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🎥 | Planning failure, criticism ... “Cursed project” “Dune Sand Planet” Relentless challenge to make a movie


Photo "Cursed Project" "Dune Sand Planet" Movie Making History (Photo is David Lynch's version "Dune / Sand Planet") Photo courtesy of AFLO

Planning failure, criticism ... "Cursed project" "Dune Sand Planet" endless challenge to make a movie

 
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The TV version has a small variable wing that can't be so decisive and doesn't flap.
 

Denis Villeneuve, a film adaptation of the feature-length novel "Dune Sand Planet" by American science fiction writer Frank Herbert ... → Continue reading

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Variable wings

Variable wingsWhat is (very well)?airplaneIn view of its wings in terms of aerodynamic propertiesWing plane shapeIs deformed during flight to the extent that it belongs to a different type[1]Wings with a mechanism, especiallyWingSay about[2]..Many change the receding angle, but some aim to change the aspect ratio by folding down the wing tip.A machine with variable wings is called a variable wing machine.In English, in addition to swing-wing, there is also the expression Variable Geometry wing, which literally translates to "variable shape wing," and is also called a VG wing or VG wing aircraft.Variable wing aircraft are low, from low speed to high speedAir resistanceAnd properLiftHowever, due to the complexity of the mechanism, the cost from design to manufacturing and maintenance is higher than the effect, so most of the models put into actual operation other than experimental aircraft are available.Military aircraftOnly.[3]

Overview

The receding angle of the main wing requires high lift during low-speed cruising and takeoff and landing.Span loadingIt is desirable that the blade width is low, and it is convenient that the wingspan is small in order to reduce air resistance at high speeds.If the receding angle and thus the wingspan can be changed during flight, low air resistance and adequate lift can be obtained in any speed range.In a normal aircraft, the receding angle of the main wing cannot be changed, so a special mechanism is required to realize the variable wing.

As a mechanism for variable wings, rails were installed inside the fuselage in the early days.Wing root The angle was changed by moving the wing back and forth, but later a pivot (rotation axis) was provided in the middle of the fuselage or main wing, and the main wing outside it was moved.However, the mechanism is heavy, complicated and expensive, and its weight adversely affects the performance of the aircraft.Also, the change in receding angleCenter of gravityAnd the aerodynamic center may move, so it is necessary to consider it.The method of moving the wing root back and forth in the early days was also aimed at suppressing the movement of the center of gravity and aerodynamic center due to changes in the receding angle, but with the establishment of a method to correct changes in maneuvering characteristics, which will be described later. The method of using the fuselage rail, which has a large weight increase and a complicated structure, has not been put into practical use, and the main wingroot A method using a pivot in the vicinity has become practical.Due to the increased weight and high price of the aircraft, no civilian aircraft has been put into practical use, and only military aircraft have been put into practical use.

development of

Specific research on variable wingsSecond World WarInNazi GermanyIs the beginning.Me P.1101Jet fighters were being researched, but the war ended before they were completed.However, Me P.1101 was able to change the receding angle only on the ground.Obtained this technical dataThe United States of America TheX-5Was developed. The X-5 can change its receding angle during flight, and even reached a flight test in 1951.

First of all, the movement to a practical machineUS Navy OfFighterMade in.Aircraft carrierThis is because it is necessary to achieve both stable low-speed flight performance and acceleration / high-speed performance in order to take off and land at the ship and make an interception.Variable-sweep fighter, GrummanXF10FMade its maiden flight in May 1952, but due to the complexity of the mechanism, it is overweight and has low maintainability.Jet engineIt was not put into practical use because it was powerless.In particular, the most difficult point was that the aircraft became extremely difficult to maneuver because the maneuvering characteristics changed due to changes in the receding angle.

The first practical machine is from the United StatesF-111Is.Control enhancement system (control enhancement system for the above-mentioned maneuverability problemCAS) Is added to establish a method for correcting the steering characteristics by computer control. The F-111 first flew in 1964 andUS Air ForceWas adopted by. F-111 is for the US NavyCarrier-based aircraftA mold was also developed, but again it was not adopted because of its overweight.

Soviet UnionButSu-7I set up a pivot in the middle of the main wing ofSu-17Was developed and made its maiden flight in 1969.especiallyTupolevHas designed a number of variable-sweep bombers.Then in AmericaB-1,Europe OfTornado IDS,Tornado ADV, SovietMiG 23,Su-24,Tu-160Etc. have been put into practical use.On a civilian aircraftBoeing 2707It was considered at the development stage ofDelta wingsIt became a plan, and it was not put into practical use either.

