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Yosuke Aizawa of White Mountaineering, "Making music at fashion shows and records ...

If you write the contents roughly
It's not called Kishōtenketsu, but it seems that there are various chapters like a novel, and there are prologues and epilogues.

"White Mountaineering" fashion designer Yosuke Aizawa has his own roots and music ... → Continue reading


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Consolidation(Kisho Tenketsu) consists of 4 linesChinese poetry(Regulated verse)ofJuejuRefers to the composition of. From the first line, call the phrase, the phrase, the phrase, and the conclusion.[1][2]..OriginalChinese(Chinese text) Then,Kishōtenketsu (present dayChinese: Kishōtenketsu, Pin sound: qǐ chéng z huǎn hé)[3].

In Japanese primary and secondary education, it is generally taught as the composition of sentences, changing from the original meaning.[4].

It has been pointed out that sentences based on Kishōtenketsu are not logical.[5][4][6][7][8](See section "Critique").

It is not common internationally to use Kishōtenketsu to compose sentences and stories.Internationally, in general English logical sentences (claim → rationale → claim')[9][10][11], In academic papersIMRAD[12], And in screenplays such as moviesThree-act structure[13][14][15]Is mainly used (See section "Comparison for" Diversion to Non-Chinese Poetry "").


yuan OfZai Yang The book "The Number of Poetry Houses" by (1271-1323) is sometimes claimed to be the oldest document that advocated the "Kishōtenketsu" theory.The main theory of "Kishōtenketsu" in Yang is as follows.[16].

  • From: It is said that various developments can be made by starting to sing from metaphors and associations on the subject of history and personnel affairs.
  • Bear: It should be made "moderate" and insists on avoiding outlandish, explicit phrases and, on the contrary, flat plates.
  • : We are asking you to make changes that will surprise the reader.However, the phrase "transition" must be two sides of the same coin with that of "acceptance", must not be different, and must be consistent in responding to each other and avoiding each other.
  • Connection: It is said that one of the purposes of the poetry, "implication," can be achieved by fading out as appropriate, saying that "there is nothing to say and there is no discomfort."

Poet,杜甫The following poem of the five words[17]Is an example of "Kishōtenketsu".

OriginalWritten sentenceModern translation
Ebi Tori WhiteJiang Bi(GreenToBirds(I'm sorryFinally whiteThe water of the river is dark green and the birds look whiter and whiter
Mountain blue and white potteryI want to make the mountains blue and burn flowersThe mountains are fresh green and the flowers look red just because they are not burning
This springthis springLook(MissMisumataIt's about to pass again while I'm watching this spring
How many daysWhich day is it?When will the year come when I can return to my hometown?

In addition,Yori Sanyo The following, which is said to be the work of (1780-1832)Folk songIs also recognized as an example of Kishōtenketsu (there are many variations, one of which is listed).[18].

  • From: Daughter of Itoya, Honmachi, Osaka
  • Bear: My sister is sixteen and my sister is fourteen
  • : National daimyo kill with a bow and arrow
  • Connection: Itoya's daughter kills with her eyes

It is said that Yori used this folk song to make his disciples understand the origination and transition of Chinese poetry.[19].

Diversion to other than Chinese poetry

Japanese language scholarso,Mukogawa Women's University・ Director of the Institute of Language and Culture and Professor of the same university (at that time)Hideo SatakeDefines the composition of sentences by Kishōtenketsu as follows (note that Satake does not necessarily support the composition of sentences by Kishōtenketsu).[20].

  • From: State facts and events.
  • Bear: State what was said in "Ki".Explain, state the problems caused by it, give impressions and opinions.
  • : Bring up something else that has nothing to do with "Origin".
  • Connection: Conclude the whole by associating it.

Akira KurosawaOf the scriptwriter who was in charge of multiple screenplays of the director's workHideo OguniInterprets Kishōtenketsu in the composition of the story as follows [Editor's Note: Correct some typographical errors][21].

  • From: State of the hero, explanation of the play
  • Bear: The process in which the play is gradually unfolding after an incident occurs in which the main character is placed
  • : Conversion to go to the result in one play Yamaba
  • Connection: Acceptance, the consequences of the incident and the resulting conversion

As a typical example of such story composition4 comic strip cartoonMay be quoted[22].


