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What is a "beautiful man" in Japanese art history and visual culture?Saitama Prefectural Museum of Modern Art Saitama "Beautiful Man" Exhibition Review
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However, I would like the author, who is experiencing the period of high economic growth in which shojo manga is booming, to take up the historical question of gender transcendence in shojo manga a little more ...
The complete nude sculpture started with a male figure, and the author once published a small column series "The Beautiful Boys Retsuden" in the magazine "BRUTUS" (... → Continue reading
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Girl cartoon(Shojo manga) isGirlFormagazineAs a main reader, youth (Minor）FemaleAssumedJapanese cartoon.AdultWomen's comicsWoman cartoonAlthough it is distinguished as (ladies comics), shojo manga isadultIt is a genre that is widely read by women.
Historically, it has also occurred overseas, and there will be works for girls as part of comics for overseas women.However, it disappeared halfway as a publishing field for girls (1970 eraFrance) As a genre20st centuryHas made great progress inJapanIn.
Many of the designs give the impression of being cute, beautiful, and clean.ContemporaneousBoy cartoonCompared to, the depiction of the human body has less ridges of bones and muscles, emphasizing the depiction of the eyes and their light (of the eyes).虹彩"Glittering eyes"), the emphasis is on the depiction of facial expressions.In addition, it should be noted.1980 eraAppeared afterAnimeOf wind"Moe picture"Is developed for adult men based on the pattern peculiar to shojo manga.
As for the content, cherish the atmosphere of the work world and avoid drawing realistically what is poisonous to the eyes.monologueIt is excellent in the production and screen technique that emphasizes the flow of emotions by making full use of the use of the.. To express three-dimensionality and movementpoint of viewThere are relatively few paintings that change frequently, and the depiction is kept to the minimum necessary.Also, compared to shōnen manga, there are many psychological depictions, many works dealing with real problems, and heavy treatment of violence and death (the purpose of shojo manga is共 感It is also called derived from).
Girl cartoonYouth cartoonIt has been greatly influenced by the movie method and also includes expression methods that are not based on the traditional shojo manga system. On the contrary, many unique symbolic expressions have been born in the past from girls' comics, and now they are not limited to girls' comics and are spreading to all fields.
After the 2000sLove cartoonas well as the loveWorks with elements are the mainstream, and there are also manga that include messages such as women's independence.On the other handGag cartoon,Horror cartoonThere are also genres other than romance comics.Fantasy cartoon,Sports cartoonHas been established as a genre for a long time, and has been popular until now.
Compared to other genres, shojo manga works require a more complete story and a calculated narrative, and a unique technique not found in shōnen manga and moe illustrations is used.It has a history of making big hits in various fields such as fantasy, sports, romance, and gag.For WomenBoy cartoonA derivative genre was born (Japanese comic magazineSee).
At first, many shojo manga artists were male writers, but due to changes in shojo manga, most of them are drawn by women... HoweverMayo MineoIn addition to some male writers who debuted before the 1980s,A little bitThere are also writers of mixed units.1980 eraAfter that, the shojo manga artistYouth cartoon,Boy cartoonThere are many examples of turning to (#historySee also section).
There are many writers dedicated to publishers, but the industry has introduced a kind of league system (horror works and four-frame slots are completely separate).Only 4% of the serialization groups that everyone would want.1% of the short-term serialization group will be in the one-shot group.It is a tough world where the exclusive contract is canceled if it is unpopular.
1935 ToGirl clubWas serialized inKurakane Shosuke"Dori-chan Banzai",1938 FromGirl's friendWas serialized inMatsumoto KatsujiSuch as "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan"Pacific WarThe work serialized in the previous shojo manga is the forerunner of shojo manga.1953 (Showa 28)Osamu TezukaBut"Ribbon Knight], serialized in Shoujo mangaStory cartoonIntroduced[Note 1], Around this time, the weight of shojo manga has increased, overcoming traditional storytelling in shojo magazines.
1950 eraFrom the second half1960 eraIn the first half,Takarazuka RevueAffected byTakahashi MakotoInspired by these girls' drawings, the decorative expression peculiar to shojo manga has developed.Flowers are drawn on the background of the person, and long eyelashes with many catch lights.PrecededGirl novelA beautiful man, partly due to the influence ofMen'sNorijin appeared and developed a gorgeous story. From the 1950s to the early 1960sChiba Tetsuya,Reiji MatsumotoIt is often drawn by male writers such as, and the pursuit of the style and technique of classic shojo manga during this period was mainly built by male writers and male editors such as Macoto Takahashi mentioned above. is there.
However, on the other hand, there is a growing momentum to raise female cartoonists by the representative girls' manga magazines at that time, and it is said to be the first female feature-length story writer.Mizuno Eiko(Debuted in 1955) and others appeared, expanding the range of expression of shojo manga with fresh themes and motifs.As a female writer, from Hideko MizunoToshiko Ueda, In the story including the book rentalMasako WatanabeIs faster.
When gag manga was the main focus, even male cartoonists could handle it, but when story manga was the main focus, it became necessary for male writers to think about the time when they were girls..
From the media perspective, in the early 1960sweekly magazineThere was also a search for a direction due to the change (including biweekly publication)... Also until the mid-1960sRental book cartoonThe existence of the market is also important.This is different from magazinesBookWas the main, and the number of pages was large.In the world of book rental, in the mid-1960s, he made expressions not found in the world of magazines.Masako Yashiroand so on.
It has been pointed out that in shojo manga in the mid-1960s, there were many original works and drafts by others..
After the period of high economic miracle
From the mid-1960s1970 eraAt the beginning, Japan is chronicTrade deficitEstablishing profitability, etc.High economic growthHas made more progress.In the publishing world, foreign currency restrictions have been lifted, making pulp and paper easier to use.
And shojo manga has developed like a big bang. Quantitatively, comics, which were previously only a part of girls' magazines, now occupy almost all of the magazines, and the number of magazines is biweekly, weekly, weekly to monthly, Each of them published additional magazines and new ones were born one after another. It was also during this period that there were many female newcomers who made their debut in their teens, coupled with the rapid changes in the nature and quantity of demand. The debut also depends on the bring-in and personal connections until then, and the manga course in the magazineContest-Cartoon rookie awardThe rate from was increasing.As a result, the choice of shojo manga artist came into the choice of profession for girls. In the 1970s, a manga study group (Manken) began to be established at the school.On the other hand, due to the dramatic increase in shojo manga magazines and the retreat of book rental shops due to economic development, shojo manga published by book rental will decline and disappear.
Qualitatively, at the beginning of this period (mid-1960s)School cartoonThe genre was born, and it later spread to shōnen manga.Following shōnen mangaSports gutsBecame a boom.fictionForeign things with strong sex (mainlyRomantic comedy) Was called stateless comics during this period.In addition, the increase in the amount of paper called magazines was also an increase in the number of frames and pages used to describe the work.As the pages became longer, the screen expansion method changed to a more flowing one.Along with shōnen manga, it was also said to be a change from reading manga to seeing manga.From the image of humor, cute, sad wind girl manga up to that pointgagThe amplitude of the style such as drama and drama becomes larger.DramasThere were also movements such as experimental works and technique-oriented works, and magazines aimed mainly at high school students and above were also launched, and they were at the same time as the booming manga for boys and youth.[Note 2].
A characteristic of this period and beyond is the strong proximity between producers (authors) and consumers (readers). It has been pointed out in many criticisms since the 70s, but it was still rare in the world as a major field of this era and for children.
