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📺 | <Drama Award 2021> Haruka Ayase smiles in full bloom! Received the Leading Actress Award for "Heaven and Hell"

Photo Haruka Ayase cranked in at the "Tokyo Drama Award 2021" award ceremony!

<Drama Award 2021> Haruka Ayase smiles in full bloom! Received the Leading Actress Award for "Heaven and Hell"

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In the same work, Ayase plays a good performance of a female detective who replaces the psychopathic murderer played by Issei Takahashi and is also in a position to be chased.

At the "Tokyo Drama Award 27" held in Tokyo on the 2021th, actress Haruka Ayase performed the drama "Heaven and Hell ..." → Continue reading

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Female detective


Psychopathy(Psychosis,British: psychopathy) OrPsychopathyIsMental disorderIs a type ofDifficult to adapt to societyConstantPersonality disorder[1], OrMental illnesshealthyIntermediate state with[2]..精神病質を持つ者はThose with psychopathiesPsychopath-psychopath(British: psychopath).Criminal sociologyAccording to Yukio Akabane, "Psychopathy is a problem for oneself and others because of the extreme personality.symptomIt is the name of the disease given to[3],Educational psychologyAccording to Yoko Kado and Satoshi Sanada, "Psychopathy is an adult.NonsocialorAntisocialIs often interpreted as a personality disorder that shows difficulties in social life as a normal situation. "[4]..精神病質という用語は、主にThe term psychopath is mainlyAbnormal psychology,Biological psychiatryIt is used in such fields.


the term
Similar words
  • As a similar termSocial illness(Shakaiboshitsu,(British: sociopathy,Sociopathy).Behavioral geneticist David T. Lykken categorizes antisocial personalities into three categories: sociopathic personality, psychopathic personality, and personality neuropathy. It is positioned as "acquired things by people, etc." "Psychopathic personality is innate things such as original personality and disposition."[5]..しかし一般には、ソシオパスとサイコパスはほぼ同義なものとして扱われることが多いHowever, in general, sociopaths and psychopaths are often treated as almost synonymous.[*1]..Studies have cited genetic and non-genetic factors as causes.
  • "Psychopathy" is "Machiavellianism""narcissismWithDark triad[6]It is one of the three elements that make up.
注意 点

The term "psychopathy" was once used in a relatively broad sense as one of the psychiatric terms (mainly in Europe).Such usage is now obsolete, but care must be taken not to confuse it with today's usage.またサイコパスは俗にAlso, psychopaths are popularPsychoSometimes abbreviated as, but the word is "psychotic ("British: psychotic, Psychotic) ”may also be included, so it is“ psychopathic ()British: psychopathic, Psychopathic) ”is not necessarily synonymous.

Statistics / ratio

Psychopaths (* including mild psychopaths)Exists in a certain number (1% to several%) that is by no means small to the populationIt is estimated that they continue to do so, and it is thought that there are "about one person in the school class" and "always many people in the company" with psychopaths.Although it has various characteristics that are different from the general public, it is very difficult for non-experts to distinguish it because psychopaths are good at deceiving people.[7]..日本にもおよそ120万人いると推定されるIt is estimated that there are about XNUMX million people in Japan[8][Page number required]..下記の様に統計的見積もりに、バラつきがあるのは、後述する「マイルド・サイコパス」を含めるか、含めないかによる相違であるThe variation in the statistical estimates as shown below is due to the presence or absence of the "mild psychopath" described later.[9][Page number required].

  • Antisocial personality disorderThe prevalence of the general population is about 3% for men and 1% for women.[10]
  • "The reason why female psychopaths are statistically low or overlooked" is that psychiatrists diagnose "psychopaths" for men who have the characteristics of psychopaths. For women, "Personality disorder(Theatrical, borderline, narcissistic) ”and other things that tend to make different diagnoses” and “the prejudice that women are not psychopaths”[11].
  • Martha StoutAccording to the United States, it is 25 in 1 (about 4%). It does not reflect the reality of the "mild psychopath" that "many of them are not criminals but abnormal personalities hidden in their immediate surroundings" (#DiagnosisSee).
  • At least 300 million people in the United Statesニ ュ ー ヨ ー クRobert Hare statistically estimates that there are 10 psychopaths alone[Source required].. J. Blair states that in the United States, one-quarter of antisocial personality disorders are psychopaths, which accounts for 4% of the total.[12]


Behavioral and emotional characteristics

Oxford University PsychologistKevin DuttonDefines the main characteristics of psychopaths as follows:[13].

