in Wuhan, China.[49]..Strong infectivity and toxicity[100].

Report from Cambridge University, England

2020 Year of 4 MonthBritishEngland・ According to a report by the University of Cambridge and others, this virus can be divided into three types: A, B, and C. A is ChineseBatIt is close to the virus of origin and was found in infected people in China and Japan, but in the United States andAustraliaThere were many infected people. B, which was mutated from A, seems to have increased explosively in China and neighboring countries, centering on Wuhan City, and there were few cases of fire in Europe and the United States. C mutated from B was common in Europe such as Italy, France, and the United Kingdom.[104][105].

Report from Japan Biodata

In the pre-reviewed paper by Nippon Biodata Co., Ltd., we focused on the 8,782th, 28,144th, 29,095th, and 3th,XNUMXth bases of the virus's RNA sequence, and classified this virus into three types: TCC, TCT, and CTC.[106].. TCC and TCT correspond to type S indicated by the Chinese group and type A indicated by the British group.CTC corresponds to the L type shown by the Chinese group and the B type and C type shown by the British group.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japanese nameNotationThere is no fixed.An example of notation is#nameSee.
  2. ^ As will be described later, it is officially named "SARS-CoV-2" by ICTV, but to avoid confusion, the WHO materials released before that will remain "2019-nCoV".In addition, the name "SARS" became popular in 2003 in Asia and other countries.Severe acute respiratory syndromeFor the sake of convenience, WHO also uses the name "COVID-19 virus" or "COVID-19 virus".[1].
  3. ^ In addition, a small number of "2019-nCoV" notations remain on the English notation page of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare official website, and previously used 2019-nCoV as the official name.[17]..The National Institute of Infectious Diseases is referred to by the "2019-nCoV Genetic Testing Method" created by the Institute.[19], Also described as "New Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2)" in the official text.[23]..Miyagi Prefecture wrote "New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" in the guidance for opening a general telephone consultation service regarding this virus.[24]..Similarly, Aomori Prefecture described the number of infected people as "new coronavirus (2019-nCoV): XX people" in the "Weekly Aomori Prefecture Infected Persons Outbreak Information".[25]..The Tokyo Metropolitan Government links the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" in the "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease FAQ".[26], Aichi Prefecture's "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease Control Site" has a similar link.[27]..However, as of August 2020, the linked page has been renamed to "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-8) Related Information Page".In addition, some in-vitro drugs are labeled only as 19-nCoV on the main body.[20][21][22].
  4. ^ "L type, which might be more aggressive and spread more quickly." From "ABSTRACT" in doi: 10.1093 / nsr / nwaa036.

Source

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  2. ^ Coronavirus disease named Covid-19 BBC NEWS April 2020, 2
  3. ^ a b c d Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses --a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group (PDF) --ICTV (February 11, 20)
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