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"A Quiet Place" Millicent Simmonds becomes Helen Keller!Mr. Sullivan is Rachel ...

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Millicent made a big break in "A Quiet Place" by playing his eldest daughter, Regan, who is deaf.

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Eldest daughter Regan

Deaf person

Obstacle > Disability > Deaf person

Deaf personWhat is (Zhang Jue)?HearingToObstacleA person who has (deafness).


Hearinghandicapped TheDisabilityAmong those who have hearing impairment (hearing impairment) that causes dullness in the auditory organs,Sensory organIt is a kind of disabled person.For the hearing impairedDeaf personIn addition to (deaf), mildDeafnessFrom severe hearing loss etc.Hearing lossLost hearing after growing upPost-lingual deafHearing deteriorates with agePresbycusisIs included.A healthy person and a person with a disability who does not have a hearing disability are generally called a hearing person or a hearing person.

The definition of deaf people among the hearing impaired is ambiguous.Generally, they have severe hearing impairment before learning the basics of spoken language.hearing aidA hearing-impaired person who lives mainly in sign language because it is difficult to identify or hear almost no sound even if he / she wears[2]..Deaf people are unique and different from hearing and hearing lossDeaf cultureMay form.When the kanji "deaf" is decomposed, it becomes "DragonIn Japan, because it becomes an "ear"SeahorseIs used as a symbol of the hearing impairedJapanese Federation of the DeafIt is used as a symbol mark of some hearing-impaired groups including[3][4][5].

Hearing impaired people are information impaired peopleCommunicationIt can be said that it is a kind of person[6]..This is because it can be said that it is an obstacle that causes difficulty in communication such as information acquisition and information transmission by hearing and voice.A hearing-impaired person is a kind of "invisible disability" in which it is generally difficult to judge a person with a disability from the appearance and it is difficult for a third party to determine the presence or absence and degree of the disability.

Depending on the degree of disabilityPhysical disability certificateEven for people with mild hearing disabilities who cannot obtain the certificate, the degree of difficulty in life is not always proportional.In some cases, even if a person feels inconvenienced in a different way from a severely hearing-impaired person, he / she cannot offer reasonable accommodation due to the lack of objective documents such as a notebook.It is estimated that there are about 600 million hearing-impaired people in Japan who are in the so-called valley of the welfare system.[7].


Causes of hearing impairmentCongenital rubella syndrome,HeredityCongenital by[8]And, there are acquired causes due to various causes.The latter is ill (Mumps,otitis externa,Otitis media,Otitis,Meniere's diseaseEtc.), of medicineSide effects(streptomycinIs typical), side effects of intravenous drip,Severe noise over a long period of timeDue to shock to the head, mental stressSudden deafness,Agingand so on.Functional hearing loss (psychopathic hearing loss)Is not included in hearing impairment,Mental disorderIt is divided into.In general, hearing-impaired people have no physical defects other than hearing,Multiple obstaclesSome have.For example, in the case of a severely hearing-impaired person (deaf person)Voice dysfunctionMay occur at the same time.Also, the cause of hearing impairment isinner earIn case of illnessBalance dysfunctionMay occur at the same time.


For the types of hearing impairment,ConductivenessSound sensitivityMixabilityThere is.Conductiveness is when there is a problem with the pathway that conveys sound to the inner ear, and conductive is when there is a problem with the neural circuits from the inner ear to the auditory nerves and brain in the back.MixabilityConductivenessSound sensitivityIt is a combination of the two.

In addition, symptoms appear in both ears at the same timeBilateral hearing lossSymptoms appear in only one earUnilateral hearing lossIt is divided into.If you have unilateral hearing loss and the opposite ear is normal hearing loss, or if the opposite ear is mild hearing loss (in this case, it is classified as bilateral), there is hearing loss under the current Japanese system, but the certificate of the physically disabled Will not be issued and will not be considered disabled.

As for the meaning of words, it can be said that hearing describes the sensor function and hearing describes the ability to hear.That is, if a particular auditory nerve is missing, no sound of that wavelength can be heard.Hearing, on the other hand, refers to cases where the ability to hear is impaired.If you are in a noisy environment and your hearing ability temporarily declinesHearing lossThat.

Treatment, coping

DoctorMainly based on the diagnosis ofSpeech therapistVarious tests, evaluations, trainings, and guidance are provided by.