  • Extreme ruthlessnessRuthless
  • Egoism
  • Lack of emotion
  • Result supreme principle

Among them, the biggest feature is "Lack of conscienceAnd against the pain of others共 感There is noSelf-centeredI feel pleasure even if I act like a kid and hurt the other person, but I don't feel guilty.[14][Page number required].. 「人の"person'sHeart,human rights,dignityWhile acting calmly and trampling, I am not moved by that. "Blame of conscienceCan hurt others without[15]..Most psychopaths are not thugs who commit murder, but hide close to themAbnormal personality(=Mild psychopath (* see below)).Such mild psychopaths are often said to be socially successful.

Criminal psychologyPerson ofRobert D. HareIs defined as follows.

Nobuko NakanoThe following specific features are listed by[16][Page number required].

  • "Lack of conscience" "Superficial amiability" "Skillful words" "Lack of moderation" "Lack of long-term relationshipsThere is a feature.
  • Even if he tells an impossible lie and commits an injustice that ordinary people cannot think of, he is calm.Even if the lie is completely revealed and exposed to the public, he does not even show any embarrassment and is imposing.On the contrary, he even behaves as if he were a "victim who has been unfairly accused" and "a heroine in the midst of tragedy."
  • Appearance is attractive and sociable.Talks and presentations are also very interesting with water on the stand.However, everyone involved is deceived and pushed to the bottom of misery.Being sexually unrestrained, there are constant troubles with color love.
  • I can't take responsibility for what I say because it's difficult to have a long-term vision.Insist that it is completely different from what you said in the past.Even if a contradiction is pointed out, he insists with a cool face, "I never say that."Spoofing a career.
  • Despite having committed a brutal murder and a vicious fraud case, he does not show any remorse.Not only that, he publishes a memorandum claiming his legitimacy to the world.
  • On the net "VandalismDo well.
  • 愛情Of the delicate personconscienceTickle and prey on.Self-sacrificePeople who have the virtues of are more likely to notice psychopaths.
  • The activity / reaction of some areas of the brain is extremely low.不安,恐怖It's hard to feel ""MoralThere are features such as "I do not feel" and "I do not respond even if I see a painful image".You may feel afraid despite problems with automatic detection and response to threats[17].
  • Although he lacks empathy for others, he is good at reading emotions from the eyes of others as if he were solving a national language exam question.However, it lacks the ability to detect the fear and sadness of others.[18].
  • MetropolisLikes, it goes well with the city[19].

CourseraIn the online dialogue course ofYale UniversityPsychologist Paul Bloom talks about psychopaths

"I think the psychological mechanisms of people who are changing the world, for better or for worse, are moderate to low in emotional empathy, while others.ethicsOften an advanced person in human emotions. "

(I think the psychology of somebody who changes the world for better or worse is somebody who is medium to low in empathy, but often high in other moral emotions.)

It has said[20]..Question from interviewer Christina Starmans "Psychopaths are some of the worst people in the world. They are doing terrible things. So we are hypoemotional Or should the world be in the hands of psychopathic people? "[*2]Bloom responded with the following statement:[20].