Logical sentence structure

In Japan,Secondary educationThe style of writing to be learned up to the stage of is generally "Kishōtenketsu".For this reason, students often graduate with the recognition that "Japanese sentences must be written by Kishōtenketsu."On the other hand, KishōtenketsuChinese poetryIt is not a structure that can write logical sentences.[4]As, it is pointed out as follows.

Japanese languageIs specializedTakasaki University of EconomicsAssociate professor (at that time, later professor) Masatake Takamatsu insisted that "Kishōtenketsu is extremely inappropriate for writing sentences for the purpose of persuading, and is almost useless." I can't write a sentence. " Takamatsu considers that the definition of each function of "Ki", ​​"Kishōtenketsu", "Kishōtenketsu", and "Yui" is not clear, and the sentences to be included in each part are ambiguous.[5].

Takamatsu also argues that Kishōtenketsu is really a problem not because it is "useless" but because it has a great impact on thinking.In other words, suddenly say something that seems to be irrelevant to the argument of the sentence with "transition", try to write it as late as possible in order to write the argument in "conclusion", absolutely as the composition of the sentence Takamatsu argues that it will establish an unrecognized way of thinking.[5].

Specializes in Japanese language educationChiba UniversityHisako Sato, an associate professor at the International Education Center, criticizes that logical sentences require logical coherence, and that the "transition" part is contrary to logical coherence.[4]..Kiyoshi Yokoo, then the Tohoku branch manager and thesis instructor, also argues that it is not logical that the "transition" part deviates from the logical development.Yokoo argues that Kishōtenketsu is a literary sentence development and is not suitable for argumentation or discussion because it lacks a logical or objective perspective. "Even if it is a junior high school student's writing instruction, you should not be conscious of writing by Kishōtenketsu," says Yokoo.[6].

Bain & CompanyServed as the president of Japanbusiness consultant OfMasatake UshiroKishōtenketsurhetoricIt is a technique (rhetoric) of, and has nothing to do with logical correctness, but rather it is said that it becomes an obstacle to logical thinking by being influenced by rhetoric.[7].

Booz Allen HamiltonKoji Yamazaki, who was the chief consultant at the company and translated the work of Barbara Minto.[23]In business documents, it is a principle to write from the conclusion first, and one of the reasons is that the reader is busy.Yamazaki argues that Kishōtenketsu, which writes the conclusion at the end, is not a style of report writing.[8].

As a psychologistOchanomizu UniversityServed as the president ofKanji Hatano, And of historiansAkio SawadaThey also make the same allegations as such criticisms about Kishōtenketsu as a writing technique.[24].

Screenplay composition

In screenplays such as movies, it is pointed out as follows.That is, the famous American(English editionIs(English edition[25]According to the report, if the time allocation to the first turning point is too long (significantly more than 1/4 of the total), the audience will not be interested.This is because in such a configuration, the first act (setting) in the three-act structure is delayed and boring.On the contrary, the second act (conflict) following the first turning point is too short and disgusting.(Ake)Because it disappears[26].

There are many screenwriters in the United States who confuse the first turning point with the midpoint, which results in a broken screenplay where the second act begins in the middle of the film, Seger said.[27].

Comparison with "Diversion to other than Chinese poetry"

English-speaking countriesThen, "paragraph writing"[28]Is commonly used in sentences[9]. Also,academic paperThen "IMRAD"Form" is the mainstream[12]..Kishōtenketsu is not always evaluated as the composition of the story, and is not internationally supported, for example, in screenplays such as movies.Usually, such as moviesscriptIs created based on the "three-act structure"[13][14][15].. In addition,Japanese traditional performing artsThe script composition inSudden and suddenThat is, it is a three-act structure[29][30][31].

Paragraph writing

Paragraph writing is a common style of logical writing in English.Paragraph writing consists of three parts: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion.[9][10]..In paragraph writing, the conclusional claim is written in the first paragraph of the entire sentence.The rationale is then provided by one or more paragraphs.Then, in the last paragraph, the paragraphs up to that point are summarized, and the assertion that is the conclusion is repeated in different expressions.[11][10].