また1970 eraIs a time when values have changed.University disputeとVietnam WarHas converged, the US and China are approaching, and the yen-dollar floating exchange rate system has been shifting, people have started to go on group sightseeing trips abroad, supermarkets have spread, rock has become established as music, and the Cold War-centered scheme worldwide. Has changed drastically, and the finite growth has been recognized due to ecological environmental problems and the oil shock, and the number of births in Japan has begun to decline immediately afterwards.In addition, 1974% of students entered high school in 90... In music entertainment,Counter culture OfFolk song,LockNot,Singer-songwriterDepends on the individuality ofnew musicThe music called is becoming popular.
In the 1960s, Japanese people were liberalized to travel abroad, and in Japan, the American rock band "ビ ー ト ル ズ"Or"The VenturesBecame popularGroup soundsBoom happened.Along with these, the number of works set in foreign countries increased in shojo manga and TV anime for girls...The representative works of this era are "Fire!"There is (Hideko Mizuno).Also, in the early 1970sJumbo machineHas appeared and overseas travel has become familiarAlso, a female tour conductor has appearedAlong with that, the number of female departures also increased sharply...Meanwhile, from the girl's manga, "Rose of Versailles』(Riyoko Ikeda) Appeared,Takarazuka RevueIt was made into a musical with "The Rose of Versailles Boom] Will occur.
Also called the "Mini Queen" in the late 1960s.TwiggyIn Japan with the arrival ofMini skirtIs in fashion,afterwards"HarenchiBecame a buzzword, In shōnen manga,Harenchi Academy''(Nagai Hao) Became popular, but even for women, "Harenchi-kun" of "Novel Junior" (Yoshiko Tsuchida, 1968) and Ribon's serialization "Fujio Akatsuka's Harenchi Masterpiece"[Note 3](Fujio Akatsuka) Has appeared.After that, sex things became popular in girl novels, Made in France in the movie in 1974Soft core・ PornographyMrs. EmmanuelleHit a young woman, and in 1975, from a Japanese movie, ""(Nikkatsu) Has appeared.Even in shojo manga, "Weekly seventeen"I am Moe" published inAyumi Tachihara)likeセ ッ ク スAn ordinary manga has appeared.
On the other handSex educationAlso became a problem.On the TV program, NHK's "Hello wifeSex education is taken up in, A transformation heroine with a hidden theme of sex education in grade magazines, etc.Mysterious MelmoAppeared and was animated.
In addition, individual writers with a strong literary writer, called the Year 24 Group, begin to show their existence.Shojo manga has also undergone unique changes, and the literary character of the work and the uniqueness of shojo manga have become more widespread, and most fields and species have emerged from the 1970s to the early 1980s.During this period, male and female manga artists almost disappeared, leaving only exceptions.In addition, with the development of animation, many animations have come to occur.More specifically, the changes in shojo manga have spread from their directing techniques to the story genre.Moto Hagio,Keiko Takemiya,Yumiko Oshima,Ryoko Yamagishi such as24 years of flowersAnd so onSF,Fantasy,Nonsensegag,Boy loveWith the emergence of shojo manga artists who draw (love between boys), the world of shojo manga has expanded to the point where there are no restrictions on what to write.In this respect, the Hakusensha magazine was used as a venue.Masahiro Shibata(SuspenseSex/SF elementMechanic),Mayo Mineo(Mystery・MysteriousDangmei·gag),Shinji Wada(mainlyアクションThe contribution of a male writer who made a debut in Shoujo Manga is also great. Also, a story that depicts the growth of the main character (Cultural novelThe tendency of popular works spreads with the lengthening of feature films, resulting in multiple successful works. On the other hand, for those who are not familiar with the group of works that do not fit within the frame of girls' manga,Otome Little MangaThe hobby works of girls as a subtle girlish sense of everyday life are supported, which leads to the subsequent flow of girl comics depicting life-sized women.
It also happened in the late 1960sWomen's liberation movement in Japanand"Cutie singerThe boom of "Women's upper society" is expected, and in the 1970s shojo manga, as a reactionYugetsu Hikari"Difficult Anchikisho" (1970)Mutsumi Tsukumoof"I am a man!』(1971-) has also appeared in a girl's manga with a male hero.
In gag manga, in the 1960sFujio AkatsukaIt has been serialized in girls' manga magazines such as Ribon, and among them, the mean hero's "Hennako-chan] Has appeared. In the 70's, he was an assistant to Fujio Akatsuka.Yoshiko TsuchidaTakes over the gag route "It's a vine princess!』And issuedIn addition,Kurata Emi"Bodhisattva Diary" has also appeared.
In addition, it happened in the 1960sBlue boy caseFrom men to womenSex changeWas also attracting attention.Yugetsu HikariAs a shojo manga, the male protagonist's transsexual comedy "Doron" (1972), "Laugh and forgive" (1973), "My first experience(1975-), etc., which was later popular boy manga "Ranma 1 / 2"(Rumiko Takahashi) Is also affected.
An era of enjoying life
From the late 1970s to the early 1980s, shojo manga attracted the attention of male readers, and the patterns and psychological depictions influenced by shojo manga began to spread to shōnen manga.Also, instead of the disappearance of book rental publishing as an environment for writers,Comic marketSuch asDoujinshiThe spot sale event spread and provided a place for work presentations and fan exchanges.The age group of writers has also risen.In addition, manga tools are becoming more diverse.Showa 30'sThere were only a few pens, but1970 eraWith a variety of pensScreen toneHas come to be used.
Since before the 1970s, the performers of children's programs "Ado Mizumori(Adotan) has become popular, and the sub-characters and sub-languages used by Adotan have become popular among girls... In shojo manga in the 1970sBessatsu Girl Friend"Uk-UK-Ado-chan" and "You and Ado-tan's Otemami Square" were serialized in.Also, in 1979Toei Witch Girl Anime"Flower child RunrunThe word "runrun mood" and the onomatopoeia of "runrun" became popular due to the hits of "Lunrun".In shōnen manga, "FlirtsThe word "" is popular, and a female idol who matches itSeiko MatsudaBecame popular and also for female studentsSeiko cutBecame fashionable.
In the early 1980s, the three words "Usso," "Honto," and "Kawayui" became popular, and people who used them a lot were ridiculed as the three-word family (Sango-chan)...These also influenced shojo manga.
Since the mid-1970s, women's personal travel has become popular due to the travel feature of fashion magazines ()Annon), in 1977compactFirstauto focusIs a cameraJaspin Konica(Konica C35AF) appeared and became popular with women.Also, in 1975, the fashion magazine "JJAppearedNeutraIn 1981, the brand novel "Somehow, crystalBecame a hit and brand-oriented young people came to be called "Crystals"..In shojo manga, the number of works set in foreign countries has decreased since the latter half of the 1970s., Instead of the celebrity "Leisure Club] Appeared and became popular.
Also in 1982Seibu Department StoreCatch copy of "Delicious lifeWhen the hit, the value of how to enjoy daily life spread, and the tendency to pursue the real world rather than fiction became stronger...Women began to seek men for a delicious life, "Mistress Bank Evening tribeWith the advent of..In the shojo manga of this era, "Mistress Volunteer Fallen Student" (Risa Kusaka) Has appeared.
