Photo Students presenting their efforts at school and the future image they envision = Kanzaki High School in Kanzaki City
Inauguration ceremony at Kanzaki High School (Kanzaki City) with the new school building as the stage of leap "You are the main character"
If you write the contents roughly
The catchphrase was announced by the calligraphy club along with the performance of the brass band club.
A ceremony to commemorate the completion of the new school building was held on the 6th at Kanzaki High School in Kanzaki City.The 92-year history of the school and the cats that the students devised ... → Continue reading
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calligraphy(Shodo) orbook(Sho) is an oriental plastic art that tries to express the beauty of letters by writing.calligraphyA kind of.Originated in China, but in Japanese-speaking countries漢字Derived fromKana, In the Korean-speaking worldHangul, Also derived from Kanji in Vietnamese-speaking countriesChunom,Roman alphabetUseQuoc gooCreative activities are also carried out in such places. Chinese calligraphy in 2009UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in.
This section mainly describes Chinese-speaking and Japanese-speaking calligraphy.Calligraphy in other characters / regionsCalligraphy with other charactersSee.
Letters were first born for practical use, but as culture progressed, methods of aesthetic expression were born.This beautified character is called a calligraphy.Calligraphy is to beautify life as a practical use while learning the aesthetic expression method of this character based on standard discipline, and to enrich the mind as a hobby and express individual beauty.Then, in the learning process, the personality is refined and the emotions are refined.Therefore, calligraphy is a method of human training, and in ancient ChinaRokugeiIt has been revered as one of the.
Calligraphy is mainlyWriting brushとinkWrite letters on paper by taking advantage of its characteristics.That technique (calligraphy) HasBrush method,Interceptor construction method,Metonic cycleThere are various methods for each,Typeface,CalligraphyIt is used properly according to such factors.Through various educational institutions to learn techniquesCalligrapherIt is common to study under the supervision, study mainly on classics, and improve skills while exhibiting at calligraphy exhibitions.
Except for special cases such as masterpieces, there are differences in writing behavior depending on the cultural area, and in China it is customary to write while standing at a high desk, but in Japan it is customary to sit upright. There is.
Calligraphy historyArtAboutHistoriographyIt is a division and the originChinese calligraphy historyAnd collateralJapanese calligraphy historyIt can be roughly divided into two.The existing handwriting in the history of calligraphy is utilized as the most important material, and the most important point of the handwriting is who wrote it for what purpose at what time..
|Wang Xizhi||Wang Xizhi|
|Grass sacred||Zhang Zhi(Cursive script) ・Zhang Xu(Mad grass)|
|Second king||Wang Xizhi (Great King) ・Wang Xianzhi(Small King)|
|Two great sects||Wang XizhiFace lord|
|Sanpitsu of ancient and modern times||Wang XizhiZhong Yao・ Zhang Zhi|
|The first three landlords of Tang||Europe-Yu Shinan-Sugiyoshi|
|The four landlords of the first Tang||Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang,薛稷|
|Four landlords of Tang||Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang, Yan Zhenqing|
|Song's four landlords||Su Shi-Mi Fu-Huang Tingjian-Cai Xiang|
|Four masters of regular script||Ouyang Xun (European body), Yan Zhenqing (Face body),Liu Gongquan(Willow body) ・Zhao Mengfu(Zhao body)|
|Four wise||Zhang Zhi, Zhong Yao, Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi|
|Sanpitsu||Kukai-Emperor Saga-Tachibana no Hayashi|
|Sanseki||Ono way(Noseki) ・Fujiwara no Suke(Sasato) ・Fujiwara Yukinari(Right)|
|Three saints of calligraphy||KukaiMichio Shinohara・ Ono no Michikaze|
|Sesonji style sanpitsu||Fujiwara no YukinariSesonji Gyono-Yukitada Sesonji|
|Kannaga's Sanpitsu||Honamikoen-Nobuyoshi Konoe-Shokado Shojo|
|Obaku's Sanpitsu||Takamoto Hidden-Mu'an-Sokuhi Nyoitsu|
|Three strokes at the end of the Edo period||Maki Ryoko-Ichikawa Yonean-Nukina Kaioku|
|Meiji Sanpitsu||Nakabayashi Gochiku-Kusakabe Meikaku-Ikutani Ichiroku|
|Showa Sanpitsu||Hibino Goho-Yukei Teshima-Yasushi Nishikawa[Source required]|
|Father of modern calligraphy||Kusakabe Meikaku|
|Father of modern calligraphy||Tenrai Hidai|
Scripture is the theory of calligraphy and generally refers to the work.BookAlso called.
