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🤖 | Are you the “Isao Takahata” school? "Hayao Miyazaki" school?Taiiku Okazaki talks about "Studio Ghibli"


Are you the "Isao Takahata" school? "Hayao Miyazaki" school?Taiiku Okazaki talks about "Studio Ghibli"

If you write the contents roughly
As I get older, I can deeply understand various things such as the psychology of the characters, and it becomes more and more interesting.

The other day, I suddenly wanted to watch the animated movie "My Neighbors Yamada-kun".Everyone, Studio Jib ... → Continue reading


"Anan" has always created the "era", transmitted the "topics", and created the "trend" of women.
The web version of "anan" such as "ananweb" is aimed at women in the late 20's to 40's with great curiosity. We deliver "real".

Wikipedia related words

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Deep understanding


character(Origin: character)Novel,Comic,movies,Anime,Computer games, AdsSuch asfictionAppear inpersonOr animals, or the character of those charactersnatureThat. Also, through its characteristics, it is a general term that gives readers, viewers, consumers a certain image and enhances the effect of attracting products and companies.[1].


A human,AnimallikeBiology Or imitating a living thingMech robotNot limited toTools, Sometimes biologicalorgan,,element,Furthermore感情,NATURE,CountryAnd so onconcept ThePersonificationDeformationIt can be made into a character by going through. For shortCharacterIt is also said.

The English word for "character" is "characterThe original meaning of the word "" is "feature" and "property", and the original etymology is the Greek word "engraved sign, symbol". As an example in that sense, let's say that there are multiple people with similar characteristics in a social group.CharacterIt may be described as "gaburu". In addition, when a person is meant, it is not always a fictional character, and even in Japanese, CM characters and the like often refer to real people.

In Japanese, the word "character" that refers to a fictional character is1950 eraToデ ィ ズ ニ ー OfAnimated movieThere was in the contract offanciful characterWas born when "was translated as "fantastic character"[2].

Character as a character

It usually refers to the characters who are positioned to compose the story.Not involved in the storycrowd(Mob character) And passers-by are often called characters. Appearance and internal characteristics (specifically, physique, clothes, occupation, background, special skills, defects, habits, etc.) are set for the character as necessary.

When gaining widespread popularity, the character redefines the general image of the group to which it belongs[3].Sherlock HolmesThe detective image associated with so-called famous detectives such as, is a character image that is different from the actual detective in the early 21st century.In addition, even when a work is created based on an actual person, a person who is far from the actual person may be widely recognized to a greater or lesser extent.For exampleMusashi MiyamotoorRyoma SakamotoThe general image ofEiji Yoshikawa,Ryotaro ShibaIt is strongly influenced by the novel work of. Also, there are many cases in which talents, actors, and models used as advertising models for broadcast commercials and poster media of companies are introduced as "(product name/company name) image characters."

Characters and characters

Cartoon criticTsuyoshi ItoIn his book, "Tezuka is Dead," is reminiscent of "a kind of personality" drawn as an iconography, and he can leave the work and become autonomous.CharacterAnd as a base that makes you feel life and life behind the textcharacterAre used properly. And, for example, ""NANAThe character's strength is not the same as the character's strength.” The character stands in the sense that it seems to exist inSecondary creationIt is considered that the strength of the character is low in the sense that it exerts its presence in an environment different from the original through.[4]

This "character" and "character" are often used properlyCritics OfHiroki AzumaPresented byDatabase consumptionIt is referred to in connection with.Toshiaki EndouAccording to the database consumption theory, the level of the story is "character" and the level of the database is "character".[5]. Furthermore, as a pseudo virtual personality in the real worldCharacterWhen discussing about, Ito's usage of "chara/character" may be used[Note 1].

Character product development

Excellent characters are very popular,Plush Doll,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt is not uncommon for products such as toys and figurines, clothing printed with characters, daily necessities, and stationery to generate more sales than the character's original work.