On the other handJunior high school,high schoolFor teachers, etc.School violenceWas also a problem, and in Harajuku it was also called the blue sky disco by young people.Bamboo clanAnd the roller tribe have appeared,Long skirtIs in fashion, "Licking catAlso appeared,badThe number of girls who yearn for is increasing.In such an atmosphere, in the shojo manga, a bad hero was set up.Tokimeki Tonight] Etc. will appear.
In musicBand boomIn the shojo manga,I love you night』(Kaoru Tada) Or “Diamond paradise"(Satoru Makimura) Has appeared.Boy loveThen, around the 1980s, the aesthetic magazine "Hana no 24 Years Group" took over the boy love line.JUNE FABRIC'Or "ALLAN'Has appeared, but in the douujinshi, the anime parody (aniparo) is the main focus.Yaoi"Cartoon is popular, In 1982, a commercial manga magazine centered on Aniparo "Aniparo Comics"Has appeared.
Single songs including divorce became popular in career woman-oriented emerging women's magazines (Croissant syndrome）On the other hand, in the drama for housewives, "Friday wives"Or"Rebellion of the unbreakable tribeAffair things like "Kinzuma Syndrome" and "Kinzuma Syndrome"TribeThe word became popular.Around this timeCartoons for adult womenGrows.Ladies comics,Young ladiesWas established as a genre.
From the 1970shome deliveryDevelops orMicrocomputerHigh-mix low-volume production by technology will spread,video,WalkmanA personalized product calledLight, thin, short and small,CrowdWas born.Also, Japan in the 1980sTrade surplusBecomes the best in the worldEqual Employment ActThe range of women's occupational choices has expanded, and a employment information magazine for women has been created.Meanwhile, in the mid-1980sOLWomen's manga magazine forOffice you] Has appeared.
As the problem of violence against teachers diminishes at schoolBullying problem for NekraWas noticed.From the middle of this eraAkio Yoshida,Spinning woodThe manga-like cartoonist, which is different from the traditional Shoujo manga, has become popular, and the traditional Shoujo manga-like decorative expression will be simplified. The number of writers who carefully draw life-sized women has increased, and the number of cartoonists who draw eye figures without catchlight on a simple background has increased. The number of works dealing with sex and occupation has increased and the readership of girls' comics has expanded..
Also in the 1970sOccult boomIn the 1980sPrevious life boom(Warrior Syndrome).In shojo manga, "Protect my earth''(Saki Hiwatari) Appeared and became popular, and "Sequence" (Ken Mizuki) etc. appeared as its followers..By this premortal boom of girlsSuicide attemptIs also awake.
In addition, for boys' comicsRumiko TakahashiBeginning with, female cartoonists entered, and girls who were the readers of girls' comics alsoBoy cartoon,Youth cartoonIt became common to read. As a result, the method of Shoujo Manga and Shoujo Manga theme became widely used in the world of Shonen Manga and Youth Manga.
Since the 1990s
1990 eraToBubble burstThe social situation became unstable due to the influence ofLost ten yearsEntering a slumping transition period called.Globally, the Japanese bubble burst,Eastern EuropeとUSSRDismantling,ChugokuIn Japan, there is a change in the world view such as historical issues, and in the latter half, changes in the quality of youth issues such as the collapse of classes will be talked about.In shojo manga, the tendency to draw mental problems has become even more prominent, and the hero image that takes action on its own has come to be required.Youth cartoonHas grown significantly, and many writers who work on both shojo manga and seinen manga, and seinen manga artists from shojo manga will be seen. Since the latter half of the 1990s, the circulation of shojo manga and shojo manga magazines has been declining due to the increase in the number of magazines that are difficult to grasp in the frame for girls due to the declining population of young people and the diversification of readers' tastes. ..However, the theme and expression method of shojo mangaJapanese cartoonIt is widely established in and is accepted by a wide range of age groups, including men.
Battle heroineIn the thingSentaiThe female version of the thing, "Sailor Moon』(Naoko Takeuchi) Was a big hit, and the gag manga "Little Red Riding Hood』(Min Ayahana) Will also be animated as a battle heroine.Also, the magical girl "Card Captor Sakura』(CLAMP) Was also centered on battle. "Precure seriesAfter that, the comicalize of the original anime was serialized in shojo manga magazines.Also, from the latter half of the 80's to the 90's, a boy's manga that incorporated Chinese elements "Ranma 1 / 2And its anime have become popular, shounen manga[Note 4]Not only the works of Chinese motifs that are animated in shojo manga have appeared.This includes "Fushigi Yugi』(Yuu Watase) Or “Ask Dr. Lynn!』(Kiyoko Arai).
Also in the 1990s小 動物There was also a boom."" Serialized in the children's manga magazineHamster research report"(Daisetsu Shiwasu）[Note 5]Caused a hamster boom, From the academic year magazine in 1997Tottoko Hamtaro"(Ritsuko Kawai) Appears and says "ChaoWas also published in 2000, and in XNUMX,NakayoshiIn the original game "Hamster everywhere』(Neko Nekobe) Has appeared.In 1996, the portable training game machine "TamagotchiThe series appeared and became popular, and in 1997, "Tamagotchi" was serialized in "Nakayoshi", and in 1997, the game "Nyanko Kanashiro" was serialized.PokemonThe anime version of "" started and became very popular, and from the same year, "ChaoAtPokemon PiPiPi★Adventure''(Yuki Tsukinino) Was serialized. In the early 2000s, "Chao"The fairy plays the leading role in"Mirumo Pon!』(Hiromu Shinozuka) Was serialized and animated and gained popularity in the lower gradesIn addition, the alien is the leading role in "Panyo Panyo De the Carat』(Hina.) Was also serialized. "Nakayoshi" is also about this time, with aliens playing the leading roleDonatsu pudding』(Neko Nekobe),ginIs the main characterCall me and jump! Akubi-chan』(Kamikita Twin) Is serialized.
In the 1990sTeenThere was also a fashion trend for people. From the late 1980sTeenForfashion magazine"Pichi LemonAppeared, then appearedNalmiya InternationalChildren's clothing brand "mezzo piano"Or"Angel blueIn the 1990s, the number of girls who were interested in fashion from an early age increased, especially among the Hanako junior generation...It is said that this generation prefers feminine items such as ribbons and lace while dressing according to the situation...However, it was the girls' comics magazine that made tie-up comics with these children's clothing brands.2000 eraIt was after I entered.ChaoFrom 2002mezzo pianoTie-up manga withCinderella Collection』(Yasue Imai, 2002-2004),NakayoshiFrom 2007Angel blueWithTie-upManga"Dreaming Angel Blue』(Marimo Shirasawa・ 2007-2009) was serialized.However,Angel blueThe brand was suspended in 2010.
High teenFrom the end of the 1990s in fashion for2000 eraTowards the beginning, "CUTiEDerived from "CUTiE Comic, "ZipperDerived from "Zipper comic"SuchShojo manga magazine derived from fashion magazineAppearedHowever, these ended in a short period of time, and the serialized mangaYoung ladiesIt has been absorbed by the magazine.Also,"Ribon"When"Chao], A cartoon for children with the theme of youth fashion and culture appeared.In conjunction with the actual fashion, in 1998,Ribon"soWhite galThe motif "GALS!』(Miho Fujii）, 2009Chao"soPrincess GalThe motif "Hime Gal ♥ Paradise''(Akira Wao), In 2014,ChaoWith the Harajuku motif "Tinkle ☆ Collection』(Akira Wao) Has appeared.