Speaking training
If you are born or have hearing loss or hearing loss during the period of language function formation between the ages of 3 and 5, you may have speech impairment.However, in recent deaf schools, hearing aids with advanced performance have been used to provide sufficient speech training.For this reason, in the old daysDeaf(Roa) ・MutismIt was called (Ina), but recently there are often no obstacles in speech.DeafOften called (rosha).By the way, "deaf" and "hearing loss" are inaudible, and "mute" is inaudible.
hearing aid
If you have difficulty hearing due to aging, etc.hearing aidIs often worn.Unlike sound collectors and loudspeakers, hearing aids can increase the sound pressure at a specific frequency.However, there are cases where the auditory nerve that captures a specific frequency is deficient, and wearing a hearing aid does not necessarily mean that the hearing is equivalent to a healthy state.Cross-type hearing aids that send the sound from the microphone of the affected ear to the speaker of the healthy ear have also appeared.
Cochlear implant
If no sound is transmitted to the auditory nerve, an electrode is inserted into the inner ear to convert the audio signal captured by the hearing aid system into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted directly to the auditory nerve.Cochlear implantHas become widespread.Since the number of electrodes is limited and the residual auditory nerve also varies from individual to individual, signal correction is performed for each patient using an electronic circuit.Even after surgery for cochlear implants, a training period is required for language listening.Similar artificial hearing aids include artificial middle ear, auditory brainstem implants, and implantable bone conduction hearing aids.[9].
Grammar training
The terms "9-year-old wall" and "9-year-old pass" are used in hearing-impaired education, but this refers to a phenomenon in which the communication skills of severely hearing-impaired people are stagnant in the third and fourth grades of elementary school.[10]..Since abstract thinking and sentence complexity begin in the same grade, non-spoken language learners are likely to stumble.In hearing-impaired education, grammar training is conducted at an early stage to overcome it.
Newborn Hearing Screening (Newborn Hearing Test)
Early after birthObstetrics-PediatricsInObjective hearing testThe purpose is to detect congenital hearing loss at an early stage.screeningFor newborns who are judged to require re-examinationOtolaryngologyTake over and carry out a detailed inspection.
Prosthetic ear
Artificial pinna to be worn if the function of the pinna is lost for some reason (Craniofacial prosthesisA kind of)Prosthetic earThat is.Although it is an area of ​​plastic surgery, it is used to treat conductive hearing loss due to the absence of auricles.

Degree of hearing impairment

Classification by degree

Classification by pure tone hearing level

The degree of hearing impairment is medicallyDecibelClassify by (dB).What is a decibelSound pressure levelIt is a unit of, and the louder the sound, the higher the value.This shows how bad the hearing is (unless it is loud) for a healthy case.

DB classification of hearing impairment
dBHearing impairmentDegree of hearing
30Mild hearing loss 
40Ordinary conversation
50Moderate hearing loss
70Severe hearing lossLoudly
Severe hearing loss
Railroad running noise under guard
110Subway running noise
130Airplane engine sound

In Japan, a certificate of the physically disabled is issued when both ears are 70 dB or more, or the affected ear is 90 dB or more and the healthy ear is 50 dB or more. If it exceeds around 40 dB, it becomes a level that "feels a little inconvenient to talk".An estimated 29,7 people have obtained a certificate of the physically disabled due to hearing loss.[11]..It is said that there are about 40 million hearing-impaired people nationwide, including those with 70-600 dB who are not issued a certificate of the physically disabled.[7]..About 75% of them are with agePresbycusis.

who(WHO) recommends wearing hearing aids for mild hearing loss above 25 dB and moderate hearing loss for adults over 40 dB and children over 30 dB.[12][13][14]..In addition, deaf people who are eligible to participate in the Deaflympics are 55 dB or more.[15]..In Japan as well, it is advocated to relax to disability criteria equivalent to international standards.[16][Note 1].

Classification by speech discrimination ability

Degree of hearing impairmentSpeech intelligibilityIt can also be classified by.Single note in JapanClarityIf the correct answer rate is 50% or less in the test (speech discrimination test), a certificate of the physically disabled will be issued.Auditory processing disorderLike syllable intelligibilityIntelligibilityIf the single note intelligibility result is good even if the correct answer rate is low[17], As of 2019, it is not judged to be hearing impaired.When the speech intelligibility and intelligibility are low, it means that "it can be heard as a sound but not as a word".In such cases, the hearing aid effect is low, so it is necessary to understand the limitations of hearing aids before wearing them.[18].

Calculation formula for average hearing level

Calculate the average hearing level using the following formula[19]..In Japan, the 6-division method is used to identify occupational accidents, and the 4-division method is used to identify persons with physical disabilities.Outside of Japan, the quadrant method indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Program for the Prevention of Deafness and Hearing loss (PDH) is used.[20][21][22]..Both left and right are separated by frequencyMinimum audible valueTo find the average value by substituting.If it is not possible to measure even the maximum output of the audiometer, the value obtained by adding 5 dB to the maximum output value as a scale-out is regarded as the minimum audible value and calculated.However, if 100 dB of sound cannot be heard, it is calculated as 105 dB regardless of the actual maximum output value of the audiometer.

3 minutes method
Average hearing level
Quadrant (Japan)
Average hearing level
6 minutes method
Average hearing level
Quadrant (PDH)[Note 2]
Average hearing level

Communication means and information security

Sign language / finger letters

Mainly for Deaf and post-lingual deafsign languageCommunicate in a non-speech language using gestures.Like vocal language, sign language differs from region to region due to cultural and historical backgrounds and is not universal.[23]..In Japan, there are many speakers, mainly Deaf people.Japanese sign languageAnd there are many speakers among post-lingual deaf peopleSign language corresponding to JapaneseTwo are used.

Sign language was perceived as a mere means of communication, but in research in linguistic brain science, it is similar to vocal language.Left brainIt has come to be regarded as an advanced language as well as spoken language, such as being understood in[24]..Besides sign languageFingerspellingIs often used as a means of communication[25].