Art begins with making things, and then the theory is systematized.In the long history of calligraphy, the act of writing letters became a plastic art, and the theory of calligraphy was developed in China and Japan.In the case of China, starting from the origin of letters and typefaces, calligraphy,BooksIn many cases, the essential value of the book has already been discussed in the early writing theory.On the other hand, in Japanese calligraphy, the format andLate factIs talked about, especially in the Middle Ages and the early modern periodCalligraphyThe value of communicating was emphasized.
The oldest surviving Chinese calligraphy isBack HanWritten in the timesZhao Ichiof"Non-cursive].The oldest book theory in Japan isTangThen.Kukaiof"Hensho demonstrative spirit collection(Kukai's disciple,ShinsaiEdited while Kukai was alive),Japanese styleThen.Heian periodWritten late (before 1177)Koreyuki Fujiwaraof"Yazuru Niwa Kunsho].AlsoNorinaga FujiwaraOralIkei FujiwaraRecorded calligraphy secretary "SaiyoshoIs also from around 1177..
In the case of calligraphy with a brushInkstone-Brush-paper-ink Minimum required equipmentAnd these areFour treasuresIs called.If the ink is solid,WedIs also required.other than this,Feltと 呼 ば れ るUnderlayIs also frequently used.
|Inkstone||In paintingpaletteAnd the usage is the same.It plays the role of polishing the ink or storing the ink.Stone is usually used, but some are made of pottery or lacquer ware.For school children in recent years, those made of ceramic or plastic are also used.|
|Brush||(I.e.,sheep,狸Such asAnimalHair togetherThu,bambooIt is generally attached to the tip of the handle.Besides,chicken,Ferret,mongoose,peacock,bambooAnd so on.Grate the large brush for regular script until the XNUMXth minute,Row grassIt is said that it is better to use it by lowering it to the root.It is better not to lower the small brush more than half.|
|paper||Mass-produced calligraphy paper is often used, but high-end onesPicture paper,Japanese paperAlso used.|
|ink||Ink.Vegetable oil,oil,PineSuch as煤TheglueThose that have been hardened with and have improved storage stability are commercially available.Soot taken from vegetable oil or petroleumOil smoke ink", The one taken from the pine"Pine smoke ink".In addition, ink is often used as a liquid.|
- Paperweight -It is a weight for fixing the paper.There are no particular restrictions on the size or weight.
The classic of calligraphy is a beautiful handwriting created by the efforts and creativity of our predecessors, and learning this classic is considered to be the most orthodox study of calligraphy.It is not easy to study the calligraphy, but by studying the classics and knowing the books of the ancestors and their transitions, we give guidance to scholars, and even to the point where the depth and height of the work cannot be reached by itself. Expected to have the effect of raising..There are many classics, but the basic classics for each typeface to be learned first are usually:
Writing while looking at an exampleCalligraphyIt ’s called (Rinsho).classicIt is said to be a learning method such as.In the letterForm(Keirin),Intention(Irin),Rebellion(Yes, Rin,MemorandumThere is also a method of (Ansho), and by using it, you will learn the principles of technology and writing, and aim for your own growth into creative activities.Writing all of the target models is called "zenrin", and some of the writings are called "setsurin"...The writing has been done since ancient times,Nara period OfGuangming EmpressbyWang Xizhiof"Yue Yi』ShosoinExists in.Instead of referring to other people's books, write your own ingenuity and ingenuity.Self luck(Jiun)To say.