Then in the 2000s, "Mini moni.""Pipo Angels"Idols for children have appeared, for girlsarcade gameThen in the mid-2000sFashionable witch love and berry”And other outfit battles have appeared and become popular since 2001.e-karaSuch askaraokeWith the advent of toys and tie-ups, Although it is a female idol in shojo manga for girlsMedia mixThe number of original works and comicalized works has increased.These typical ones are "Minimoni.I'll do it!』(Chikako Mori), "Pichi Pichi Pitch"(Hanamori Pink), "Kirarin Revolution』(An Nakahara), "Pretty series], [Aikatsu!] There is a series.
In the 2000sDengeki BunkoSuch asLight novelThere is a boomIn 2006, the girls' comic magazine "Dengeki Bunko's comicalization of women's works"comic SYLPH"(After"Sylph]) Has appeared.Also in the late 2000sVideo posting site"Nico Nico DougaBecomes popular, and in 2006 the heroine aims to "find aliens, future people, and supernatural powers and play with them."Light novel "The Melancholy of Haruhi SuzumiyaWas animated at midnight, Haruhi Dance became popular on the video posting site., In 2007Vocaloid"Hatsune ミクWhen "" appeared, the Bokaro song became popular on the video posting site. In the 2010sVocaloidA commercial Vocaloid novel based on a song appeared and became popular with teenage girls..In shojo manga, in the 2010s, a girl comic magazine centered on vocaloids, "MirufiWas launchedIn addition, "Shonen Manga Magazine for Women"Monthly Comic GeneHowever, the comicalization of the Vocaloid novel was being carried out.Even in the old shojo manga magazine, "Miracle ♪ Miku" (Cotoji) And "Mirai Tune" (Yukari Somekawa) and other vocaloid manga have appeared.However, after that, the internet culture started from the PC center.SmartphoneBy moving to the center, the boom of Vocaloid novels has converged..
In music for junior and senior high school studentsMusic videoWith the spread ofVisual Kei(Aestheticism) The band became popular, which made itVisual kei band cosplayAnd the douujin "Yaoi" manga of the visual kei band became popular..In response to the popularity of visual kei even in shojo manga, "Pleasure/phrase』(Mayu Shinjo) Or “NANA』(Yazawa Ai) Has appeared.However, after that, it was a club activity school that had little connection with shojo manga magazine.Midnight animeBecame popular. Club activity girls band thing in 20094 Moe"K-on!When "" was animated, a band boom and uniform boom occurred in high school girls., 2013, a media mix of beautiful girl school idolslovelive!Was animated, and the popularity of the woman increased...In 2013, in the music of junior and senior high school students in shojo manga, the mixed gender band "Masking system noise』(Fukuyama Ryoko), But in 2014, the dancer manga "Badigo!" (Minori Kurosaki) Has appeared.
Also, around 1990OLOjinization (Old girl) Has been pointed out[Note 6], In the drama, the old man is the leading role in "I want to have a good love!Has appeared,weekly magazine"SPA!"Sweet spot" (Sweet spot) with the theme of father gal in the serialized mangaChusonji Yutuko) Has appeared.By this timeOL4-frame magazine for "" (Tokuma Orion)and"Manga Time Special』(Houbunsha) Has appeared[Note 7].
In 1994, in games for women,Angelique series", But in 2000,"A series in the far-flung space-timeAppeared, "Monthly AsukaAnd 'LaLa』And came to be comicalized in girls' manga magazines that are strong in fantasy. In 2002, the women's game magazine "B's-LOGAppeared, and in 2005, as a derivative of it, the girls' comic magazine "B's-LOG COMICWas born. In 2006, the mobile novel provider "voltageEntered mobile games for women, and those mobile games became popular as "real otome games"., B's-LOG COMIC "Lover is the No. 1 host" (Sakurako Yamada) Is comicalized. In the 2010s, from the otome game,Uta no Prince-sama♪, And other male idols have appeared, and as a derivative of female idols for girls, "KING OF PRISM by PrettyRhythm] And other male idols have appeared, and they are being comicalized in shojo manga magazines.
Also, in the late 1980'sLadies comicsExtreme sexual depiction increased and became popular, In conjunction with itTelephone clubSpread. afterwards,Bubble burstDecrease in household income due toTo young peopleAid communicationHas penetrated, and in the mid-1990s it was a sex manga for teens.Teens love (TL Manga) Magazine appeared, "Girl comicEven in shojo manga magazines such as ", sexual depictions increased in the form of being dragged by them.
In the mid-2000sMobile novelBecomes a boom, In 2007FutabashaBy the cell phone novel site "Magic i landComicalized magazine "COMIC Magical i LandWas launched.. In 2011, KadokawaASCII Media WorksIs "Magic i landAcquired and absorbed the operating company, ASCII Media Works has launched its own comicalize label "Magical i Land COMICS".On the other hand, the old girl novel label "Cobalt library"(Shueisha) Also launched a comicalized magazine "Comic Cobalt" as an extra edition in 2010.It ends without success.
In the latter half of the 2000s, the separate Margaret series "Delivered to you』(Karuho Shiina) Or “Strobe edge』(Sakisaka Io) And other pure story items have also become popular. In the 2010sVocaloid"Sukikirai" and "Sukikirai" from the neighborhoodConfession Executive Committee-Love Series-, A popular creator unit for youth songs such as "HoneyWorksWas bornAfter accepting human vocals[Note 8]The song continued to be novelized (commonly known as the HoneyWorks novel).On the other hand, even in the separate Margaret, "Riding in youth" means "Ao halide』(Sakisaka Io) Appeared and became popular, and HoneyWorks served as the theme song when it was animated.Also, in live-action movies, the youthful "glitter movie" became popular and the live-action movie of shojo manga became active, but at the end of the 2010s it became oversupplied and declined..
In the TV drama, double in 2014AffairOf "Afternoon Face-Lovers at 3pm on weekdays-Was noticed and the word "daytime wife" became popular.On the other hand, the double affair of Young Ladies comics "So much about you』(Ikuemi Aya) Was also made into a drama in 2017, but it is said that it was not as popular as Hirugao due to the difference in concept...In addition, with the rise in the lifetime unmarried rate, Young Ladies comics asking whether to get married have also appeared...Young Ladies Magazine "KissIn the contract marriage "Running away is a shame but helpful』(Unno Tsunami) And late arrivalsTokyo Tarareba Musume』(Higashimura Akiko) Appeared and became popular, and these works were made into dramas..
A web comic site for shojo manga has also appeared. Many on the official website of "FEEL YOUNG" (FC Web → Fiyan Net)Web serializationIs now doneLovely!』(Erika Sakurazawa) Etc. have been transferred to that site, and Kodansha's free web comic site "MiChao!'Then there is a women's cornerFinal War Series』(Yamada Minneko)'S latest work is now serialized in "Mi Chao!". In 2009, a comic magazine for girls, "WingsWeb comic site "WEB Wings" was also started as a derivative of..Since then, many web comic sites derived from manga magazines have appeared.[Note 9].
Accepting shojo manga from boys' comic magazines
ニ ッ ク ス ク ウ ェ ア ス · エ OfShonen poundingOriginally, there were many female authors in the affiliated shōnen manga magazines, and there were also shōnen manga that were female authors and had a romance element for the heroine.[Note 10]However, in the era when web comics were commercialized, female writers' web romance comics were also commercialized as shōnen manga.[Note 11]..This attitude has continued since the comicalization of web novels became popular.[Note 12].