Print characters such as cartoons and TV on products and improve the image of the companyAdsIf you use it for TV commercials, you will have to pay a license fee, but the cost will increase, but it is an effective way to improve the image of the company and sales promotion, so companies and groups that are focusing on character creation and copyright Many.

In addition, even in a company that manages public transportation, you can make characters with vehicles owned by the company and put company uniforms on anthropomorphized animals, etc., and use it as related facilities or tickets. I am printing it and promoting the image.CapitalIn the case of"Mr. ETC],Tokyu Railway (Tokyu)In the case of"Norunuru"Fukuoka City Transportation Bureau (Fukuoka City Subway)In the case of "Chikamaru-kun",Keihan Electric RailwayIn the case of"KeihanThere is an image character called ".

"Mickey MouseIs one of the characters that succeeded both commercially and globally, and many character products are on sale. It was a hidden character in the gameSea urchinAlthough the original work was not well known, there are cases where it gained popularity through commercialization. Also,"Hello Kitty""Barbie""MonchhicMany characters have been devised to be products such as, and some of them do not have a background story.


Before the 70s, children were the main targets for product development using characters,Tokyo DisneylandSince its opening, it has spread to adults as well, and in the 80s, the robot anime boom began to increase the product development targeting adults. In recent years, the target is expanding to a wide generation due to the trend of animation.

For example,bankTo use existing characters in a unified manner to present goods to depositorsCash card,passbookIn a broad sense, we want the fans of that character to become customers by drawing onAdsThe method is widely adopted (Mitsubishi UFJ BankDisney characters in,Yokohama BankInTom and jerrySuch). In addition, in recent years, targeting anime fans and others, product development using characters has also been mentioned (SaitamaKuki(OldWashinomiya Town)・Satte CityInLucky ☆ StarAppointedTown revitalization,AkitaUgo TownInNishimata AoiCharacters and other products).


Product development using characters is deeply penetrating in Japan, but there are also the following criticisms and problems.

  • Because the character is old, childish, or unsuitable for the times, it may be thrown away and turned into garbage regardless of the life of the product itself.[6]"Super squadron seriesAnd 'Precure seriesSuch asAnime for children-Special effectsSome of the toys, stationery, clothing, food products andMidnight animeLike stationery products, the supplier side (producer, copyright holder, maker (sponsor))cool(= 3 months) -It is noticeable in character products that change frequently in a short period of one year.In addition, inventories held by manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers may be forced to be sold at low prices in order to organize them.If unsold, if the price cannot be reduced, food, etc.Expiration dateIf a short product is unsoldGeneral waste,Industrial wasteCould be[7].

Market size/actual situation

Character product retail market scaleChanges (in Japan, XNUMX million yen)[8]

1995G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.png 17500

1996G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG05.png 16500

1997G100.pngG50.pngG30.pngG05.png 18500

1998G100.pngG50.pngG30.pngG10.pngG03.png 19300

1999R100.pngR100.pngR05.pngR01.pngR01.png 20700

2000G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 16800

2001G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG03.png 16300

2002G100.pngG50.pngG10.png 16000

2003G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG10.png 17000

2004G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png 16420

2005G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG01.png 16100

2006G100.pngG50.pngG10.png 16018

2007G100.pngG50.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 15936

2008G100.pngG50.pngG03.pngG01.png 15406

2009G100.pngG50.pngG05.pngG03.png 15770

2010G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG01.pngG01.png 16170

2011G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG01.png 16060

2012Y100.pngY50.pngY03.png 15340

2013G100.pngG50.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 15700

2014G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 16900

2015G100.pngG50.pngG10.pngG03.png 16300

2016G100.pngG50.pngG10.png 16000

According to the survey, the record high (estimated) retail market for Japanese characters since 1995 was 1999 trillion yen in 2, and the lowest in 700 was 2012 trillion yen.

BandaiAccording to a survey conducted by the Character Research Institute (now) in 2000, 60% of Japanese from the elementary school age to their 83.9s own some kind of character product.[9], The proportion of those who answered that they have favorite characters reaches 87.0%[10].