Information securityAs one ofSign language interpreterBut there isVideophoneWith the spread of sign language, sign language and finger letters have become one of the options for long-distance communication, and sign language interpretation via videophone has become possible.[26]..In addition, an application for smartphones that converts Japanese sign language into secretary Japanese has been put into practical use.[27]..People with mild to severe hearing loss who can talk by wearing hearing aids, or post-lingual deaf people who have lost their hearing after learning a vocal language even if they have severe hearing loss, have learned sign language and finger letters. Often not.

Some sign languages ​​use a mouth type (mouse gesture), which is a non-finger element, and it may be difficult to read when the speaker's mouth and lower half of the face are hidden. Need to consider expression selection and context without using[28].

Written / blank

Hearing impaired people often carry writing utensils, and for those who do not understand sign language, etc., to ensure accuracyWritingMay be done.If there is no writing tool, a blank book is used to indicate the letters with the index finger toward the space.[25].Information securityIn addition to the written conversation that conveys the whole sentence as it isSummary writingIs done.For telecommunicationsletter,telegramIncludingtelex,facsimileEtc. were used,PC communication,インターネットな どInformation and communication technologyAfter the spread of電子 メ ー ル,Short message service,Text chat,Instant messenger,Social networking servicesEtc. have come to be used frequently.NTT DoCoMoFrom 2017voice recognitionUsing technology,SmartphoneWe provide a visible telephone and a visible answering machine service.[29]..Also, a face-to-face conversation assistance application that also uses artificial intelligence, speech recognition, and synthetic speech technology.[30]And an automatic subtitle system that displays on an acrylic board[31]Has been developed.Mainly in JapanJapaneseIs used, but especially to distinguish it from sign languageSecretary JapaneseIt may be called.


For people with mild to severe hearing loss, hearing aids can be used to speak spoken language (oralism).[Note 3].. HoweverCocktail party effectThose who do not workSound directionIs dull,Hearing replenishment phenomenonSince there are people who receive more stimulation than necessary, it is necessary to take care not to talk with multiple people at the same time.In the case of a telephone, it may be possible to respond by using the magnetic induction coil (telecoil) function of the hearing aid, or by using a bone conduction handset / telephone with a volume control function.Broadcasting equipment that uses the magnetic induction coil function depending on the conference / event facility (Magnetic induction loop) And infrared hearing aid system,FM hearing aid systemHearing aid systems such as[32]..In Japan, Japanese is mainly used, but especially to distinguish it from sign language.Voice JapaneseIt may be called.


As a means of communication using the shape of the mouth and lipsLip readingThere is a reading story that is a kind of[25]..Some hearing-impaired people also use reading to assist oralism, and it may be difficult to hear if the other person's mouth is hidden by a mask or the like.

Subtitled broadcasting

In providing information to the hearing impaired, it is efficient to provide visual information.In japanTeletextWith TV subtitles broadcast byData broadcasting,voice recognitionUtilized technologyReal-time subtitle broadcastingSubtitles and teletext are being broadcast by.In AmericaClosed captionsSubtitle broadcasting is performed by technology.


Hearing impaired people may not hear the chime or buzzer at a distance.When calling, it is necessary to make a sound with the hand receiver or notify by alternative means such as light or vibration.As conversation aids for the hearing impaired, writing boards, whiteboards, and pointing conversation cards that use magnetic or pressure-sensitive liquid crystal panels are used.

Request for assistance

Hearing impairedHelp markOr, when presenting an "ear mark", you may be asking for help by:

What's happening now
For example, when a railroad or a bus stops in an emergency, guidance is broadcast on the premises or in the car, but visual guidance tends to be postponed.At this time, information security may be requested from surrounding third parties.If this is presented, it is expected that the content of the guidance broadcast will be communicated by writing.
Can you call me on my behalf
For the hearing impaired, telephone conversations may be difficult or impossible at all.When faced with a situation where you have to make a call, you may be asked to call a third party on your behalf.When presented, it is expected to stand and communicate between the hearing impaired and the other party.NTT EastNTT WestThen,Telephone request notebookWe are distributing a simple conversation card as[33].
Please talk in writing
People with hearing disabilities may not be able to speak depending on the degree of disability and the surrounding environment.If you are presented with this, you are expected to respond in writing.
Show your mouth and talk
Some hearing impaired people use reading as an aid to oralism, which is read by looking at the movement of the lips.If this is presented, it is expected that the person with hearing disabilities will have a conversation by showing their mouth, such as by removing the mask.
Please tell me when calling
Hearing impaired people may not be aware of the call by voice and may be postponed as absent.If this is presented, consideration such as contacting and calling at the time of calling is expected.

Healthcare and support

For pediatric hearing impaired people, a comprehensive approach that includes not only hearing but also language and development is taken.In particular,DoctorBased on the diagnosis of, various hearing tests necessary for hearing determination, hearing aid fitting, auditory ergative language instruction, evaluation of language developmentSpeech therapistMade by.In addition, there is a need for parental mental support from hearing tests and screening tests for newborns and early infants to definitive diagnoses.Even in adults, speech therapists mainly perform various hearing tests, hearing aid compatibility tests, cochlear implant mapping, and various trainings and rehabilitation.

Disability Rights Convention

In 2006 at the United NationsDisability Rights ConventionWas adopted and came into effect in 2008[34]..The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities sets sign language as a language at the same level as spoken language, and many countries also position sign language as a language in the legal system.[34].