Shueisha has also been working since 2015.Boys Over FlowersThe sequel to "Hananochi Hare-Hanao Next Season-Is a website derived from Shonen Manga magazineBoy jump +, And even at ShogakukanBoy sundaeAffiliated web magazine "Back sundae(The app version isManga One) Was introduced in 2016 as "Ura Sunday Women's Club"..Kodansha also started in 2017Separate Shonen MagazineThe romance of the female writer's heroine, "Maids of the rough season.(Original:Mari Okada, Drawing: Nao Emoto)AIR』From 2018 after the discontinuation of the publication, a comicalized work of the otome game ``In a far-reaching space-time 6』(Tohko Mizuno)Shonen Magazine EdgeTransferred toIn boys' manga magazines, it is becoming more and more important for men and women.Hakusensha is also an app that made shojo manga and seinen manga live together in 2017.Manga ParkWas delivered.
21st century OfインターネットIn the era of widespread use, due to the further diversification of magazines and media and changes in the thinking of the times, girls' manga, which used to have different media and methods from those for men, was another name for women's manga and was the center of the 2010s. Today, it has become a continuous area of the manga world, with few borders with many adjacent fields.
Since the late 2010s
Since the late 2010sTorisetsu book for peopleHas been published in large numbers, and even in educational books for girls, "Girls'Torisetsu" and "Girls' Torisetsu Tokimeki days" (Miracle Girls Committee), "Cute rules", "Kokoro rules" (Hapifuru Girl editorial department), etc. appeared and became popular (including manga)..From the shojo manga magazine, "JS Torisetsu] (Saki Ametama) has appeared.
On the other hand, in the upper generation, "PushIn the age of culture, Landmine-based and mass-produced fashion that is used for pushing is popular, As a cartoon for women"Tomorrow, I'm someone's girlfriend" has appeared and is becoming popular...Originally on video sitesYouTuberWas in fashion, but in 2017, the money-throwing function ``Super chatWith the appearance of ”, it becomes possible to contribute to the push, In the manga for adult girls, "Gachi Koi Adhesive Beast" (Hoshirai) with that theme has appeared.also,DaddyAnd back dirtHas become a boom, and even in shojo manga, "Degradation-Daddy Active Poor Girls-" (Miya Sakurai) and "Uraaka Ruin Anniversary" (Miya Sakurai) have appeared.
In love, many things with the theme of a fictitious forced marriage system have appeared due to the declining birthrate. In 2017, a boy's manga with the theme of the fictitious "Basic Law for Countermeasures against Ultra-Low Birthrate"Love and liesIs modified to look like a girl's mangaLive-action movieDone, In 2018, a feature-length novel with the theme of a fictitious "lottery matchmaking marriage method"Marriage partner is a lotteryWas made into a TV drama, The theme of the fictitious "Neat Protection Law" in 2020 from shojo mangaLINE mangaSerialized shojo manga "Marie Me!』(Yuki Miku) Has been made into a TV drama..In addition, a school for forced couples has also appeared. In 2018, from the seinen manga, the theme of `` couple training''More than a couple and less than a lover.Appeared, In 2019, "First x Marriage" with the theme of "Ichibashi Senkin Marriage School" in shojo manga for children (Minori Kurosaki) Appeared and became a popular work.
On the other hand, the trend of matching apps is also occurring, centering on actual records. In 2017, the Twitter account "Leisure College Student" became a hot topic and became a drama, From the youth manga in 2018I will do it properly in the next worldFrom the essay comics in 2019A diary of the results of a 38-year-old bachelor trying a matching appAppeared, both were made into a drama in 2020.. In 2017, "The story of meeting a younger sister on a dating site" became a hot topic on Twitter with over 10 likes., Even in shojo manga, in 2020, "Lover's High-Matched with my best friend's boyfriend-" (Original:Nagatsuka unknown style,Manga:Karin Anzai) Has appeared.
In addition, many romance contents with a "carbonic acid feeling" have appeared. In 2021, "ultra-slightly carbonated" romance boy manga from Web manga "HorimiyaWas made into an animation, drama, and live-action movie, The same year, the original anime movie "Words spring up like ciderWas also screened, and in the same year, from the shojo manga, "Honey lemon soda』(Maya Murata) Has been made into a live-action movie.
However, on the other hand, it is said that "romance separation" is progressing in TV dramas...For a long time, romance has been the main focus of shojo manga, but in 2020, the editor-in-chief of Ribon said in an interview, "Young people who want to be cartoonists say,'I don't want to draw romance, so let's post to shōnen manga.'" I want to dispel that prejudice. ".
Among the music, the opera became popular. In 2012, the youth manga magazine "Jump breakToKageki Shoujo!』(Kumiko Saiki) Appeared, and in 2015 after the magazine was closed, the girls' manga magazine "MELODYIn addition to transferring to the popular shojo manga "School aliceAs a sequel to "Alice in the Opera Country" (Higuchi Tachibana) Was also appearing. In 2018, media mix from Bushiroad ``Girl ☆ Opera Revue StarlightAppeared and became popular, and in 2021, "Kageki Shojo !!" was also animated.
Originally, manga apps for men and women lived together, but from 2018, ``Palcy(Kodansha, 2018-), "Manga Mee" (Shueisha, 2018-) and other manga apps specialized for women are now being distributed. In 2018Manga boxA young ladies manga with the theme of the affaired side of the series "Holiday love-marital loveWas made into a TV drama, and "Sale wife" became a buzzword., "Manga Mee" also depicts the price of infidelity "Sale Tagawa Blue』(Semoto Chika) became popular and became a TV drama.
In addition, the self-proclaimed mackerel woman (self-saba woman) has come to the spotlight, and "Black Girls Talk" (Makino Maki), "Because I'm dry" (Original:Torafugu, Manga: Shin Eguchi)And so on.
HeiseiThe revival of works of the times is also increasing. In "Nakayoshi", "Card Captor SakuraThe sequel to "Cardcaptor Sakura Clear Card Edition, "Tokyo Mew MewThe man's version of "Tokyo Mew Mew Ore!, "Pichi Pichi PitchNext-generation work "Pichi Pichi Pitch aqua"It is serialized in this magazine, and in the "Ribon" series, "GALS!The sequel "" is serialized in.
Many comicalizations of Web novels are also being carried out.For thisVillainous daughterThere are things, saints, slow-life things, mofumofu things, etc., and their comicalize is "COMIC ZERO-SUM], [Zero-Sum Online], [B's-LOG COMIC], [Back sundaeWomen's magazines such as "Women's Club" and "PASH UP!", "FLOS COMIC", "FLOS COMIC", "Regina Books』And is done in specialized Web magazines.
The current state of shojo manga
Since the 1980s, female readersBoy cartoon-Youth cartoonTo the boys' magazine and even the youth/adult comics magazine.[Note 13]The remaining strict sense of girls' manga world tends to subdivide according to the decline and target age.
However, "With love from Eroika], [Pataro!], [Boys Over Flowers], [NANA], [Honey and clover], [Nodame Cantabile], [Ouran high school host club], [Delivered to you], [Natsume's Book of Friends], [Chihayafuru, "Sozaburo series", "Red FangThere are also shojo manga that grab adult readers and male readers.In particularYazawa Ai"NANA" attracted male readers and those who do not usually read manga to the readership, and won the 2005st place on the Oricon chart (men and women in the manga category) in 1.