|Form||Write with an emphasis on imitating glyphs.Glyphs and shapes as faithfully as possible to the modelWriting methodI will imitate only and try to acquire the technical side exclusively.|
|Intention||WritingWrite with an emphasis on drawing.It imitates the background of the time when the work was born, the way of life of the author, and the spirituality.|
|Rebellion||After memorizing the model, write without looking at the model and relying on the memory.I will apply that style of calligraphy to other works as my own.|
In ChinacalligraphyCalled (shūfǎ), he is taught in primary education.Simplified charactersEven after the migration繁体字Although there was a time when calligraphy education was sought in, it is now unified with the guidance of simplified Chinese because it contradicts the promotion of simplified Chinese as a policy.Hard writing-Ballpoint penCalligraphy education such as is also being tried.In addition, there are calligraphy associations in various parts of China, contributing to the development of calligraphy from a standpoint away from public education.
Elementary and junior high school
high schoolIn, along with music and art, calligraphy is arranged as an elective subject in the art department.
High schools (excluding courses as elective courses) that have calligraphy departments (majors, courses, etc.) include the following:
- Saitama Prefectural Omiya Koryo High School Calligraphy department
- Saitama Prefectural Ina Gakuen Comprehensive High School Art calligraphy
- Saitama Prefecture PrivateHonjo Daiichi High SchoolPhysical Education / Arts Major Calligraphy
- Shizuoka Prefectural Numazu West High School Department of Arts, Calligraphy Major
- Shizuoka Prefecture PrivateHamamatsu Gakugei High School Art Department Calligraphy Course
- Shizuoka Prefecture PrivateHamamatsu Gakuin High School Regular course calligraphy course
- Nara Prefectural Sakurai High School General course calligraphy course
- Okayama Prefecture PrivateMeisei Gakuin High School Special art course Calligraphy
- Hiroshima Prefectural Kumano High School General course art type calligraphy course
- Tokushima Prefectural Myozai High School Art Department Calligraphy
- Kochi Prefectural Okatoyo High School Regular course calligraphy course
- Fukuoka Prefectural Dazaifu High School Department of Arts, Calligraphy Major
- Fukuoka Prefectural Yawata Chuo High School General Course Art Course Calligraphy Major
- Saga Prefectural Saga Kita High School General Course Art Course Calligraphy Course
- Kumamoto City Sokyukan High School General course Art course Calligraphy
- Oita Prefecture PrivateOita High School General Course Special Advance Individuality Course Calligraphy Major
- Kagoshima Prefectural Shoyo High School Regular course calligraphy course
Universities, which have a faculty of education and a faculty of letters, offer lectures on calligraphy.In particular, the Faculty of Education for teacher training has a laboratory for penmanship education and calligraphy education, and special education is provided.
For example,Iwate University,Niigata University,University of Tsukuba,Tokyo Gakugei University,Shizuoka University,Fukuoka University of EducationThe department, major, school group, course, and area related to calligraphy are set up, and a graduate school is also set up, aiming to develop effective leaders.University of TsukubaWhen,Tokyo Gakugei University,Yokohama National University,Chiba University,Saitama UniversityConsists of 4 schoolsTokyo Gakugei UniversityGraduate School of Education (United Graduate School of Education)PhD(Doctor of Arts: Tsukuba, Doctor of Education: United Graduate School) is also set up.It should be noted thatHyogo University of EducationThe Graduate School of Education has a similar doctoral program (education), but specializes in penmanship education.Daito Bunka UniversityThen calligraphy department,Shikoku UniversityLet's take a look at the Department of Calligraphy and CultureYasuda Women's UniversityHowever, he is working to train calligraphers and educators in earnest, such as by opening a calligraphy department.Both universities also have graduate schools majoring in calligraphy.
The following universities have departments and majors that specifically impose practical and individual exams on calligraphy. (After enrolling in the same examination method as in Japanese and humanities, it must not be assigned according to the selection and wishes of the university.)