IntroductionThen, thesis statement, that is, what you want to say most in the whole sentence, is shown (the theory is stated at the end of the prolegomenon).Main issueIs about to write the basis for that argument.This paper consists of one or more paragraphs.The paragraphs in this paper consist of a topic sentence followed by a supporting sentence.The thesis statement is a sentence that states what you want to say in that paragraph, and the supporting sentence is the underlying sentence.It is desirable that there are five or more support statements.In that way, the paragraph of this paper holds.ConclusionIs the whole summary.Here, based on the argument in this paper, the argument stated in the prolegomenon is paraphrased and reasserted.[9][11][10].

In paragraph writing, "One paragraph, one topic" is the principle.Separate paragraphs when discussing a new topic.Also, do not write irrelevant sentences that are unrelated to the topic or argument.Statements such as the "transition" of Kishōtenketsu are not recognized as logical leaps.[9].

IMRAD format

IMRAD format isacademic paperThis is a typical configuration of. The IMRAD format consists of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.The IMRAD format is the mainstream of the composition of academic papers, including derivative formats.By fieldBiological scienceStartedChemical,andMedical scienceSuch asnatural ScienceIs used relatively often in[12].

Three-act structure

The three-act structure is a general structure in screenplays such as movies.[13][14][15]..In the three-act structure, the beginning, middle, and end of the story are three acts that have the roles of Set-up, Confrontation, and Resolution, respectively.[32][33], The ratio of the three curtains is 3: 1: 2[34]..The curtain and the curtain are connected by a turning point (plot point).Plot points are events that cause the protagonist to take action and change the story in a different direction.[35].

NHK EnterpriseTakahiro Hamano, an executive producer (at that time) of the company, said, "The way the story is constructed differs considerably between Japan and overseas. For example, in Japan, there may be no producer who does not know the concept of" Kishōtenketsu ", but foreigners know it. It is rare for people to do it. Overseas, "Sudden and sudden"Three-act structure", which is close to the concept of "," is the mainstream, and most foreigners know this.Therefore, when a foreigner who receives a pitch [editor's note: marketing of a project] hears the story composition, he usually asks for an explanation according to this three-act structure.If you can't answer it right away, you're probably in the pre-planning stage without even thinking about the basics. "It has said[15].

Acceptance in Japan

The word "Kishōtenketsu" isMid-16th century OfJapanese dictionaryIsCollection of colored leaves』, You can see an example of early use in Japan[5]..In Japan after that, from a certain point, the composition of Kishōtenketsu was diverted to sentences other than Chinese poetry.

1802 IsTokosha XNUMXTitled "Initial Transfer" byFashionable bookHas been published.The title at this time was also "Kishōtenketsu", not "Kishōtenketsu".[36]..In China, the literaryLu XunBut,1928 In the "Communication" of "Kishōtenketsu" published in, Kishōtenketsu (Kishōtenketsu) has already been diverted.[37].

Natsume SosekiandTorahiko TeradaUses the word "Kishōtenketsu" in the original meaning of "composition of Chinese poetry", but Terada also uses it as a metaphor.1931 In "Renku Zakka", the four-part composition is not only Chinese poetry, but also "an inevitable composition method used in both drama and novels."[38][39][40][41]..Around the same time, the poetSeiga YokoyamaIn "How to Make New Poetry (1931)", argues for the need for Kishōtenketsu, which is extended to free verse.[42] .

At the latest1940 eraThere is an example of generalizing the diversion of "Kishōtenketsu" in the sense of "composition of sentences and things" (Tsuneo Hazumi"Fifty Years of Movies"[43]).

1961 "Introduction to Writing Classes" published inTakajiro Imai(Author) wrote about "Kishōtenketsu", saying, "It goes without saying that this is the name of the arrangement of Chinese poetry phrases."compositionIt is taken up as an expression of. "If you express this so that children can understand it well, it will be" beginning "," continuation "," alternative ", and" conclusion "," Imai said.[44]..Imai said "Japanese Composition AssociationServed as chairman[45]..According to the Japanese Composition Association, it was after the war that "writing" became more important in Japanese language education.[46].