Since the 2000s, there have been many media mixes, and for older people, "NANA" and "Nodame Cantabile" are considered successful examples. From the 2000s to the mid-2010s, the works of "Ciao" (described later) and "Precure series"SuchAn infant-<span>Grade 1-2</span>(Primarily elementary schoolMiddle school year) Except for the so-called "animation for girls" targeting the following, live-action media such as TV dramas and drama movies are more popular than animation.Attack No.1], [Chibi Maruko-chan], [Yes kara passes], [Sailor Moon, "Boys Over Flowers" and other popular works serialized in the past have been made into dramas one after another.In particular, the drama version of "Hana Yori Dango" was a commercial hit more than the anime version broadcast in the 1990s, and the sales of books increased sharply due to the drama, so the original book was the most sold in shojo manga. It became a manga.Due to the success of this media mix,Margaret"Sho-comi"Flowers and dreams"LaLa], etc.TeenagersThe age group of the magazine that was supposed to bePreteen layerHitprimary schoolUpper gradesUntil theChaoIt came to take in the reader who stopped reading.
Since the mid-2010s, the men's anime "Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAnd 'Love Live! Series, The one-shot animated movie "What is your name?Due to the influence of animation works such as "Think, think, pretend, shakeThere are also cases where live-action movies and animated movies are developed at the same time when the movie is visualized..
Also,"ChaoSince the latter half of the 1990s,Anime for girlsBy specializing in the media development of 』, we are aiming for a lower age at a stretch, and targeting girls around elementary school (middle school)[Note 14], From the early 2000s to the mid-2010sMirumo Pon!], [Kirarin Revolution], [12 years old.』Cartoon andFashionable witch love and berry], [Sanrio character series"of"Jewel pet], [Pretty series], [Aikatsu! seriesWith existing children's characters such asMedia mixEstablished the market with the success of the strategy[Note 15]..However, by the latter half of the 2010s, media development except for "Pretty Series" and "Aikatsu! Series" will be completed.[Note 16]Due to this, the number of copies has decreased significantly from about 2005 million in 120 to about 2019 in 30.
On the other hand, at present, the elementary school, which is the middle classMiddle school year - Junior high schoolTargeting a 1st and 2nd year girlRibon"When"Nakayoshi] Is an old-fashioned magazine that has existed since the early days of shojo manga, and was in the center of shojo manga until the early 2000s, and was targeted at high school students in the 1970s before the current magazine for older people was published. Especially in the 1970s and 80sOtome tickThere were many adult female and male readers in "Ribon" that got on the boom. Since the 1980s, with the publication of magazines for older people, it has become a situation to take on relatively younger age groups, and in the 1990s, "Chibi Maruko-chan"Sailor Moon"Princess Ribbon"Marmalade boy"Toys for children"Little Red Riding Hood"Card Captor Sakura], which was a huge hit after being animated, has reached its heyday while the age group declined from the lower grades of elementary school to middle school girls. But they are all finished2000 eraSince then, hits have been sparse and lacking topicality, and boys' magazines and the lower age limit are elementary school students (Upper grades) And the magazines for older people mentioned aboveChao, Etc., and the readers leaked out, and in 2018,Nakayoshi"When"RibonThe total circulation of 』has dropped sharply to about 1994/1 compared to 20, when it was at its peak.
In addition, in recent years[When?]The works published in magazines for older people have little relation between the popularity of the works and the sales share of the magazines, and the emphasis is on subscriptions by comics rather than magazines, and the editorial side also publishes books. The publication is made with the pace in mind.[Note 17], Since the 2010s, it is the middle class "RibonAnd 'Nakayoshi』The work follows that.On the other hand, "Chao』Only, the serialization is done with the magazine pace in mind as before.
Shojo manga magazine
The main magazine in which the work is posted. Currently, it is a magazine only for manga, but at the beginning of the publication it was published as a general magazine for girls such as story stories, novels, fashion, star information, etc., but it was reorganized as a comic magazine after the 1960s-1970s There are many, and magazines for older people were published as the readership grew.
The predecessor of Shoujo Manga Magazine. As mentioned above, the following manga magazines for girls also posted many story stories other than girls' manga at the beginning.
- Girl club(Kodansha,1923 - 1962 Develop into a girl friend)
- eyes(Akita Shoten,1958 - 1961 Later reopened as a comic magazine)
For infants, kindergarten children and lower grades
As with later teens, it was published in a relatively new age in response to subdivision of age. It is intended for girls from preschoolers (around 4 years old) to the middle grades of elementary school, where the lower limit for children's magazines or girls was traditionally used. Was the forerunner of1992 Was integrated into "Chao".
- Monthly Carol(Kodansha,1983 - 1984 ）
- hopping(Shogakukan,1988 - 1992 ）
- Runrun(Kodansha,1991 -1998)
- Puchigumi(Shogakukan,2006 -)
Many magazines were published as magazines for girls at the beginning of the publication, and although the original readership was elementary and junior high school students, they were read by high school students and were literally the center of shojo manga, but the publication of magazines for older people, Due to specialization in media mix, etc., the target age is now lowered and it is aimed at elementary and junior high school students.Now that shojo manga magazines have diversified, it is said that the role of a comprehensive magazine for elementary school girls, like the predecessor shojo manga magazine, supports this genre.
- Nakayoshi(Kodansha,1954 -)
- Ribon(Shueisha,1955 -)
- Ciao Komi(Shogakukan,2021 -) * Web only
- eyes(Akita Shoten,1978 - 1991 ）
For junior and senior high school students
At the beginning of the issue, it had a general magazine nature with more fashion and star information than shojo manga, but gradually became more popular as a shojo manga magazine for girls.
- Girl friend(Kodansha, "Girl club"But1962 Renewed to 1996 ）
- Sho-comi(Shogakukan,1968 -, Old "Shojo manga")
- ChuChu(Shogakukan,2000 - 2010 ）
- Flowers and dreams(Hakusensha,1974 -)
- noicomi(Starts Publishing, 2019-) * Electronic only
It is a magazine for junior high school students to college students (early 20s) published in response to the subdivision of age, and has continued to sing for young people since then.
- Dessert(Kodansha,1996 -)
- Margaret(Shueisha,1963 -) * Previously intended for junior and senior high school students
- Betsucomi →Betting(Shogakukan, 2002-) * Former "Separate volume girl comic"
- LaLa(Hakusensha,1976 -)
- Mirufi(Fujimi Shobo,2013 - 2015 ) * Electronic only
1970-High teen magazines of the 1980s
It was first published as a high teen magazine from the 1970s to the 1980s.
- Seventeen(Separate manga) → Monthly tiara (Shueisha,1968 - 1989 ）
- Separate shojo manga (Shogakukan,1970 - 2002 ) * The conventional route was transferred to Monthly Flowers, and the magazine itself was renewed to Betsucomi.