- Hokkaido University of EducationIwamizawa School Faculty of Education Art Course Art Course Book Major
- Iwate University Faculty of Education School Teacher Training Course Elementary School Education Course (Calligraphy Subcourse) / Junior High School Education Course Japanese Language Course (Calligraphy)
- Iwate University Faculty of Education Arts and Culture Course Modeling Course (Calligraphy)
- Niigata University Faculty of Education Art Environment Creation Course Book Expression Course (Scheduled to stop recruiting from 29)
- University of Tsukuba Art Specialty Group Art Major Book Course
- Tokyo Gakugei University Faculty of Education Educational Secondary Education Teacher Training Course (Class B) Calligraphy Major
- Tokyo Gakugei University Faculty of Education Liberal Arts Arts and Culture Course (Class G) Calligraphy Major * Scheduled to be integrated with (Class B) at the time of reorganization in 26
- Shizuoka University Faculty of Education Arts and Culture Course Book Culture Major (Recruitment stopped from 28)
- Kyoto University of Education Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts, Calligraphy
- Nara University of Education Faculty of Education Comprehensive Curriculum Cultural Properties / Calligraphy Arts Course Calligraphy Arts Specialization
- Osaka University of Education Faculty of Education Elementary School Teacher Training Course Art / Calligraphy Major
- Osaka University of Education Faculty of Education Junior High School Teacher Training Course Art / Calligraphy Major
- Osaka University of Education Faculty of Education, Department of Liberal Arts, Department of Arts, Art and Calligraphy Course
- Fukuoka University of Education Faculty of Education Secondary Education Teacher Training Course / Subject Course Calligraphy Major
- Fukuoka University of Education Faculty of Education Lifelong Sports Arts Course / Arts Course Calligraphy Area (Recruitment stopped from 28)
- Nishogakusha University Faculty of Letters, Department of Chinese Literature, Department of Calligraphy
- Daito Bunka University Faculty of Letters Department of Calligraphy
- Wayo Women's University Cultural Comprehensive Arts Specialized Calligraphy Course
- Imperial College Faculty of Letters Department of Japanese Literature Calligraphy Course
- Seitoku University Faculty of Humanities Department of Japanese Culture Calligraphy Culture Course
- Sagami Women's University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Department of Japanese Language and Literature Japanese Language and Calligraphy Education Course
- Gifu Women's University Faculty of Cultural Creation, Department of Cultural Creation, Calligraphy Culture Course
- Shiga Bunkyo Junior College Department of Japanese Literature Calligraphy Course
- Kyoto Tachibana University Faculty of Letters Japanese Language and Literature Department Calligraphy Course
- Hanazono University Faculty of Letters Department of Japanese Literature Calligraphy Course
- Osaka Otani University Faculty of Letters Japanese Language and Literature Department Calligraphy Education Course
- Osaka Shoin Women's University Faculty of Letters Department of Japanese Literature Department of Japanese Literature Calligraphy Course
- Baika Women's University Faculty of Cultural Representation Department of Japanese Culture Creation Calligraphy / Calligraphy Course
- Shikoku University Faculty of Letters Department of Calligraphy and Culture
- Yasuda Women's University Faculty of Letters Department of Calligraphy
- Shokei University Faculty of Cultural Languages Department of Cultural Languages Calligraphy Course
Japanese vocational schools and vocational schools that specialize in calligraphy include the following.
- Calligraphy Department- Hokkaido
- - Tokyo
- - Shizuoka
- - Shiga
- - Okayama
- Nanao Fashion College Calligraphy Senka (Separate Course)- Ishikawa
- Saturday course Calligraphy (special course)- Kyoto
Japanese calligraphy organization
There are arts and education groups, and in the artsDay exhibitionIs holding a nationwide open call for participants exhibition.In addition, there are calligraphers' associations organized by local and prefectural units, and various associations (also called company-wide) presided over by calligraphers.Educational organizations are working to popularize calligraphy by conducting their own certification exams.
- Nitten Public Interest Incorporated Association
- Sogen Calligraphy Association
- Japan Book Writers Association
- Mainichi Shodo Association
- Humble calligraphy society
- Sankei International Book Association
- National Federation of Calligraphy Research Institutes(Shoken)
- All Japan Calligraphy and Culture Institute(All calligraphy)
- Japan Calligraphy Education Society
- Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Japan Calligraphy Education Foundation
- Japan Calligraphy Skills Examination Association
- Japan Calligraphy Academy
- Japan Educational Calligraphy Federation
- Tokyo Calligraphy Education Society
- Calligraphy Research Calligraphy Association
- Nihon Shokyoin
- Japan Education Calligraphy Promotion Association
Judgment of skill
Currently, as the only qualification with objective calligraphy skill criteria,Ministry of educationSponsoredBrush copy testThere is.This ranges from the lowest 5th grade to the highest 1st grade, and there is no dan certification. If you get the first grade, you will be certified as having an official qualification as a leader.