"Then the psychopaths are really lacking in empathy, and the psychopaths are bad people, by definition. But the other individuals who lack empathy are not bad people.

autismOne example is an individual with a lack of emotional empathy.Most tests are far less empathetic than psychopaths.But they are not bad people.They do not make the world worse.They are often victims of that cruelty.But they rarely become cruel perpetrators.And that suggests that the lack of empathy itself does not make humans bad.
Also, keep that and this in mind.That is, one finds a lack of emotional empathy among psychopaths and aggressive people, which often depends on the situation.In other words, they don't do bad things because their brains are hypoemotional.Rather, they do bad things for a wide variety of reasons.Low impulse control..Often harmful desires, etc.And in the process of doing bad things, they reduce their emotional empathy. "

(So ​​psychopaths do lack empathy, and psychopaths are bad people, by definition. But other individuals who lack empathy are not bad people.
Individuals who have autism for instance lack empathy. By most tests are far less empathetic than psychopaths. But they're not bad people. They don't make the world worse. They're often the victims of, of cruelty but very rarely the and what that suggests is, that lack of empathy per se doesn't make you into a bad person.

Also, also keep in mind that, that the lack of empathy you see in psychopaths and in aggressive people is often a situational thing. In other words, it's not that their brains are low empathy and then they do bad things. Rather, they do bad things for all sorts of reasons. Low impulse control. Often malevolent desires and so on. And then in the course of doing bad things they turn down their empathy.)[20]

Mild psychopath[21]

Symptoms of psychopaths are gray zone"While having a psychopathic brain structure, there is no antisocial tendency, and aggression is socially acceptable (does not commit serious crimes).[22]) ”Psychopath (→#Cause, brain characteristics) Also exists, and there is a high possibility that it will be mixed in with everyday life.Such cases of social compatibility and success are referred to as "Mild psychopath(Or a successful psychopath) ".


The reason why people are easily deceived by psychopaths is that the human brain has the following three characteristics, so it is more burdensome for the brain to believe in something and follow what it believes, rather than making decisions on its own. This is because it has a habit of being easy.[25][Page number required][26].

  • Cognitive load (it is a burden to judge for yourself and it feels painful)
  • Just world error(It is a belief that a fair result will be returned for human actions)
  • Cognitive dissonance(If you have contradictory cognitions in yourself and remember discomfort (conflict), you will create a convenient reason to resolve the contradiction.)

One answer to the question of why psychopaths are attractive is the results of neurological studies at the University of Southern California.[27]..According to it, criminal liars, unlike ordinary people, are designed to lie without being disinhibited.

It is known that a female psychologist fell in love with a male psychopath diagnosed and helped him escape ("Diagnosis Name Psychopath", p.213-214).

"Reading every book in the world doesn't protect you from the devastating influence of psychopaths. Everyone, including experts, is deceived, manipulated, scammed, and embarrassed. A good psychopath can play a concerto with any opponent's heartstrings "(Without Conscience, Ch.13 A Survival Guide, p.207).

"When you live with a psychopath, you see the world from the same perspective as a psychopath," said Lian Reedham, a psychiatrist who has been married to a psychopath and is the author of "Just Like His Father?" In response to the question, "Is it possible to change to?", "The answer is definitely yes. It is a psychopath, no matter how you know it, whether you live with it or not. It happens when you have any relationship with. "[28].

Psychopaths and occupations, psychopaths within the organization

According to a survey by Kevin Dutton, the top 10 occupations with the most psychopaths are:[13].

In addition, it is estimated that hair is often found in the following occupations.[29].

In addition, there are many other people such as the following[29].

Psychopaths within the company

Due to their characteristics, psychopaths are thought to be more located in the upper layers of the organization than in the lower layers of the organization, and the psychopaths that exist in companies are called corporate psycopaths for many years. It is beginning to be thought that it can sometimes lead to the ruin of a company that has been operating stably.[30]..コーポレート・サイコパスには以下の様な特徴があるCorporate psychopaths have the following features[31][Page number required].

  • Because he likes "change" and "thrill", he is attracted to situations where various things happen one after another.
  • Easy to get used to a free corporate culture.Take advantage of situations where rough and flat decision-making is allowed.
  • Since he is good at using others, he is suitable for a leader position.In a fast-paced industry, it is convenient because the surrounding situation changes before the nature is revealed.一般社会ではサイコパスの発生率は1%だが、組織の指導的地位にいる人で見ると4%になるという研究があるThere is a study that the incidence of psychopaths is XNUMX% in the general public, but it is XNUMX% for those who are in the leadership position of the organization.[32].
  • There are many types who are good at speaking and cannot do steady work.
  • We see the work environment as a "competitive place" rather than a "cooperative place."

