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Mr. Hiranaka, the police officer, said at the studio last time, "In order to prevent a traffic accident on a winter road, it is important not to do" sudden acceleration, sudden steering, sudden braking "!
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Sudden braking(Kyu-brake) is a brake that is applied when it is necessary to suddenly decelerate or stop a vehicle, and its mode.
The brakes used in the case of an emergency such as an accident in a railway vehicle are "Emergency brake"And so on.
Automobiles (four-wheeled vehicles and motorcycles)タ イ ヤIt touches the ground and runs on land.The distance between the tire and the road surface is determined by the conditions such as the material, wear condition, temperature, and dryness.Coefficient of frictionThere is (also called μ value).Only within this coefficient of friction can the vehicle accelerate or decelerate.
Specifically, the static friction coefficient is applied when the tire and the road surface are in contact with each other and there is no sliding, and the dynamic friction coefficient is applied when the tire is sliding.For a general object, the coefficient of static friction> the coefficient of dynamic friction.
This is a physical law, and even in the case of sudden braking, it is not possible to decelerate beyond the limit of the coefficient of friction.When decelerating beyond the coefficient of friction limit, it is usually due to collisions between objects.MomentumSudden change is estimated.
During sudden braking, the coefficient of static friction changes to the coefficient of dynamic friction, making it difficult to stop.At the moment immediately before and after stopping, the coefficient of dynamic friction changes rapidly from the coefficient of static friction, so there is a great shock at the moment of stopping with sudden braking.
In a normal car, if the conditions are good, such as dry asphalt road surface, tires are not worn, low speed, and overloading, sudden braking is unlikely unless a very strong brake is applied.However, when any adverse conditions such as high speed, rainfall, freezing, and gravel road are added, sudden braking may occur in which the tires easily slide.
Characteristics at the time of sudden braking
During normal driving and braking, the tire and the road surface are in mesh and the static friction coefficient is applied, but when the brake is applied so suddenly that the tire slides, the dynamic friction coefficient is applied, and for general objects, the static friction coefficient> dynamic friction coefficient. Therefore, it becomes difficult to stop.
It does not mean that "the stronger you apply, the more rapidly you can decelerate", but "the stronger you apply, the more rapidly you can decelerate, but if you apply more strongly than that limit, it will become difficult to stop and you will lose control. It should be noted.
Sudden braking and out of control, etc.
When the tires stop rotating and slide on the road surface (called "tires lock"), the steering wheel operation becomes difficult to work.Therefore, according to the "Training Instructions on Transportation Methods" and others, if the vehicle body begins to skid due to sudden braking or sudden steering, loosen the accelerator and turn the steering wheel to some extent in the direction opposite to the direction of skidding (Counter steering) It is instructed to rebuild.
Counter-steering is for four-wheeled vehicles,オ ー ト バ イIn the case of, if the rear wheels are locked, the same operation as the counter steer of the four wheels is required, but if the front wheels are locked,Gyro effectThere is a risk of losing and falling immediately.Therefore, in a two-wheeled vehicle, the brake pressure must be adjusted so that the front wheels are not locked as much as possible.It should be noted thatBicycleIn the case of, the human body on board is much heavier than the car body, and the center of gravity is at the human body, so if you lock the front wheelsJack knifeThe driver may be thrown forward by making one full turn in front of the vehicle.
Training and countermeasures
Normally, when driving on public roads, it may be rare for some drivers to experience sudden braking that causes the tires and the road surface to slide.
Therefore, it is calm and reliable even in an emergency, such as how much braking is okay, how the tires will behave when they start sliding, and how to recover from such an emergency. To enable operation, automobile and motorcycle manufacturers and their service companies offer driving experience schools and training programs to experience the limits.
For example, you can experience practical skills such as "when a tire starts to slide, release the brake once to stop the slide and regain control of the car or motorcycle".The training of these drivers and riders is effective for acquiring the technique of applying a sudden brake well and learning the technique for avoiding danger.
Also, for motorcycle license exam tasksSudden brakingThere is a sudden brake from a constant speed called (actually, locking the tires is a deduction).
In addition, measures are being taken on the vehicle side.
One of the things that has been put to practical use is "Antilock braking systemThere is (ABS).This is to add a slip detection function to the brakes of automobiles and motorcycles, and automatically release the brakes when the tires slip and lose control, and regain control. In the case of a vehicle equipped with ABS, if the driver just applies the brakes with full power, the vehicle side will automatically apply the brakes to the limit.ABS has become standard equipment in four-wheeled vehicles, and is being installed in some large and high-end motorcycles.
Road Traffic LawThe above is stipulated as follows.
That is, in order to prevent the risk of a traffic accident such as a collision, sudden braking is prohibited unless there is no other means and it is unavoidable.The sudden braking mentioned here is to the extent that the tire starts to slide with the road surface, which will be described later (described later).ABSIs understood to be a sudden brake).
Top speedViolations, deliberate meandering, or other acts that violate the Road Traffic Act are not considered to fall under the above "unavoidable cases".In other words, if there was no violation, it would not have been necessary to apply the sudden braking (a causal relationship is found between the violation and the sudden braking), even if it is a sudden braking to prevent danger. Even if it does, it is a violation of sudden braking prohibition.
In relation to the obligation to hold, the sudden braking of the front vehicle is justified because of the non-retention of the distance between the rear vehicles, and the non-retention of the distance between the rear vehicles is justified because of the sudden braking of the front vehicle. It is neither done nor done.
In other words, if the rear-end vehicle collides due to sudden braking and thus injures another person (including the passenger in the front vehicle), the other person's death or injury is intended (not to prevent danger). In case ofMurder・ Attempted murderInjury (lethal) crimeEtc, In other cases, for acts that violate the prohibition of sudden braking,Negligence driving fatal injuryIs asked.Criminal liability for sudden braking is not liable for risk prevention and is limited to unavoidable cases (mentioned above).
On the other hand, if the front vehicle collides due to sudden deceleration, slowing down, or stopping due to sudden braking, etc. (suddenly when viewed from the rear vehicle), the responsibility of the rear vehicle is unavoidable.The rear vehicle is always obliged to look ahead and maintain the distance between vehicles.If another person (including a passenger in the rear car) is killed or injured by a rear-end collisionNegligence driving fatal injuryIn addition to this, if you relentlessly and abnormally approach the vehicle in front of you, resulting in the death or injury of a person on the side of the vehicle in front of you.Dangerous driving fatal injuryCan be asked.
It is often said, "If a dog or cat jumps out, do not suddenly brake or steer."This is because human life is prioritized over animals such as dogs and cats that are legally treated as objects.According to the law, even if you accidentally damage an animal or something other than a building, you will not be liable for any damages.On the other hand, for humans, if you kill or injureNegligence driving fatal injuryThere is a possibility of being asked.
If you suddenly brake or steer to avoid a collision with a small animal, you may not be hit by the above-mentioned "unavoidable case" (however, for example).Deer,bear,KangarooThis does not apply if there is a physical danger to the vehicle side when colliding with a large animal such as).In such a caseBicycle (horn)The use of is legal and should be actively used.
- ^ ""There was no murderous intention" in the act that caused a collision accident by sudden braking”. Response (Response.jp) (August 2003, 7). 2019/4/22Browse.
- Instructions on transportation methods (October 53, 10 StatePublic Safety CommissionNotification No. 3)
- "Traffic rules"(FoundationAll Japan Road Safety Association）