On the other hand, the certification of ranks and instructors, which are generally widespread, is carried out independently by each school / organization, and there is no unified standard.Therefore, there are cases where there is a difference in ability even if they are in the same rank.
Currently, there are the following academic societies and study groups related to calligraphy and letters in Japan.
Calligraphy as a profession
In Japan, as a "reading and writing abacus" for a long timeTerakoyaPenmanship has been taught in such ways.Under this tradition, there are many calligraphy and penmanship classes.Leaders tended to be aging, but in recent years there have been changes such as young male calligraphers appearing in TV programs and magazines for young people.
Also, at the same time as the development of computers, the hurdles for processing books using computers are going down.Design calligraphyA genre called has been established.This is a design of calligraphy works for various items such as household goods, interiors, and front tags through computer processing, and is attracting attention as a new profession related to calligraphy.
- ^ a b Kakurai Fujiwara (Introduction)
- ^ Minoru Furuya P.3
- ^ Tsunoi P.4
- ^ Nishikawa (Dictionary) P.69
- ^ 萱 P.140
- ^ Iijima (Dictionary) P.372
- ^ Kimura Bokudo Introduction
- ^ a b c d e f Ushikubo Aoki P.148
- ^ Japanese Scripture #Yonean Ink TalkSee
- ^ Keiji Nakanishi p.1014
- ^ Iijima (Dictionary) p.861
- ^ Nishikawa (Dictionary) p.57
- ^ Kaimei Sumi Juice Nippon Long-selling Thoughts --COMZINE by ntt Comware
- ^ (PDF) [Broken link]
- Kimura Bokudo "Japanese and Chinese calligraphy』(Japan Book Writers Association, 1971)
- Aoju Ushikubo "What to Learn from Classics" ("Calligraphy Techniques" "ink"Art newspaper publisher, August 1994 extra edition)
- "Illustrated Japanese Calligraphy History" ("Ink specialNo. 12 Art Newspaper, 1992)
- Kakurai Fujiwara "History of Japanese and Chinese calligraphy" (Nigensha, 2005)ISBN-4 544 01008-X-
- Yasushi NishikawaHen "Calligraphy Dictionary" ("Calligraphy Course" Volume 8 Nigensha, 1969)
- Hiroshi Kakui "Learn the History of Calligraphy" (Supervised by Hiroshi Kakui, "The Definitive History of Chinese Calligraphy", Art Newspaper, 2009)ISBN 978-4-87586-165-2
- Noriko Kaya "History of Japanese Calligraphy" (Supervised by Akira Nagoya, "The Definitive Edition of Japanese Calligraphy", Art Newspaper, 2009)ISBN 978-4-87586-166-9
- Shunkei Iijima ed. "Calligraphy Dictionary" (Tokyodo Publishing, 1975)
- Daito Bunka University Calligraphy Research InstituteHen (Minoru Furuya) "Calligraphy Text Volume 3 Japanese Calligraphy History" (Nigensha, First edition 2010)ISBN 978-4-544-14103-0
- "Chinese Calligraphy Dictionary" edited by Keiji Nakanishi (, first edition 1981)
- Nigensha Editorial Department, "Calligraphy Dictionary Augmented Edition" (Nigensha, First Edition 2010)ISBN 978-4-544-12008-0
- Four treasures(Inkstone-Brush-paper-ink）
- Calligraphy exhibition
- Calligraphy term
- Calligraphy Department
- Kumi calligraphy
- Design calligraphy
- Pen character
- Brush copy test
- Hard writing test
- Eight Methods of Yong Zi
- Thousand Characters
Video work dealing with calligraphy
- Calligraphy Girls!! Our Koshien
- Calligraphy girls blue blue sky
- Suzuri High School Calligraphy Club