Hideo OguniIt is,1970 Before and after, "In China, there is the word" Kishōtenketsu ". This word is a good expression of the theatrical composition, and it is convenient for the person who writes the scenario to make the play in this order. I suspect it isn't there. "In addition, the "Scenario Manners" (published in 1969 or 1971) in which this text was published is not limited to Kishōtenketsu.ア リ ス ト テ レ スFrom the three-part theoryFreitagExplains the "basics of modern theater" leading up to the five-step theory of[21].

1980 "NHK New Announcement Reader" published inJapan Broadcast Publishing Association) ThenNHK The news manuscript of (NHK) is said to be composed of Kishōtenketsu. "Kishōtenketsu is the basic form of any composition, whether it's writing or music," the book wrote.[47].

Example in the Diet

Japanese国会In the 1st (1947 ) Since then, the word "Kishōtenketsu" was first used in the 16th (1953 ) At the House of Representatives Education Committee on June 6Koichi SekoIs the question[48]..Seko's remarks were based on the original meaning of Kishōtenketsu, that is, the composition of Chinese poetry.Education OfPoemIt insisted on the artistry as.Seko begins by introducing the words of Kishōtenketsu.[49].

In poetryConsolidationThere is a law.When scrutinizing poetry, the part of the change is raised in a loud voice.The Imperial Rescript on Education also has artistry, and it is really suitable for scrutiny, loyal to you, filial piety to parents, ... — Koichi Seko, 16th Diet and House of Representatives Education Committee No. 5, June 1953, 6.

Since then, the word "Kishōtenketsu" has not been used in the Diet for 17 years.1970 eraSuddenly, there are 3 cases of diversion in the sense of "composition of sentences and things"[50] [51][52],1980 era8 cases[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]appear.The first such diversion in the Diet was by the then Minister for Foreign Affairs.Aichi KoichiIs[61].1970 Occurred on January 3Red army OfYodo Hijacking CaseBecause it coincided with the time ofSoviet UnionAichi stated on April 4, the same year that the end of diplomatic negotiations with him became unclear.[50].

As you said, this is due to the outbreak of the hijacking incident.ConsolidationThere is a tilt that is a little blurry.Negotiations between the government and the Soviet Union on this issue, and the end of it, but ... this is the formal negotiation until it ends. — Kiichi Aichi, Minister for Foreign Affairs (at that time), 63rd Diet / House of Councilors Foreign Affairs Committee No. 7, April 1970, 4.

Another example of parliament in the 1970s isSatoshi Uedaby1973 Remarks at the 71st Diet and House of Councilors Cabinet Committee[51],andKaneyasu Marutaniby1979 There is a statement at the 87th Diet / House of Councilors Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Committee[52].