The United States of America

As a new law in the United States in 1990Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA; Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990) was enacted[2]..Since American society is originally a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-cultural society, there is a growing recognition that hearing impairment is not a disability but a different ability.[2].


The Employment Law for Persons with Severe Disabilities was enacted in 1920, and was completely amended in April 1974 to the Law Concerning the Guarantee of Employment, Occupation, and Social Integration of Persons with Severe Disabilities (Severely Disabled Persons Law).The policy of measures for persons with disabilities at that time was to compensate for the disadvantages caused by disabilities, but since the 4s, prohibition of discrimination against persons with disabilities and equal opportunity,Barrier-freeIt turned to promotion[35]. In 1994Federal Law of the Federal Republic of GermanyThe 42nd revision of the (Constitution) has added regulations prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities.Along with this, the 9th edition of the Social Code, which integrates the Law for Persons with Severe Disabilities and the law related to rehabilitation benefits, was enacted.The 9th edition of the Social Code has regulations for certificates of persons with severe disabilities.This is used as a certificate showing health characteristics, not limited to hearing impairment, and is necessary to receive public support.[36].


The Basic Law for Persons with Disabilities was enacted in 1975 and is in operation with government ordinances and notifications.In France, cards are issued to prove that you have a permanent disability, not just hearing disabilities.This card will be reviewed and issued by the prefecture's Special Education Committee or the Vocational Guidance and Relocation Special Committee.[36].


Basic Law for Persons with Disabilities

2011May 7, Amendment that defines sign language as "language"Basic Law for Persons with DisabilitiesThe idea isHouse of CouncilorsUnanimously passed and passed at the plenary session,May 8Was promulgated in.This amendment stipulates the linguistic nature of sign language for the first time in Japan.[37]..After this,2013 For the first time in Japan (25)TottoriEnacted the Sign Language Language Ordinance, which clearly states that sign language is a language[38][39][40][41]did.2014 In (26), the basic ordinance on sign language was enforced in Shintoku-cho, Kamikawa-gun, Hokkaido.[42]There are also movements in local governments.In addition, he was the first hearing-impaired person to be elected as a member of the Akashi City Council.2015 (27) I asked a general question in sign language on June 6nd.[43].

Welfare Act for the Disabled

in JapanWelfare Act for the DisabledThe grade of the physically handicapped is determined by.Depending on the degree of hearing impairment, the following gradesPhysical disability certificateWill be issued.

The following is based on the "Disability Grade Table for the Physically Handicapped" in "Appendix No. 5 of the Enforcement Regulations of the Welfare Law for the Physically Handicapped".

Disability grade table for the physically handicapped
By classDegree of disability
1 classNot applicable
2 classHearing level of both ears is 100 dB or more (whole ears)
3 classHearing level of both ears is 90 dB or more (those who cannot understand loud words without touching the pinna)
4 classHearing level of both ears is 80 dB or more (speaking voice cannot be understood without contacting the pinna)
The best sound of putonghua with both earsClarityIs less than 50%
5 classNot applicable
6 classHearing level of both ears is 70 dB or more (cannot understand spoken words spoken at a distance of 40 cm or more)
Hearing level of one ear is 90 dB or more, hearing level of the other ear is 50 dB or more
7 classNot applicable

If there are two overlapping obstacles for the same grade, it will be one grade higher.However, if two overlapping obstacles are specified in this table, they will be classified as applicable.If there are two or more overlapping disabilities for different grades, the disability may be taken into consideration and the grade may be higher than that grade. There is no description in the 2th and 1th grade columns.

In addition, hearing loss on only one side (unilateral hearing loss) is out of grade, so even if there is a disability, it is not considered to be a disabled person in the system.

Employment Promotion Act for Persons with Disabilities

Employment Promotion Act for Persons with DisabilitiesThe hearing-impaired persons in the above are persons with permanent disabilities of the degree listed in Appendix 2 of the Act on Promotion of Employment of Persons with Disabilities as follows.Since the degree of disability listed in the table corresponds to the 4th or 6th grade of the disability certificate, the employer should check with the disability certificate.However, according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, for the time being, a doctor designated by the prefectural governor (a doctor designated by Article 15 of the Welfare Law for the Physically Handicapped) orIndustrial physicianCan be replaced with a medical certificate by[44][45]It is supposed to be.

Appendix 2 of the Act on Promotion of Employment of Persons with Disabilities
No.Degree of disability
LeeHearing level of both ears is 70 dB or more
RussiaHearing level of one ear is 90 dB or more, hearing level of the other ear is 50 dB or more
HaThe best sound of putonghua with both earsClarityIs less than 50%

Disability Comprehensive Support Act

Hearing impairedDisability Comprehensive Support Act(Former Independence Support Law for Persons with Disabilities) allows you to receive independence support benefits and community life support projects.Benefits and businesses that are particularly closely related to the hearing impaired include behavioral support and independence training.Work transition support,Work continuation support, Community life support, independence support medical expenses (nurturing medical care / rehabilitation medical care), assistive device expenses (hearing aids)[Note 4], Sign language interpreter dispatch, etc.All of them are premised on possession of a certificate of the physically disabled, but there are prefectures that provide hearing aid purchase cost subsidies for children under the age of 18 who cannot get a certificate as an independent project of the local government.