US NavyF-14The variable wings of a fighter are particularly good.Whereas early variable-sweep wing aircraft manually change the receding angle when cruising, the F-14 is automatically controlled by a computer.For this reason, not only at low speeds and during takeoff and landing, but also during turning, the swept angle of the main wing is reduced and the wingspan is widened, thereby obtaining high turning performance.

decline

However, the adoption of variable wings ended with a short epidemic in the late 1960s and 70s.They are for the following reasons.

  • Weight increase-The complex structure of the variable wing increases the weight of the aircraft, offsetting the performance improvement effect of the variable wing.
  • Cost increase-Similarly, the complicated structure of the variable wing has led to an increase in manufacturing, operation, and maintenance costs, and it was questioned whether the effect would be commensurate with the cost.
  • Changes in demands for aircraft-Variable wings are a mechanism for achieving both low-speed performance and high-speed performance, but since the 1970s, the pursuit of high-speed performance has ceased because the maximum speed of Mach 2 class has no practical meaning.
  • Engine development-The power of jet engines has become stronger, and it has become possible to obtain sufficient speed performance even with a main wing aircraft with a small receding angle.
  • CCV (Control Configured Vehicle) design――In order to improve the maneuverability by this method, the advantage has diminished relatively to the method such as F-14 that widens the main wing width and improves the turning performance.
  • Improvement of STOL (Short Distance Takeoff and Landing) Technology- Canard wings, LEX (Strake), The takeoff and landing performance was improved by a simpler method than the variable wing.
  • StealthAdverse effects on ――In order to obtain stealth by airframe design, it is necessary to optimally design the receding angle of the main wing, and it is difficult to pursue stealth with variable wings that change.

On the other hand, since the 1990sSupercruisePerformance has come to the forefront.The F-110 fighter with the engine replaced by the F400-GE-14 is a very short time,AfterburnerIt is possible to break through the speed of sound without it, so it has been said that variable wings may be advantageous as a method for achieving supercruise.HoweverF-22,YF-23Achieved supercruise with a powerful, high-speed engine, and in the end, variable wings were not looked after (due to the fact that both aircraft are also pursuing stealth, as mentioned above). Although the adoption of variable wings was considered for the F-22 carrier-based aircraft, it was not realized.

Diagonal wings

Variable wings that have swept angles on both wings have been put into practical use so far, but other forms of variable wings are also conceivable.

In order to simplify the structure, a wing with a variable wing (oblique wing) was also studied.The variable-sweep wing aircraft that has been put into practical use has two pivots in order to change the wing plane shape symmetrically.The oblique wing has a single pivot to simplify the mechanism and reduce weight.In this mechanism, when one is a swept wing, the other is a forward wing, and the shape is asymmetrical.US Aerospace AgencyUnmanned experimental aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, and 1979 manned experimental aircraft AD-1 Was created and 1982 experimental flights were carried out through 79.There are no examples of military or commercial aircraft (as of 2017). AD-1Burt RutanIn terms of design, it is one of the most unique aircraft in his design, which has many atypical aircraft.

Besides, it is said that it ended at the planning stage as an unmanned aerial vehicleNorthrop Grumman・ Switch blade (en: Northrop Grumman Switchblade).

Spaceplane

SpaceplaneThe speed and altitude of the vehicle change greatly depending on the situation.

Wings should be as small as possible as they are a source of harmful air resistance during launch and should be as large as possible to slow down when landing on the ground.

Variable wings are very effective in satisfying these conflicting conditions.

SovietSpiralAndEnergia II (Uragan) Reusable rocket boosters are an example, and Russian reusable rockets, which are currently under research, also have a structure that deploys wings when returning.

List of adopted aircraft

United States flag The United States of America

Soviet Union flag Soviet Union / Russian flag Russia

French flag France

British flag United Kingdom / German flag Germany / Italian flag Italy

note

  1. ^ It does not include the control surface, all floating blades, flaps, spoilers, etc. that are intended for minor deformation and temporary changes in characteristics.
  2. ^ As an example other than the main wingTu-144 (aircraft)There is a canard of, but there is not much mention of the aircraft (retractable canard) as a variable wing (aircraft).
  3. ^ As an exceptionBeechcraft StarshipThere is.

Related item

  • NIAI RK-I --Chang the wing area with a wing that expands and contracts between the wings.
  • Hillson Bimono --After takeoff, dump the upper wing and become a monoplaneBiplane.
  • Bonney Gull --The main wing was equipped with multiple movable parts to change not only the receding angle but also the angle of attack and dihedral angle.

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