注 釈


  1. ^ "World EncyclopediaXNUMXnd edition,平凡 社,Kishotenketsu [Kishōtenketsu] qǐ chéng z huǎng jié. "
  2. ^ "Daijirin』Third edition,Sanseido,Kishotenketsu [Kishōtenketsu]. "
  3. ^ "Chinese dictionary". "Kishōtenketsu"Hakusuisha. 2014/5/29Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d Hisako Sato, Aya Yoshino, Kikuko Shiina "Students' problems in "Sentence Expression Exercise" and their improvements"Language and Culture Theory," Volume 2, Center for Language Education, Chiba University, March 2008, pp. 3-129, NOT 120002827830, 52682756,2014/5/19Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d Masatake Takamatsu (2004). "Kishōtenketsu" (Japanese). Takasaki City University of Economics (Takasaki City University of Economics Economic Society) 46 (4): 115-122. http://www1.tcue.ac.jp/home1/k-gakkai/ronsyuu/ronsyuukeisai/46_4/takamatsu.pdf 2014/5/11Browse.. 
  6. ^ a b Kiyoshi Yokoo, "Logical Thinking Training for Training Japanese," Beret Publishing, October 2007, 10, pp. 19-232 (Japanese).ISBN 4860641701.
  7. ^ a b Masatake Ushiro"Technology of Logical Thinking and Ideas Revealed by Management Staff" PHP Institute, March 2006, 3 (Japanese).ISBN 4569666191.
  8. ^ a b Koji Yamazaki, "Introduction to Thinking and Writing: Japanese Logical Thinking Practices," Diamond, April 2011, 4 (Japanese).ISBN 4478014582.
  9. ^ a b c d e Kikuko Tanabe, Kyoko Mitsuto, "Translation Skills from the Basics Taught by English-Japanese-English Professionals," Sanshusha, September 2008, 9, pp. 22-64 (Japanese).ISBN 4384055064.
  10. ^ a b c d Iwamoto Ichi (2002-03). “Application of paragraph writing” (Japanese). dialogos: Bulletin of Department of English Communication, Faculty of Letters, Toyo University (Department of English Communication, Faculty of Letters, Toyo University) (2): 25-41. https://toyo.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=5164&file_id=22&file_no=1 2014/5/11Browse.. 
  11. ^ a b c Chukyo University Faculty of International English Department of International English. “Basic Terms for Academic Writing in English: Basic Terms for Academic Writing in English (PDF)”(Japanese). Chukyo University Faculty of International English Department of International English. 2014/5/11Browse.
  12. ^ a b c Yosuke Miyata et al. (nd). “Components and structure of academic papers (PDF)”(Japanese). As of May 2014, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/5/10Browse.
  13. ^ a b c "Construction”(Japanese). Cinema sense. Aalto University (OldHelsinki College of Art and Design). As of January 2014, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/4/29Browse.
  14. ^ a b c "screen”(Japanese). Cinema sense. Aalto University (OldHelsinki College of Art and Design). As of January 2014, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/4/26Browse.
  15. ^ a b c d Takahiro Hamano; Kenichi Imamura, Hans Robert Eisenhower (2012). “International documentary co-production guidance (PDF)”(Japanese). Uni Japan. P. 12. As of March 2014, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/3/2Browse.
  16. ^ Toshio Suzuki "Zai Yang's "Kishōtenketsu" preaching lesson (above)"Visit to Oriental History," Volume 3, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Oriental History Study Group, March 1997, 3, pp. 31-8,2014/5/16Browse.
  17. ^ Matsubara Akira (2003-12-31). “Du Fu's Nostalgia: Early Middle Ages”. Chinese poetry theory (Waseda University Chugoku Poetry Study Group) 22: 1language = Japanese. https://hdl.handle.net/2065/40660 2014/5/29Browse.. 
  18. ^ Keiichi Yamanaka, "The Shape of Japanese: An Approach from Contrast Linguistics," University of Tokyo Press, January 1998, p. 1 (Japanese).ISBN 4130800043.
  19. ^ Taneshige Harada "My Chinese Lecture" Taishukan Shoten, October 1995, p. 10 (Japanese).ISBN 4469231231.
  20. ^ Hideo Satake, "Sentence Writing Techniques," Beret Publishing Co., Ltd. <Knowing and Polishing Japanese>, February 2006, 2, p. 25 (Japanese).ISBN 4860641140.
  21. ^ a b Jinzo Toriumi"Introduction to Anime Scenarios" Eijinsha, May 1987, 5, 20, 121 (Japanese).ISBN 4871002152. [Be careful about grandchildren.The original is "Scenario Manners" (Hobunkan Publishing)]
  22. ^ Keiko Takemiya, "Introduction to Manga Scripts," Kadokawa Gakugei Shuppan, April 2010, 4, p. 8 (Japanese).ISBN 4046538015.