School education law

Educational institution

Until 2006,Deaf schoolTargeted hearing impairmentSpecial education schoolsWas functioning as, but in 2007Special schoolWith the start of the system, "special needs schools with hearing impairment as an educational area" became an educational institution for the hearing impaired.In the past, it was necessary to obtain a license for a deaf school teacher (specialized, type 1, type 2) (essentially, if you have a general elementary, middle, and high school license, you can teach. However, due to the start of the special needs school teacher's license system, the license was changed to the "education area for the hearing impaired", and the license holders of the former deaf school It can be read as having a "special needs school teacher's license for hearing impaired education" (the point that it is a watering rule has not changed, but it is recommended to be awarded after official recruitment. ).

Education for the hearing impairedDeaf educationAlso called,School education lawThe top is "" and conceptually "(for infants, children or students with physical and mental disabilities)"CurriculumAnd "is included (in this case," mind and body "means" hearing ").

Hearing impaired education and teaching profession

Obtain a license to make hearing impaired an educational areaTeaching courseThe universities that established the school are "educational areas for people with intellectual disabilities," "educational areas for physically handicapped people," and "educational areas for sick people (including physically weak people)," which are equivalent to the old school license for the disabled. The absolute number is smaller than that of schools with courses in the three educational areas (however,Impaired visionCan obtain a license for educationTeaching courseThe number is relatively large compared to the universities that have established),University correspondenceHowever, there is only one school in Japan that has a license course that defines the "education area for the hearing impaired" (at that school, it is naturally possible to obtain three areas equivalent to the former school for the disabled. The curriculum is based on the acquisition of either 1 areas equivalent to (former) schools for the disabled or 3 areas including hearing impairment. By the way, a course has been set up that defines "educational areas for the visually impaired". There are no correspondence universities).

School Health and Safety Act

School Health and Safety ActBased on the above, children / students / students and faculty / staff will carry out a health examination once a year.Hearing is included in the test items, but it is stipulated that it can be omitted in some grades.

Intractable disease law

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIntractable disease overcoming research projectCauses hearing impairment in the subjectSudden deafnessWhen,Meniere's disease,Mitochondrial diseaseHowever, except for mitochondrial disease, which was additionally designated in 2009, it was not the target of the specific disease treatment research project, and there was no public subsidy for personal medical expenses. Mitochondrial disease since 2015Intractable disease lawIn 2017, an age requirement was added to idiopathic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and delayed endolymphedema was designated as a target disease for intractable disease medical expenses.For sudden deafness and Meniere's disease that are not included in the designated intractable diseases, the local government aloneSpecific disease treatment research businessThere are also places that subsidize medical expenses[Note 5].

National Pension Law / Employees' Pension Insurance Law

A hearing-impaired person with a certain degree of disability can receive a disability basic pension, a disability welfare pension, and a disability allowance.The degree of disability is based on the National Pension Law Enforcement Ordinance Appendix, the Employees' Pension Insurance Law Enforcement Ordinance Appendix 1 and 2, and the Disability Certification Criteria Chapter 2 Merger Certification Criteria.For more information"Disability pensionSee.

ClassissueDegree of disabilityBasis ordinance
1 class1 No.Hearing level of both ears is 100 dB or moreNational pension
2 class3 No.Hearing level of both ears is 90 dB or moreNational pension
Hearing level of both ears is 80 dB or more, and best speech intelligibility is 30% or lessNational pension
3 class5 No.Hearing level of both ears is 80 dB or moreFirst age
Hearing level of both ears is 50 dB or more and less than 80 dB, and the best speech intelligibility is 30% or less.First age
7 No.Hearing level of both ears is 70 dB or moreFirst age
Hearing level of both ears is 50 dB or more, and best speech intelligibility is 50% or lessFirst age
3rd grade or
Disability allowance
9 No.Hearing level of one ear is 90 dB or moreFirst age
10 No.Hearing level of one ear is 80 dB or moreFirst age

Workers' Accident Compensation Law / Occupational Safety and Health Law

Industrial accidentIf you suffer from hearing loss due toWorkers Compensation Insurance ActBycompensationMay be made.National Civil Service Disaster Compensation Actas well as the Local government employee disaster compensation lawStipulate inPublic affairs disasterThe same applies to the case of.EmployerIndustrial Safety and Health ActBased onnoiseRegularly at the time of hiring and reassignment of workers engaged in work and once every 6 monthsMedical checkupSometimes a hearing test is done.In addition, employers are obliged to provide occupational health education to workers who are constantly engaged in noise work.[46]..Hearing tests will be conducted on workers who are not engaged in noise work at the time of hiring and at the time of regular health checkups once a year.