- Monthly Princess(Akita Shoten,1974 -)
- mimi(Kodansha,1975 - 1996 ）
- Petit Margaret →Buke(Shueisha, 1976-2000)
- My Birthday→Magical comic→Teens Comic Pal→ Girl Pal (Jitsugyo no Nihonsha, 1979-1997)
- Gals comics → Gal comics (SHUFUNOTOMO,1980 - 1985 ) * Gals Life special edition
- Palette → Missy → Missy (SHUFUNOTOMO,1985 - 1990 ）
- Petit Flower→Monthly flowers(Shogakukan,1980 -)
- Bonita(Akita Shoten,1981 - 1995 ）
- Mystery Bonita(Akita Shoten,1988 -)
For adult girls
- Petit Comic(Shogakukan, 1977 -)
- Amie(Kodansha,1997 - 1999 ）
- Petit princess(Akita Shoten, 2002-) * Currently only electronic
- AneLaLa (Hakusensha, 2013-2017)
- COMIC it(KADOKAWA, 2015-) * Currently only electronic
- Sister friend(Kodansha, 2016-) * Electronic only
- Manga Jam(Shodensha, 2017-) * App only
- Comic Tatan(Coamix, 2018-) * Electronic only
- Vanilla love(Libre, 2019-) * Electronic only
- Comic Brise(Kill time communication, 2020-) * Electronic only
Young Ladies Magazine
Young ladiesThe magazine isLadies comicsIt was launched for generations below the magazine.Initially, it was a magazine for students and working adults. As of 2020, about half of the readers are over 35 years old, and about 7% of the readers are over 30s..
- Young You(Shueisha,1986 - 2005 ) * Some of the writing team will be taken over by the chorus
- FEEL YOUNG(Shodensha,1989 -)
- kiss(Kodansha,1992 -)
- Chorus →cocohana(Shueisha,1992 -)
- Cheese!(Shogakukan, 1996-, formerly "Shojo Comic Cheese!")
Girls comic magazine
Girls'Comic magazine was launched for generations below Young Ladies magazine.
- MELODY(Hakusensha,1997 -)
- Cookie(Shueisha,1999 -)
- B's-LOG COMIC(KADOKAWA Enterbrain,2005 -, Former "comic B's-LOG") * Currently only electronic
- Sylph→pixiv sylph(KADOKAWA ASCII Media Works,2006 -) * Currently only electronic
- AIR(Kodansha,2010 - 2018 ）
Fashion magazine derivative comic magazine
Originally, manga was serialized in fashion magazines, but from the end of the 1990's, manga magazines derived from fashion magazines began to be published...However, these did not last long, and some of the serialization team was transferred to Young Ladies magazines "FEEL YOUNG" and "Young You".
- CUTiE Comic(Treasure Island,1998 - 2001 ) *CUTiEDerivation
- Comic anan (Magazine House,1999 ) *an ・ anExtra issue
- Zipper comic→FEEL YOUNG special edition SALADA(Shodensha,2000 - 2003 ) *ZipperDerivation
For all ages
It has a large number of pages and is for various generations.
Overseas girl manga
Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Hoshi Shoujo Toryu Publishing Co., Ltd. First published in 1992 Taiwan original writer Shoujo manga magazine. Monthly publication. Computerization from April 2016
- Yume Yume Shoujo Mange monthly publication Tip publication July 2003-November 7 Shueisha's work posted Ribon's Traditional Chinese version
- Candy Monthly Choko Shuppan March 2004-June 3 Shogakukan works posted Sho-Comi, Cheese!, flowers, traditional Chinese version of Petit Comic
- Sushin Shoujo Manga Monthly Publishing Tip Publishing Co., Ltd. August 2007-June 8 Suspend publication Shogakukan work publication Chao no Traditional Chinese version
- Shoujo Manga Freedom Publishing 1995 Suspended
- COMIC FANS Tenka Publisher August 1995-June 8
- Comic Festival COMIC Festival Tenka Publisher July 2012-June 7
- Wink Seoul Bunkasha
America and others
- Shojo Beat Viz Media 2005-2009
- ^ In Animation Note No11 P88 "It's Similar to Manga Change", the story manga technique was adopted.Shotaro IshinomoriIt is said that.
- ^ This time of the youth cartoonDramasIs also the expansion period, and also the development period of TV programs. A weekly Western-style theater has started since the mid-1960s.
- ^ Also known as "Harenchi Masterpiece Series"
- ^ "Chinese first!"(Etsushi Ogawa), "Hoshin Engi"(Ryu Fujisaki), "Mamotte Shugogetten!"(Minene Sakurano)Such
- ^ Later transferred to shojo manga magazine
- ^ In addition, it was pointed out that the opposite of Ojin's galization (gal father) was also pointed out.
- ^ Even before the specialized magazine, "Harikiri Sayo-chan" was published in the 4-frame magazine (Mariko Kubota) And "Naomi Damon" (Chika Kodama) And other OL protagonists existed.
- ^ CHiCO with HoneyWorks
- ^ Margaret-derived "Digital Margaret", Ciao-derived "Ciao Komi", etc.
- ^ "Satomi ☆ Hakkenden"(Yoshimura Natsuki・ 1997-), "How to change addictive thieves Visit Hinagiku!"(Minene Sakurano・ 1998-) etc.
- ^ "Horimiya"(HERO・ 2007-) etc.
- ^ "Every one of the drugstores"(Nekokurage・ 2017-) etc.
- ^ There are also female writers who use pen names as male names and play an active role in youth and youth magazines.
- ^ "From the official website of the Japan Magazine Association HP/JMPA magazine data.. In addition, "pubertyIt was called "Diary" and was a signboard work at the time of serialization.Light blue era] And the anime version hit men and women of junior and senior high school ageRevolutionary Girl Utena"Before the mid-1990s was posted, the target was almost the same middle class as the current "Nakayoshi" and "Ribon".
- ^ These works are in addition to "Chao"Shogakukan learning magazines by gradeOut oflow・Since it has been published from "elementary school first grade" to "elementary school fourth grade" for all middle school years (all publications except "elementary school first grade" have been suspended since 2017), it is actually positioned as a work for younger children.
- ^ The successor to "Jewelpet"Lil Lil FearylIs not developed in "Ciao", but ""Puchigumi, Developed only in Shogakukan infant magazines and learning magazines, and succeeded in "Mucre DreamyIs published in Kodansha Toddler Magazine.
- ^ For example, the synopsis of the next volume and the release date are specified on the last page of the book.