Legal handling

JapaneseCopyright lawAbove, for the characterCopyrightDo not admit[11]..A character is an abstract concept that can be called the personality of a character sublimated from concrete expressions such as manga, anime, and novels, not the concrete expressions themselves.Copyrighted materialIt is not decided.

In the case of a character appearing in a manga, the "picture" may be protected as a copyrighted work, but the character (its character) itself is not protected. Supreme Court sentenced to Popeye Tie[12]So, according to this position,PopeyeThe character is not a work independent of the serial comics in which Popeye appears (the copyright of the paintings of Popeye has disappeared because the protection period of the 1st published comics expired).

Mascot character

Mascot characters are often used as a means of raising awareness of groups, products, and events. It is also called a character for short. Detail isマ ス コ ッ トSee section.



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Character (Communication) # Character and characterSee.
  2. ^ Some rights holders do not allow licenses for services that are inappropriate for children and adolescents, such as pachinko gambling, and services that cannot be provided to adolescents.Fujiko ProManaged byFujiko F. FujioWorks etc.In addition, it should be notedCaptain TsubasaDid not allow the use of pachinko, etc. at the time of the development of the anime and the original, but allowed pachinko in the 2010s when the fan base at that time grew.


  1. ^ Hozumi Yasushi "Law and Practice of Content Commercialization" Gakuyo Shobo 2009
  2. ^ Makoto Miyashita (Author), Katsumi Hoshino (Supervised) "Character Business Unknown Strategy", Seishun Publishing Co., Ltd., 2001, pp. 64-65.ISBN 4413018273
  3. ^ Yuka Mizuno (2014-8). "Is Kumamon an advertisement ?: Examination of advertisements and human views from the perspective of the mascot phenomenon" ". "Nikkei Advertising Research Institute Bulletin" (216): 10-17. https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/40020178994/ NovemberBrowse. "Therefore, there is a recognition that the character itself becomes an" advertisement "due to its advertising effect. " 
  4. ^ Tsuyoshi Ito "To Tezuka Is Dead To Opened Manga Expression Theory" NTT Publishing, 2005, pp. 54-95-108.ISBN-978 4757141292.
  5. ^ Toshiaki Endou "The issue of the zero generation Web, suburbs, culture" Softbank Creative, 2011, 143 pages.ISBN-978 4797362145.
  6. ^ Other than toys, the waste rate of cloth products and stationery is particularly high.
  7. ^ "TamagotchiIs manufactured and soldBandai The1996 1st boom from1999 Abandoned 250 million manufacturer stock.Game industry .com Game maker failure example
  8. ^ According to character data bank research. Figures from 1995 to 2003 are "CharaBiz Data" 2004, Character Data Bank, 2004, p.7. Figures from 2001 to 2010 are "CharaBiz Data" 2011(10), Character Data Bank, 2011, p.37. The numbers from 2006 to 2013 are “Information Media White Paper 2015”, Dentsu Research Institute (ed.),Diamond Company, P. 114 (Original source is “CharaBiz Data” 2014(13)), 2014 figures areIn 2014, the market size was 7.6 billion yen, 1% higher than last year! "CharaBiz DATA 6,900(2015)" published at the end of May! Now on sale!! CharaBiz News, Character Data Bank, May 2015, 5. 13 numbers areCharacter market with sales of 1 billion yen Is Anpanman the second most popular? Posted in "CharaBiz DATA 6,300 ⑮".. 2016 numbersThe market size in 2016 was 1.8 trillion yen, down 1% from the previous year! "CharaBiz DATA 6,000(2017)" published at the end of May! Now On Sale! The definitive edition of the 16th Carabiz reference book this year
  9. ^ Bandai Character Research Institute Period Report Vol.1 "Modern People Seeking Healing Characters" Page 4
  10. ^ Bandai Character Research Institute Period Report Vol.1 "Modern People Seeking Healing Characters" Page 17
  11. ^ "Copyrighted Question Box”. Agency for Cultural Affairs. NovemberBrowse.
  12. ^ Supreme Court July 9, 7 Minshu 17, No. 51, page 6

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