Workers' Accident Compensation Insurance Law Enforcement Regulations Appendix XNUMX Disability Grade Table
Disability gradeDegree of disabilityInterpretation
4 classHearing loss in both earsBoth ears are 90 dB or more
Binaural ears of 80 dB or more and best speech intelligibility of 30% or less
6 classHearing in both ears is such that it cannot be heard loudly unless it touches the ears.Both ears are 80 dB or more
Binaural ears of 50 dB or more and best speech intelligibility of 30% or less
Hearing in one ear is completely lost, and hearing in the other ear is such that normal speech cannot be understood at a distance of 40 cm or more.One ear is 90 dB or more and the other ear is 70 dB or more
7 classHearing in both ears is such that normal speech cannot be understood at a distance of 40 cm or more.Both ears are 70 dB or more
Binaural ears of 50 dB or more and best speech intelligibility of 50% or less
Hearing in one ear is completely lost, and hearing in the other ear is such that normal speech cannot be understood at a distance of 1 meter or more.One ear is 90 dB or more and the other ear is 60 dB or more
9 classHearing in both ears is such that normal speech cannot be understood at a distance of 1 meter or more.
Both ears are 60 dB or more
Binaural ears of 50 dB or more and best speech intelligibility of 70% or less
Hearing in one ear is such that it cannot be heard loudly unless it touches the ear, and it is difficult to hear normal speech at a distance of 1 meter or more in the other ear.One ear is 80 dB or more and the other ear is 50 dB or more
Those who have lost hearing in one earOne ear is 90 dB or more
10 classIt is difficult to understand normal speech when the hearing of both ears is 1 meter or more, and it has become to some extent.Both ears are 50 dB or more
Binaural ears of 40 dB or more and best speech intelligibility of 70% or less
Hearing in one ear is such that it cannot be heard loudly unless it touches the ear.One ear is 80 dB or more
11 classHearing in both ears that cannot be heard at a distance of 1 meter or moreBoth ears are 40 dB or more
Hearing of one ear is such that it cannot understand normal speech at a distance of 40 cm or more.One ear is 70 dB or more
One ear is 50 dB or more, and the best speech intelligibility is 50% or less.
14 classHearing of one ear is such that it is impossible to understand a low voice at a distance of 1 meter or more.One ear is 40 dB or more

Assistance Dog Act for the Disabled

Assisting the hearing impairedHearing dogIt is,Assistance Dog Act for the DisabledIs applied.For more information"Hearing dogSee.

Road Traffic Law

Driver's license system

in JapanDriver's licenseOf the tests, it does not meet the passing criteria of the aptitude testThose who cannot hear the sound of a 10 dB alarm from a distance of 90 meters without wearing a hearing aid, etc.Is a hearing-impaired person under the Road Traffic Act, before 1973Reason for disqualificationThe driver's license for the hearing impaired was not recognized as a person who falls under. Since 1973A person who wears a hearing aid and can hear a 10 dB sound from a distance of 90 meters.A first-class driver's license has come to be issued on the condition that a hearing aid is worn. Since 2008, in the case of a severely hearing impaired person who cannot meet the above conditions, a vehicle equipped with a specific rearview mirror (wide mirror and auxiliary mirror)Hearing impaired signRegular car and semi-medium-sized car licenses have come to be issued with the condition of displaying.If you should display a hearing-impaired sign,Handicapped person sign,International symbol of access,Old driver signIt is not allowed to substitute with.Also, even if the hearing-impaired person's sign is displayedNovice driver signCannot be omitted.On the contrary, there are no penalties for displaying a hearing-impaired person's sign by a hearing-impaired person who is not subject to conditions such as a specific rearview mirror.If a hearing-impaired person who has a license with conditions for using hearing aids adds conditions such as a specific rearview mirror, the conditions for each prefectureDriver's license examination siteIt is necessary to take a condition change examination (temporary aptitude test) and complete safety education at[47].. In 2012, hearing requirements were abolished from the acceptance criteria for each license category for motorized bicycles, small special vehicles, ordinary motorcycles, and large motorcycles, and conditions such as hearing aids and specific rearview mirrors are no longer required for the license categories. became. In 2016, deregulation progressed further, and a second-class driver's license was issued with hearing aid conditions.

Hearing impaired and cane

Article 14, Paragraph 2 states, "Persons other than those who are blind (DeafAnd persons with physical disabilities to the extent specified by Cabinet Order are excluded. ) Must not carry a dog specified by a Cabinet Order or carry a dog with the equipment specified by a Cabinet Order on the road. It is stipulated.

Road Traffic Law Enforcement Order

According to the Road Traffic Act, canes carried by deaf people are white or yellow, and there are no regulations regarding their shape or material.

Article XNUMX Law Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX andBinomialThe stipulations of the Cabinet Order areWhite or yellowIt is a stick.
2 (Omitted)
3 (Omitted)
4 Physical disabilities to the extent specified by a Cabinet Order under Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the ActThere are some significant obstacles to road trafficPhysically handicapped, visually impaired,Hearing impairmentas well as the Balance dysfunctionAnd
(5) The equipment specified by a Cabinet Order under Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the Act shall be the equipment specified in paragraph XNUMX or equipment similar in shape and color.


Hearing impairment is sometimes described as "difficult to hear."Also, in ancient Japanese texts, it was sometimes called "ear firmness".

Term "Tsubo"

In Japan, in the mid-1970s, many criticisms of discriminatory expressions began to be received, and the term "tsunbo" was used as a personal name (""Deaf Nagatsuna, Etc.) and place names ("Tsubo stone”, Etc.) except for somediscriminative termBecame replaced by "deaf person"[48]..Also, as an idiom that includes this phrase, "Tsubo pierHowever, in past works that include them, various measures have been taken, such as erasing the relevant part and publishing it, or refraining from publishing itself.[49].