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- ^ Wings, this time in a bimonthly magazine.Web magazine also started Comic Natalie January 2009, 8
- ^ Ura Sunday Women's Club pixiv
- ^ Transfer serialization started at "Alice in Murderland 6" & "Alice in Murderland" magazine edge Natalie April 2018, 7
- ^ The increasing number of children's "Torisetsu books", the number one problem faced by modern elementary school girls is "human relations" Oricon August 2019, 10
- ^ From how to eat rice to how to like yourself ... The reason why the "glittering" children's practical book "Hapikawa" is very popular Hyundai Business July 2021, 4
- ^ Manners, fashion, and relationships that you want to teach elementary school girls ... Now, "Hapikawa" is very popular with elementary school girls and their parents. Da Vinci News December 2021, 2
- ^ 24% of Gen Z people say they have a lover, and does the culture raise the bar for their opponents? Z Research Institute research BCN + R December 2020, 12
- ^ Why is the new trend of make-up videos "mass production type / mine system" popular?From Nicole Fujita to Minegishi Minegishi, consider with hit videos Real Sound April 2020, 6
- ^ What is the aim of the reissue of the magazine "LARME" presented by "Yume Kawaii"?Consider measures such as appointing popular influencers Real Sound April 2020, 10
- ^ I'm addicted to the host, quit college and go to the sex industry ... The reason why the "host madness" that the author of "Tomorrow Kano" talked about is so real p.4 Bungei Online November 2021, 4
- ^ "Zeroichi" broadcast content on Saturday, April 2021, 4 Wire action / price.com
- ^ "Tomorrow, I'm Someone's Girlfriend", "Nagi's Leisure" Hoss Madness, Mobbing, Toxic Parent ... Two modern mangas that draw "real suffering" Futabasha November
- ^ What is the structure that users actually fit into the SNS "Millionaire by throwing money"? NEWS Post Seven August 2021, 5
- ^ The ownership rate of "back red" among elementary, junior high and high school students is over 3%, but the awareness of crisis is low and troubles are "other personnel" [Digital Arts survey] Impress February 2019, 6
- ^ The "Gender Reversal" in the movie "Love and Lies" was successful!What is the reason? cinema PLUS October 2017, 10
- ^ Fuji's "Marriage partner is a lottery" is interesting ... A tragicomedy of men and women whose dignity is hurt by the "lottery matchmaking marriage method" Business Journal June 2018, 10
- ^ Drama of the love story "Marry Me!" Between NEET and the elite who were married by law, broadcast in October Comic Natalie January 2020, 8
- ^ Men and women who have no contact suddenly become a pseudo couple in a school class! "More than a couple, less than a lover." Volume 1 Natalie April 2018, 10
- ^ From the time of admission, couples live in a dormitory, and 5 volumes of the marriage-themed manga "Hatsu x Marriage" are released. Ribon's popular work Oricon August 2021, 2
- ^ The reason why the elite man-eating diary "Leisure college student" receives a fool Diamond Online August 2017, 4
- ^ a b 38-year-old bachelor reason why I started a matching app instead of for marriage and "results" Bungei Online November 2020, 11
- ^ Rio Uchida "I will do it properly in the next world" Episode 1.Are you surprised by the girls with 5 saffles or do you sympathize with "it's me"? Excite April 2020, 1
- ^ Sayaka Yamaguchi, are you addicted to matching apps? Starring in a "modern" romantic comedy drama <A diary of the results of a 38-year-old batuichi single woman trying a matching app> Model Press July 2020, 10
- ^ "The story of meeting my sister on a dating site" The forbidden lily that echoed on Twitter is serialized Natalie April 2017, 5
- ^ "Horimiya" will be made into a live-action movie and TV drama in February next year!The role of Miyamura is Oji Suzuka, and the role of Hori is Sayu Kubota. Natalie April 2020, 11
- ^ "Ultra-slightly carbonated" comics filled with youth were born in this way ── Anime "Horimiya" HERO x Hagiwara Daisuke Original author dialogue Anime Da Vinci January 2021, 1
- ^ "Romance dramas are difficult in this era," says BS Fuji President Kameyama. Changes in viewers Asahi Shimbun / withnews February 2021, 2
- ^ The reason why dramas like "Sentai Mono" will be mass-produced on September 9-The times are looking for hero ensemble drama rather than romance Toyo Keizai September 2021, 6
- ^ Both romance manga and non-romance manga are colorful.The future of "Ribon" talked about by editor-in-chief Soichi Aida Livedoor News February 2020, 10
- ^ Affair drama rush The theme is changed from "the side that is doing" to "the side that is being done" NEWS Post Seven August 2021, 7
- ^ The price of affair is so heavy ... "Saletagawa's Blue" that realistically draws evidence, lawyers, and even compensation Real Sound April 2020, 2
- ^ Affair Wife's Statement "You Are Bad To Make You Lonely!" Yahoo Japan March 2021, 3
- ^ Suspicion of an elite boyfriend's bifurcation due to the muddy affair of a "self-proclaimed Saba Saba woman" ... "Black Girls Talk" with outstanding sympathy that slashes annoying humans Da Vinci News December 2019, 10
- ^ Self-proclaimed Saba Saba woman's too dangerous behavior "Because I'm Saba Saba" J-CAST June 2021, 6
- ^ The manga "Pichi Pichi Pitch" has been revived for the first time in 16 years. Oricon August 2021, 7
- ^ The Television-"Love is the gateway to expanding the world" A dialogue between the original authors of the anime movie "Omoi, Omoware, Pretend, and Fure", directed by Io Sakisaka and Toshimasa Kuroyanagi (Yahoo! News, September 2020, 9)
- ^ Hakusensha Advertising Media Material Hana to Yume Hakusensha
- ^ "Dessert-Kodansha AD STATION". Kodansha. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Shueisha. p. 55. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "(PDF)". K-RITs Mar.2015. Kyoritsu Women's Junior College. p. 1. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Shueisha MEDIA GUIDE 2020 Advertising Media Materials p.29 Shueisha 2020
- ^ Hakusensha Advertising Media Material LaLa
- ^ Postwar Japan Boys and Girls Magazine Database: Monthly Tiara (Geckan Tiara) JuGeMu
- ^ Petit Comic-Magazine Shogakukan
- ^ Hakusensha's manga magazine for adult girls, AneLaLa suspended, Masami Tsuda "Hinoko" completed Natalie April 2017, 9
- ^ “It” is what you want to read now-the comic magazine “COMIC it” for orthodox adult girls was born in early spring 2015! KADOKAWA Game Linkage November 2014, 11
- ^ Shodensha's comic app "Manga Jam" that you can enjoy for free is now available! J-CAST June 2017, 12
- ^ A new serialization by Megumi Oku has started!The first issue of the electronic manga magazine "Bani Love" for adult girls will be released today on November 11th! One episode free campaign and gift planning will be held! Animate November 2019, 11
- ^ New issue!WEB comic label "Comic Brise" for adult girls is available from today!New serialization of XNUMX notable works has started! PR TIMES March 2020, 12
- ^ Kiss ｜ Kodansha AD STATION (Cash as of 2020) Kodansha
- ^ Shueisha MEDIA GUIDE 2020 Advertising Media Materials p.30 Shueisha 2020
- ^ FEEL FREE Start hurry! Shodensha November 2015, 11
- ^ [To our readers] Notice of the end of the "FEEL FREE" service. Shodensha November 2020, 8
- ^ 7 years since the first issue of "Hatsu Kisu", a sister magazine of "Kiss" Akita Sakigake Shinposha June 2021, 6
- ^ Shueisha MEDIA GUIDE 2020 Advertising Media Materials p.29 Shueisha 2020
- Yonezawa Yoshihiro"History of Postwar Girl Manga", Shinkosha, January 1980,National bibliographic number:81003669
- Yoshihiro Yonezawa "History of Postwar Girl Manga" (paperback edition above), Chikuma Shobo Chikuma Bunko, August 2007,ISBN 978-4-480-42358-0
- "20th Century Shojo Manga Heaven-Complete coverage from nostalgic masterpieces to the latest hits in this one book!", Enterbrain, 2001,ISBN 978-4-7577-0506-7
- Hiromi Nakagawa, 2013, "Transition of the "girl" image seen in girls' magazines-How did manga draw "girl"?1st Edition, 1st Print, No.24, Publishing Media Pal <Thinking about the Future of Books = Publishing Media Pal> ISBN 978-4902251241
- "Where did shojo manga come from? Web exhibition-from testimony about the establishment of the genre-" Meiji UniversityOn the Yonezawa Yoshihiro Memorial Library website (open to the public from December 2020, 12)
- Love romance was taboo History of shojo manga learned from the "Where did shojo manga come from?" Exhibition AERA, August 2021, 3
- Woman cartoon(Ladies comics)
- Anime for girls
- Anime for women
- Boys love
- Teens love
- Girl culture / Girl hobbies / Maiden
- List of Shojo Manga related anime works by age
- List of live-action movies of anime and manga
- List of anime/manga TV drama works
- Shoujo Mangakan TAKI 1735 --Private holding of shojo manga bookslibrary