  23. ^ "New Edition Thinking / Writing Techniques: Pyramid Principles to Improve Problem Solving Ability; Author Introduction”. Diamond language = Japanese. As of May 2014, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/5/14Browse.
  24. ^ Masatake Takamatsu (2003). "Toward the establishment of the theory of" sentence expression technology "" (Japanese). Takasaki City University of Economics (Takasaki City University of Economics) 45 (4): 178. http://www1.tcue.ac.jp/home1/k-gakkai/ronsyuu/ronsyuukeisai/45_4/takamatsu.PDF 2014/5/11Browse.. 
  25. ^ Linda Seger (Linda Seger) "Hollywood Rewriting Bible" Aiikusha, 2000, colophon (Japanese).ISBN 4750000655.
  26. ^ Linda Seger (Linda Seger) "Hollywood Rewriting Bible" Aiikusha, 2000, p. 69 (Japanese).ISBN 4750000655.
  27. ^ Linda Seger (Linda Seger) "Hollywood Rewriting Bible" Aiikusha, 2000, p. 68 (Japanese).ISBN 4750000655.
  28. ^ (October 2003, 11). “Paragraph Writing-3rd "How to Write Easy-to-Understand Sentences" Course Learned from Professionals". Faculty of Informatics, Shizuoka UniversityHottaLaboratory (at that time). As of December 2003, 12オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/3/2Browse.
  29. ^ "Daijirin] Third Edition Sanseido "Johakyu [Jo-ha-kyu]Page
  30. ^ "World EncyclopediaXNUMXnd edition 平凡 社 "Johakyu [Jo-ha-kyu]Page
  31. ^ "Kabuki dance works and expressions-five-stage composition and jo-ha-kyu”(Japanese). Culture digital library. Japan Arts Council (2009). As of March 2014, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/2/28Browse.
  32. ^ Syd Field"What You Must Do to Write a Movie: Syd Field's Screenplay" Film Art, 2009, pp. 17-22 (Japanese).ISBN 4845909278.
  33. ^ Field, Syd (2013). “THE PARADIGM WORKSHEET”(English). Sydfield.com. As of September 2013, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/3/27Browse.
  34. ^ Linda Seger (Linda Seger) "Hollywood Rewriting Bible" Aiikusha, 2000, pp. 43-44 (Japanese).ISBN 4750000655.
  35. ^ Syd Field"What You Must Do to Write a Movie: Syd Field's Screenplay" Film Art, 2009, p. 23 (Japanese).ISBN 4845909278.
  36. ^ "Inauguration / Transfer / Toshokusha XNUMX [Selection / Painting] ”(Japanese). Classic book comprehensive databaseWaseda University Library. 2014/5/23Browse.
  37. ^ Lu Xun "Lu Xun Selection" 7, Iwanami Shoten, September 1956, 9, p. 22 (Japanese).ASIN B000JB1DEC.. "But unavoidable, somehowConsolidation It is said that (Kiyo-Kai) is salted and goes up on the stage.However, I make the rules myself, and at most I have a limited amount of time.But I don't feel happy, so before and after the speech, I always ... "
  38. ^ Natsume Soseki"Natsume Soseki Complete Works』7, Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma Bunko>, April 1988, 4 (Japanese). "... I suddenly saw the 26 characters side by side orConsolidationIt's not always the case that you don't combine the four phrases of ... "
  39. ^ Torahiko Terada"Torahiko Terada's collection of writings』3, Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Bunko>, May 1948, 5 (Japanese). "Originally, the composition of these four movements is not a coincidence, it is just a Chinese poem.ConsolidationIt is an inevitable composition method that appears in the works and is also used in plays and novels, and it is not limited to renku, but ... "
  40. ^ Torahiko Terada"Torahiko Terada's collection of writings2, Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Bunko>, September 1947, 9 (Japanese). "Actually, there is" Jo-ha-kyu "in the way this sparkler burns."Consolidation, There is poetry, there is music.However, what about electric fireworks or something called fireworks that started in modern times? "
  41. ^ Torahiko Terada"Torahiko Terada's collection of writings』3, Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Bunko>, May 1948, 5 (Japanese). "And then I say Jo-ha-kyuConsolidationThe oriental montage method called, finds the same type in the rhythmic principle of movie editing. "
  42. ^ Seiga Yokoyama"How to make a new poemKoransha, June 1931, 6, p. 10 (Japanese). "Not limited to Chinese poetry, poetry is thisConsolidationI'm stepping on the mold.However, many new poems today do not use this pattern, but at the root of poetry, this is the case.ConsolidationShould always be kept in mind. "