Famous words

  • Blindness cuts you off from things; deafness cuts you off from people.(The blindness separates people from things. The deafness separates people from people.)Immanuel KantThe words of (German philosopher) (in 1910)Helen KellerThe English translation of her has become widespread as her words. ).
  • Deaf people can do anything except hear.(Deaf people can do anything other than listen.)King jordan

Hearing impaired people in each country


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ noise(Pollution)ofEnvironmental standards..Residential area at night is 45 dB or less.Residential areas along the Shinkansen are 70 dB or less.However, the environmental standard for noise is, to be exact, determined by the A characteristic, and the sound pressure level representing hearing is in the unit of dBHL.
  2. ^ The Hearing Loss Countermeasures Committee of the Japanese Society of Auditory Medicine reported in 2014 recommending this law.However, it does not deny the calculation by other methods. "About the classification of hearing loss (hearing loss)" (2014) p.6
  3. ^ Hearing aids may be worn even if the hearing loss is so severe that it is impossible to speak.The hearing aid in this case is worn for the purpose of avoiding danger such as listening to the horn or assisting in reading, which will be described later.In the case of unilateral hearing loss, hearing aids may not be needed because it can be said that only the healthy ear is a normal hearing person.
  4. ^ Before the enforcement of the law in 2006, it was called the Welfare Law for the Physically Handicapped.Child Welfare ActIt was paid based on.
  5. ^ As of 2018 month,Hokkaido,Toyama,Shizuoka,Hyogo,Kagawa,Nagoya cityA prefecture-city independent project for sudden hearing loss is being implemented.In addition, Meniere's disease is being implemented independently in Kagawa Prefecture.