Celebrity considered a psychopath


At present, only the checklist is the diagnostic criterion, so even if the condition is medically the same as psychopath, it cannot be psychopath unless it is antisocial.反社会性などの診断基準を満たす者は幼少期からの素行問題など行動面の異常を示すことが多いThose who meet diagnostic criteria such as antisocial behavior often show behavioral abnormalities such as behavioral problems from early childhood.[35]..日本国のOf japanLaw on Mental Health and Welfare for Persons with Mental Illness-Article 5In addition, "In this law," mentally ill person "meansschizophrenia, Acute poisoning due to psychoactive substances or its addiction, intellectual disability,PsychopathyDefined as "a person with other mental illness"Mentally handicapped individualAlthough it is legally permitted to be a subject of protection while falling under the above, it cannot be said that all of them are applicable, and the judgment is made based on the medical (scientific) diagnosis results appropriate for the times.

Currently, 20 items ("HARE PCL-R 2nd Edition Technical Manual") have been newly established, and semi-structural interviews are conducted by individual diagnosis using them, and evaluations are made over 2 hours to 3 hours.

Psychopaths are ill (so-calledMental illness), But most people have a normal social life.for that reason,Personality disorderIt is positioned as, in JapanAntisocial personality disorderIt is named.

Psychopathy and social illness are mixed, but according to Hair, psychopathic and social illness are similar and different.精神病質の原因と考えられているのはWhat is thought to be the cause of psychopathiesFrontal lobeThe main opinion is that psychopathies are hereditary diseases.On the contrary, personality abnormalities similar to psychopathies due to mental and physical weakness caused by family / surrounding environment and disabilities are regarded as (pseudopsychopathy) and are distinguished from psychopathies.

Emile Kraepelin[*5]According to one of the psychopaths, there is a type called "fantasy liar".However, the concept of psychopathies in the time of Kleperin is different from the current one.

DSM-IVAtConduct disorder,Antisocial personality disorderThe difference between the diagnosis of Psychopath and the psychopath concept shown by PCL-R is not so much as personality.Emotion>, <Impulsive / antisocial behavior>, and <elements not included in the former two>, the diagnosis of DSM-IV has been developed. The diagnosis of DSM-IV identifies a broad group of people who simply take antisocial behavior and have many ways to reach it.


Psychopathic Checklist (PCL)

The most commonly usedRobert D. HareCreated by(English edition(Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R))[36][37][38].

PCL is a fairly complex clinical diagnostic tool, even when used by professionals, and it is said that the general public without specialized knowledge should not use it to diagnose themselves or anyone nearby.This diagnosis requires solid training and formal scoring methods.

Psychopathic Checklist (PCL)
  1. Guru / superficial charm
  2. Past psychopaths or similar diagnoses
  3. Egocentrism / self-worthExaggeratedSense
  4. Boredom / low frustration tolerance
  5. Pathologically lie or deceive people
  6. Cunning / lack of honesty
  7. Remorse or lack of guilt
  8. Depth of emotion and lack of emotion
  9. Insensitivity / lack of empathy
  10. Parasitic lifestyle
  11. Short temper / lack of behavioral control
  12. Orgy sexual relations
  13. Behavioral problems from childhood
  14. Lack of realistic and long-term planning
  15. Impulsivity
  16. Irresponsible behavior as a parent
  17. Numerous marriage / divorce history
  18. Juvenile delinquency
  19. High risk of recidivism during probation or suspended sentence
  20. I can't accept responsibility for my actions
  21. Many types of criminal activity
  22. Substance and alcohol abuse is not a direct cause of antisocial behavior
  • Each item is scored by the 0-point method of "1, 2, 3", and clinically evaluated by the total score.The higher the score, the more psychopathic characteristics it has.
Psychopathy Checklist Revised Edition (PCL-R)[39]
  1. Guru / superficial charm
  2. ExaggeratedSelf-value
  3. Seeking stimulus / easy to get bored
  4. Pathological lies
  5. Tendency to deceive / operational (manipulate people)
  6. Remorse for conscience and lack of guilt
  7. Shallow emotions
  8. Cold and lack of empathy
  9. Parasitic lifestyle
  10. I can't control my behavior
  11. Pramāda sexual behavior
  12. Problem behavior in childhood
  13. Lack of realistic and long-term goals
  14. Impulsive
  15. Irresponsible
  16. I can't take responsibility for my actions
  17. Numerous marital relationships
  18. Juvenile delinquency
  19. Cancellation of parole
  20. A wide variety of criminal histories
  • Each item is rated from 0 to 2 points, and is distributed to 0 to 40 points in total.
  • Adults with a score above 30 are considered psychopaths, and an adult with a score below 20 is considered not a psychopath.
  • The criteria for children's psychopathic tendencies are not well established, but 27 points is the cutoff value.
Controversy over the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R)