  43. ^ Tsuneo Hazumi "Fifty Year History of MoviesIntelfin Shobo, October 1947, 10, p. 5 (Japanese). "'The War at Sea from Hawaii and MurrayIsAttack on Pearl Harborparticipated inSpecial Attack UnitsDramatic, depicting the intense training of the family and membersConsolidationCan't be found.What is here is a normal Japanese family and a normal boy member.This movie is just like a casual everyday life ... "
  44. ^ Takajiro Imai"Introduction to Writing Classes" Meiji Tosho Publishing Co., Ltd., 1961, p. 187 (Japanese).ASIN B000JANEZY.
  45. ^ "Japanese Name Dictionary + Plus" Digital Version "Takajiro Imai [Imaita Kajiro]Page
  46. ^ "What is the Japanese Composition Association?”(Japanese). Japanese Composition Association. As of November 2013, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/5/30Browse.
  47. ^ "NHK New Announcement Reader" Japan Broadcasting Corporation, Japan Broadcasting Publishing Association, March 1980, p. 3 (Japanese).ISBN 4140110309.
  48. ^ reference.Diet record search system
  49. ^ “House of Representatives Education Committee”. 5The 16th Diet. (1953-06-30) 
  50. ^ a b “House of Councilors Foreign Affairs Committee”. 7The 63th Diet. (1970-04-14) 
  51. ^ a b “House of Councilors Cabinet Committee”. 24The 71st Diet. (1973-08-30). "... If there is one such change in policy, please report it to the authority of the Diet and the committee, from now on .... I want to do it in this direction. , Suppose the minister replied. In that respect, if you can get rid of it without any changes, it's a shame.ConsolidationWill you promise to reveal? " 
  52. ^ a b “House of Councilors Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Committee”. 6The 87th Diet session. (1979-03-22). "Hey, then I don't think the minister's remarks are being conveyed as they were just said, as far as we've heard. ProperlyConsolidationI think it would be a problem if I didn't make a statement in a certain way. " 
  53. ^ “House of Councilors Energy Measures Special Committee”. 2The 91st Diet session. (1980-02-22). "When I listen to the explanation in the morning, it is very neat.ConsolidationBut. " 
  54. ^ “House of Councilors Finance Committee”. 9The 91st Diet session. (1980-03-28). "Actually, it can be very difficult to understand when the Prime Minister is speaking, but when I read the record later, it was really neat.ConsolidationI was always impressed with the fine sentences. " 
  55. ^ “House of Councilors Legal Committee”. 8The 91st Diet session. (1980-05-08). "In other words, the opposite, a little bit of that idea--ConsolidationI think it is necessary to have a PR that brings a little from the conclusion, not a conclusion with an introduction, a general remark, and each theory, especially in the case of this bill. " 
  56. ^ “Third Subcommittee of the Budget Committee of the House of Representatives”. 1The 101st Diet session. (1984-03-10). "As for violence, for example, even if you take up one TV, it is funny, and as a result, violence and murder are punished. ofConsolidationIs on TV to some extent, but in front of children who don't understand that ... " 
  57. ^ “Seventh Subcommittee of the Budget Committee of the House of Representatives”. 2The 101st Diet session. (1984-03-12). "Then, when it came to junior high school, as many teachers have pointed out, from writing to greetings, the order, and so on.ConsolidationOr, in fact, it appears in textbooks and so on ... " 
  58. ^ “House of Representatives Social Labor Relations Commission”. 28The 101st Diet session. (1984-07-25). "... Rather, I've put so much effort into it, so I'd like to say that I should get rid of tuberculosis properly.ConsolidationWhy don't you put it on? …… ”is said like this. " 
  59. ^ “House of Councilors Cabinet Committee”. 19The 101st Diet session. (1984-07-31). "The debate of the council is going on, but do you call the whole council three years spring, summer, autumn and winter?"ConsolidationOne way of thinking is to start with the opening remarks, behave, and go from the general remarks to the end of the preface in a well-ordered manner. That would be the flow, but ... " 
  60. ^ “House of Councilors Budget Committee”. 12The 114th Diet session. (1989-06-13). "WellConsolidationTherefore, when the minister takes office, the assets will be disclosed, and when it is over, the assets will be disclosed.It's not bad for a minister to do bad things in the meantime. " 
  61. ^ Diet record search system

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