  1. ^ About marks about persons with disabilitiesCabinet Office
  2. ^ a b c Nobuyuki Honna et al. 2012, p. 86.
  3. ^ "Mark commentary of the Japanese Federation of the Deaf". NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ "Hyogo Prefecture Hearing Impaired Persons Association". NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ "About the mark of the Arakawa City Hearing Impaired Persons Association". NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ Hidehiro Shin "A Study on Information Security and Support for Persons with Information Disabilities (PDF) "Shitennoji University Graduate School Research Review" No. 8, Shitennoji University, 2013, pp. 5-22, ISSN 18836364, NOT 110009752651,NovemberBrowse.
  7. ^ a b Kazuhiko Seya "Current status and issues of hearing-impaired and post-lingual deaf people resulting from the definition of disability"Normalization Welfare for Persons with Disabilities," Vol. 27, No. 313, Information Center, Japan Rehabilitation Association for Persons with Disabilities, August 2007,NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ "Intractable Disease Research Group Information (Research Encouragement Field) Perinatal Hearing Loss (Congenital Hearing Loss) (22)”. Intractable Disease Information Center. NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ Kozo Kumakawa "Advances in Artificial Auditory Equipment-Auditory brainstem implant (ABI)"Japan Otolaryngology Society Bulletin" Vol. 118, No. 6, Japan Otolaryngology Society, 2015, pp. 809-815, two:10.3950 / jibinkoka.118.809,NovemberBrowse.
  10. ^ Katsuya Nozawa "Deaf communication problems"Rehabilitation Research" No. 50, Japan Rehabilitation Association for Persons with Disabilities, November 1985,NovemberBrowse.
  11. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Social and Assistance Bureau, Disability Health and Welfare Department (2018-04-09). 28 Survey on Difficulty in Living (National Survey of Children with Disabilities, Persons with Disabilities, etc.): List of Results (Report). P. 10. https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/list/dl/seikatsu_chousa_c_h28.pdf NovemberBrowse.. 
  12. ^ "MULTI-COUNTRY ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL CAPACITY TO PROVIDE HEARING CARE (PDF)”. World Health Organization. P. 11 (2013). NovemberBrowse.
  13. ^ "Deafness and hearing loss”. World Health Organization (March 2018, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  14. ^ Richard JH Smith; A Eliot Shearer; Michael S Hildebrand (July 2017, 7). “Hereditary Hearing Loss and Deafness Overview". National Center for Biotechnology Information. NovemberBrowse.
  15. ^ "AUDIOGRAM REGULATIONS”. International Committee of Sport for the Deaf. P. 3 (March 2018, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  16. ^ All Japan Hearing Loss and Post-Lingual Deaf Association (September 2014, 9). “Opinion on how to certify hearing impairment (PDF)". Study Group on Hearing Loss Certification Method (2nd)Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. P. 1. NovemberBrowse.
  17. ^ Tokutaka Hatta, Shinya Fukunaga, Tomio Ota "Characteristics of auditory information processing in 2 adult cases complaining of hearing difficulty"Journal of Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare," Vol. 27, No. 2, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 2018, pp. 449-455, two:10.15112/00014453, ISSN 0917-4605 , NOT 120006479314,NovemberBrowse.
  18. ^ Eiko Hirota, Kazuoki Kodera, Taga Kudo "Use of speech intelligibility testing for hearing aid compatibility"AUDIOLOGY JAPAN" Vol. 31, No. 6, Japan Audiology Society, 1988, pp. 755-762, two:10.4295 / audiology.31.755, ISSN 0303-8106 , NOT 130003861378,NovemberBrowse.
  19. ^ "About classification of hearing loss (hearing loss) (PDF)”. Japanese Society of Auditory Medicine (2014). NovemberBrowse.
  20. ^ Michael Stewart (2002). “Hearing Loss and Hearing Handicap in Users of Recreational Firearms”. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology (American Academy of Audiology) 13: 160-168. ISSN 1050-0545 . https://audiology.org/sites/default/files/journal/JAAA_13_03_05.pdf NovemberBrowse.. 
  21. ^ Colin Mathers; Andrew Smith; Marisol Concha. “Global burden of hearing loss in the year 2000”. World Health Organization. NovemberBrowse.
  22. ^ John R. Franks. “HEARING MEASUREMENT”. World Health Organization. NovemberBrowse.
  23. ^ Hiroto Oki "Application of Information Technology to Sign Language Services for the Hearing Impaired-Tech for the Deaf-"Information Management," Vol. 57, No. 4, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2014, pp. 234-242, two:10.1241 / johokanri.57.234, ISSN 0021-7298 , NOT 130004053777,NovemberBrowse.
  24. ^ Nobuyuki Honna et al. 2012, p. 87.
  25. ^ a b c Nobuyuki Honna et al. 2012, p. 90.
  26. ^ ""Guidelines for sign language interpretation services using videophones" -To deepen understanding”. Japanese Federation of the Deaf (December 2017, 12). NovemberBrowse.
  27. ^ Katsuhiko Oizumi (March 2021, 3). “"SureTalk" that allows mutual dialogue between sign language and voice, University of Electro-Communications and Softbank”. Impress. NovemberBrowse.
  28. ^ Natsuko Shimotani (January 2021, 1). “Column: Mask and sign language”. Kwansei Gakuin University Sign Language Research Center. NovemberBrowse.
  29. ^ "Visible phone”. NTT DoCoMo (September 2017, 4). NovemberBrowse.
  30. ^ ""Normalization Welfare for the Disabled" February 2018 Issue "Koetora", a support app for the hearing impaired”. Feet Co., Ltd. (February 2018). NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ Daiki Yoshikawa (August 2021, 10). “The spoken words are displayed on the acrylic board, making it easy for Kyocera to talk through the real-time subtitle system panel.”. ITmedia. NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ Ginichiro Ichikawa "Social medical problems related to hearing "hearing impairment and barrier-free""Audiology Japan," Vol. 55, No. 6, Japan Audiology Society, October 2012, 10, pp. 13-635, two:10.4295 / audiology.55.635,NovemberBrowse.
  33. ^ "Telephone request notebook”. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation. NovemberBrowse.
  34. ^ a b Nobuyuki Honna et al. 2012, p. 93.
  35. ^ Maiko Yamamoto "Germany's Equality Law for Persons with Disabilities"Foreign Legislation," No. 238, National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau, December 2008, pp. 12-73,NovemberBrowse.
  36. ^ a b Hiroshi Takahashi et al. (March 2000, 3). “Survey on notebook systems in other countries”. Japan Rehabilitation Association for Persons with Disabilities. NovemberBrowse.
  37. ^ Sign language linguistic legal provisions!Amendment to the Basic Law for Persons with Disabilities enacted on July 7, promulgated on August 29(2011.8 Japanese Federation of the Deaf)
  38. ^ "Tottori Sign Language Language Ordinance”. Tottori Prefecture. NovemberBrowse.
  39. ^ "Reason for new regulation”. Tottori Prefecture. NovemberBrowse.
  40. ^ "Communication in Sign Language-Enactment of Tottori Prefecture Sign Language Language Ordinance-". Tottori Video Channel.
  41. ^ "The nation's first sign language language ordinance is enacted in Tottori Prefecture!”. Japanese Federation of the Deaf. NovemberBrowse.
  42. ^ "Basic regulations on sign language”. Shintoku Town Hall. NovemberBrowse.
  43. ^ "I want to convey the voices of persons with disabilities Mr. Ieneya of the Akashi City Council Mrs. Saito of the Kita Ward Council of Tokyo and others' first general question"Sankei Shimbun. (July 2015, 6). http://www.sankei.com/west/news/150617/wst1506170094-n1.html 
  44. ^ "Enforcement of the Revised Employment Promotion Law for Persons with Disabilities (October 51, 10, Job Issue No. 1, Notification to the Governor of each prefecture, Director of Employment Security Bureau, Ministry of Labor)”. Ministry of Labor (October 1976, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  45. ^ "Privacy-friendly guidelines for understanding and confirming persons with disabilities (PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. P. 6 (November 2005, 11). NovemberBrowse.
  46. ^ "Formulation of guidelines for noise hazard prevention (Basic No. 546)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 1992, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  47. ^ "About the implementation procedure of temporary aptitude test and safety education for those who have a driver's license for hearing aid conditions (PDF)”. National Police Agency Transportation Bureau (August 2016, 8). NovemberBrowse.
  48. ^ Discrimination against persons with disabilities and the media
  49. ^ The song "Shopping boogie","I haven’t talked about life yet","Faker Holic, Rakugo "XNUMX squares","The secret of cleaning up"Such


  • Nobuyuki Honna et al., "How Companies and Universities Nurture Global Human Resources," 2012.

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