Although PCL-R is certainly useful as one of the measures of psychopathy, there is a concern that PCL-R may be misunderstood as "definition of psychopath", and it includes items related to criminal history in particular. There is strong criticism about[40]..In contrast, Robert Hare et al. "Being a psychopath is antisocial in a broad sense (British: antisocial) Is mandatory, but criminal (British: criminal) Is not always essential. "[41]..This was once suggested by Harvey Klekley in his book, The Mask of Sanity,Non-criminal psychopathNo"Successful" psychopath[*6]The existence of was re-recognized. Many of the so-called "successful" psychopaths are said to be socially successful people, such as the president and CEOs of large corporations.

Two-factor model of psychopath
Factor 1: Interpersonal / emotional aspectFactor 2: Impulsive / antisocial behaviorFactor 3: Items not included in either
1. Guru / superficial charm3. Seeking stimulus / easy to get bored11. Escaped sexual behavior
2. ExaggeratedSelf-value9. Parasitic lifestyle17. Numerous marital relationships
4. Pathological lies10. I can't control my behavior20. A wide variety of criminal histories
5. Tendency to deceive / operational (manipulate people)12. Problem behavior in childhood
6. Remorse for conscience and lack of guilt13. Lack of realistic and long-term goals
7. Superficial emotions14. Impulsive
8. Cold and lack of empathy15. Irresponsible
16. I can't take responsibility for my actions18. Juvenile delinquency
19. Cancellation of parole
Two-factor model of psychopath
A magnificent and false interpersonal relationshipLack of emotionImpulsive / irresponsibleItems not included in any factor
1. Guru / superficial charm6. Remorse for conscience and lack of guilt3. Seeking stimulus / easy to get bored10. I can't control my behavior
2. ExaggeratedSelf-value7. Superficial emotions9. Parasitic lifestyle11. Escaped sexual behavior
4. Pathological lies8. Cold and lack of empathy13. Lack of realistic and long-term goals12. Problem behavior in childhood
5. Tendency to deceive / operational (manipulate people)16. I can't take responsibility for my actions14. Impulsive17. Numerous marital relationships
15. Irresponsible18. Juvenile delinquency
19. Cancellation of parole
20. A wide variety of criminal histories

Cause, brain characteristics

It is said that there is a congenital cause, and there are many men[42]According to B. Blair, men are dominant in terms of antisocial behavior, but there is no difference between men and women in terms of emotions.脳の働きを計測すると、共感性を司る部分の働きが弱い場合が多いというWhen measuring the function of the brain, it is said that the function of the part that controls empathy is often weak.[42].Antisocial personality disorderThe prevalence of the general population is about 3% for men and 1% for women.[43].

James Fallon(A brain scientist who says he has the same brain structure as a psychopath) advocated the theory of a "tripod stool"[44], All of the following three elements are to be met as the expression conditions for "psychopaths that behave antisocially".

  1. Brain function: Decreased function from the prefrontal cortex to the amygdala
  2. Genes: Several genetic factors such as the MAO-A gene
  3. Growing environment: Physical, mental and sexual abuse in childhood

The diseases that Fallon himself suffers from are bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic attacks.遠い親族に殺人者、殺人嫌疑者、兄弟にADHDがおり、本人の行為障害的行動についても語っているA distant relative has a murderer, a suspected murderer, and a brother has ADHD, and he also talks about his conduct disorder behavior.[45]..James Blair says that amygdala dysfunction is the main cause of psychopaths, but the cause is unknown.

At this point, we can say the following two points.

  • Heredity has a large impact on brain function
  • Growth environment can trigger increased antisocial behavior

Studies have shown that avoiding abuse and harsh environments can reduce some of the development of antisocial behavior.[46][Page number required].

Brain features


UK National Institute of Medical Technology(NICE) says cognitive-behavioral interventions will be considered for populations that meet the diagnostic criteria for psychopathies[49]..また併発疾患を治療することで、精神病質によるリスクを減少させることができるTreatment of comorbidities can also reduce the risk of psychopathies.[49]..また、これに携わるスタッフは有害事象リスクが高いため、スタッフには高レベルの支援と厳重な監督が提供されなければならないとしているIt also states that staff involved in this are at high risk of adverse events and must be provided with a high level of support and strict supervision.[49].


crime(Juvenile crime) Was the subjectfictionPsychopaths (or sociopaths)Antisocial personality disorder) ElementcharacterHas appeared.大抵はMostlyMoralThose who lacked (those with antisocial behavior), criminals,Psycho killerHas appeared as.



  • "Zelib(1988)- John CarpenterDirected work.
  • "Wall street(1987)- Oliver StoneDirected work.カリスマ投資家「ゴードン・ゲッコー」をマイケル・ダグラスが演じ、“成功した”サイコパス ("successful" psychopath) の一例とされるMichael Douglas plays charismatic investor Gordon Gekko as an example of a "successful" psychopath[51].
  • "Cold tropical fish(2010) --Japanese movie.Amazon Gold President Yukio Murata and Murata's wife Aiko Murata commit murder for money.
  • "Night crawler(2014)-A movie about a freelance photographer and TV director who lacks a conscience.Dan GilroyDirected work.



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "People without a conscience』, As stated in the translator's postscript, sociopath,Antisocial personality disorder, Psychopaths are almost indistinguishable.
  2. ^ The original text is “Psychopaths are some of the worst people in the world. They do terrible things. So should we be putting the world in the hands of people who are low empathy or psychopathic?”
  3. ^ A non-professional enlightenment book by a group of experts at Harvard University, "Thinking About Psychopath and Psychopathy: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions With Case Examples" (2006) --According to, "What mental illness Jim Jones had was somewhat controversial. Based on everything known about him, he was a complete psychopath. It seems to be "(ibid., P. 148).Jim Jones has had conduct disorders such as killing cats and playing funerals since childhood (Stanley Nelson, “Jonestown: The Life and Death of the People's Temple,” Fireflight Media, October 20 2006, compact disk, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydHRESPjBxg.)が、成人後はインディアナポリス人権委員会(Indianapolis He has held public positions such as Chairman of the Human Rights Commission and Chairman of the San Francisco Housing Authority Commission, and has also received a courtesy call from then-President's wife Rosalynn Carter (Reiterman, Tim, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 978-0-525-24136-2, P.66, p.266, p.303), so it can be said that it was a successful psychopath.Jim Jones is a good example of how successful psychopaths and perfect psychopaths are not necessarily contradictory concepts.
  4. ^ Ted Bundy is famous as a psychopathic poster boy, but in reality he has no juvenile crimes or early conduct disorders, and his PCL-R score is a little short of being called a psychopath.It's not that it didn't show the characteristics of psychopathy, but it's not a typical psychopath (Thinking About Psychopath and Psychopathy: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions With Case Examples, p.204).
  5. ^ Uchida-Kraepelin psychological testThe person who discovered the "work curve" that is the basis of.
  6. ^ However, Klekley himself said, "Partial psychopaths (British: partial psychopath) ”.This type of psychopath is, for example, "Find the "intellectual conviction" in the company], It is explained for amateurs using the character "Dave".


  1. ^ Shogakukan 2020, p. "Psychopathy".
  2. ^ Britannica Japan Co., Ltd. 2020, p. "Psychopathy".
  3. ^ Akabane 2012, p. 108.
  4. ^ Kado et al. 2013, p. 15.
  5. ^ Lykken, DT "The Antisocial Personalities", Psychology Press, 1 edition (May 3, 1995), p. 7.
  6. ^ http://karapaia.com/archives/52252648.html
  7. ^ Takayuki HaradaExcerpt from the book by100 in 1 is a psychopath? !! ──身近な「冷血」とどう付き合うか 原田隆之『サイコパスの真実』より── How to deal with familiar "cold blood" Takayuki Harada "The Truth of Psychopaths" Jibun-do
  8. ^ "psychopath"Nobuko Nakano, Bunshu Shinsho
  9. ^ "The Truth of Psychopaths" (Takayuki Harada, Chikuma Shinsho)
  10. ^ CG77: Antisocial personality disorder: Treatment, management and prevention (Report). UK National Institute of Medical Technology. (2009-01). http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg77/. 
  11. ^ "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho P194
  12. ^ Psychopaths-Cold Brain-, 25p
  13. ^ a b British Psychologist Announces Top 10 Workplaces with Most Psychopaths
  14. ^ "The Truth of Psychopaths" (Takayuki Harada, Chikuma Shinsho)
  15. ^ https://www.shigotoba.net/expert_interview_1906_tamerainaku.html
  16. ^ "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho
  17. ^ "Psychopaths do feel fear" (Dutch). Radboud University. NovemberBrowse.
  18. ^ Saikopasu: Reitanna nōJames Blair, Derek Robert Mitchell, Karina Blair, Hiroki Fukui, Hiroki Fukui. Tōkyō: Seiwa Shoten. (2009). ISBN 978-4-7911-0713-1. OCLC 674623454. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/674623454 
  19. ^ "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho P221
  20. ^ a b c Moralities of Everyday Life Week 2 Office Hours (2015) https://www.coursera.org/lecture/moralities/week-2-office-hours-2015-5Ohrr
  21. ^ https://www.shigotoba.net/expert_interview_1906_tamerainaku.html
  22. ^ https://www.shigotoba.net/expert_interview_1906_tamerainaku.html
  23. ^ Nobuko Nakano "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho
  24. ^ https://keiei.proweb.jp/news/1/1375/1883/
  25. ^ Nobuko Nakano "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho
  26. ^ Lerner, MJ & Montada, L. (1998). An Overview: Advances in Belief in a Just World Theory and Methods, in Leo Montada & MJ Lerner (Eds.). Responses to Victimizations and Belief in a Just World (1–7). Plenum Press: New York.
  27. ^ Liars' Brains Wired Differently https://news.usc.edu/22586/Liars-Brains-Wired-Differently/
  28. ^ Can victims become like the psychopath? (Can victims become like the psychopath?) http://www.lovefraud.com/2008/10/03/can-victims-become-like-the-psychopath/
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Snakes in suits" p194,Diagnosis name Psychopath p32
  30. ^ Clive R. Boddy (2011). “The Corporate Psychopaths Theory of the Global Financial Crisis”. Journal of Business Ethics (Springer) 102 (2): 255-259. two:10.1007 / s10551-011-0810-4. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-011-0810-4. 
  31. ^ Nobuko Nakano "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho
  32. ^ Is there a "workplace psychopath" next to you that causes harassment without hesitation? ~筑波大学人間系教授 原田 隆之氏インタビュー-Interview with Takayuki Harada, Professor of Human Studies, University of Tsukuba ASKUL Everyone's workplace
  33. ^ "Psychopath" Bunshu Shinsho P24-30
  34. ^ Moralities of Everyday Life
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