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Chinese PLA(Chinese people, Chinese people,pinyin: ,English: People's Liberation Army) IsChinese Communist PartyGuidancePeople's Republic of China Of軍隊Is. (The official and legal position of the PLA in the People's Republic of China will be described in "" below.#Legal provisionsSee. )simplyJapanAnd so onChinese army, In the People's Republic of ChinaLiberation Army'It is abbreviated as.Republic of China(Taiwan)Communist Army"It is called..The service isarmy-Navy-air force-Rocket army-Strategic support unitThere are 5 armies.Also, apart from the PLA, which is a regular army,Chinese militia-Chinese People's Armed Police ForceOf the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Republic of ChinaArmed forcesStipulated in.
The personnel, number of equipment, organizational structure, etc. of the PLAChinese governmentAlternatively, the PLA itself is not active in disclosing information and the Defense White Paper is not issued regularly. In April 2013Chinese State CouncilAnnounced "China's Defense White Paper: Diverse Operations of China's Armed Forces" and released an overview of the number of troops with 85 Army Air Forces, 23 Navy, and 5 Air Force. did. The Army Aircraft Operation Unit is independent of 39 group forces and military regions.Combined armsCorresponds to a division (brigade),Border guard・ Coastal Defense Force ・Military facility security unitIs not included. The number of troops in each of the above-mentioned units that do not fall under the Army Mobile Operations Unit has not been disclosed, and therefore the total number of troops in the active Army has not been disclosed. In addition, the number of second artillery and reserve personnel was not disclosed, and therefore the total number of personnel including active and reserve personnel of the PLA as a whole was not disclosed in the Defense White Paper.
United KingdomInternational Strategy InstituteAccording to the 2013 Military Balance, the number of PLA personnel as of November 2012 was 11.Reserve roleIt is estimated to have 51 people, which makes it the largest standing army in the world. Besides thisParamilitary organizationThe People's Armed Police (People's Armed Police) is estimated to be 66. Compared to the 2000 values, these numbers are 2 fewer active soldiers and +5 to 1 reserves. The number of military police decreased by 9. The time shortly after the current military police were established in 84 coincides with the PLA's large-scale reduction of personnel. The PLA accepted the reduced PLA soldiers, and it is speculated that although the number of personnel increased at one point, the retirement age of the members increased and the number decreased naturally. Other paramilitariesChinese militiaAccording to the announcement of the Chinese Communist Party in 2011, 3000 million people belonged in the past, and even in 2011 when it was reduced, it boasts 800 million people..
Government of ChinaGulf War,Afghanistan War,Iraq warAtUnited States ArmyIn recent years, he has been focusing on the innovation of military weapons, military systems, and combat styles, and the military power of conventional weapons is becoming stronger. In 20175th generation fighter OfJ-20Was deployed. Also, according to an executive of a Russian arms exporter, the People's Republic of China is different from India in that land weapons are being modernized, so land weapons are not available.Surface-to-air missileHe says that he will hardly import anything other than.. And the absolute number of new equipment is large,Su-27/Su-30MKKThere are more than 300 aircraft in the series. this isJapan, South Korea OfF-15It surpasses the number of aircraft it owns. Also, in the trading of Air Force weapons, it is said that the era of purchasing completed aircraft is over, and it is now the stage to purchase by equipment such as engines and radar. The symbol isJ-10Is.
Origin of the emblem
1927 May 8 OfNanchang KiyoshiWas designated as the anniversary of the founding of the army, and the emblem of the army was marked with a red star.BayiThe character of the military flag is yellow on a red background, and the star and the character of "XNUMX" are decorated.
The URL of the official website is alsowww.81.cn/.
Constitution of the People's Republic of ChinaArticle 93 states, "People's Republic of China Central Military CommissionWill lead the nation's armed force (armed force) ", but there is no provision that stipulates that the PLA is the only national army.National Defense Law of the People's Republic of ChinaArticle 22 stipulates that "China's armed forces consist of PLA active and reserve forces, Chinese People's Armed Police, and militia composition", in which the PLA active forces are national. It is stipulated that it is a regular army of.
Article 93, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution states that "the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China will lead the armed forces of the whole country", but on the other hand, the preamble to the Constitution states that the Chinese Communist Party will lead the state, and the National Defense Law Then, "The armed forces of the People's Republic of China are under the control of the Chinese Communist Party" and "The Communist Party organizations in the armed forces operate in accordance with the party rules", so the Chinese Communist Party is supposed to control the military. .. The members of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission of the State are the same, that is, the PLA is effectively a national army and at the same time "Military of the partyIt can also be said that.
On December 2013, 3,Chinese State CouncilFinance DepartmentIs the 12th term 1stNPCPublished the 2012 expenditure results and the 2013 budget proposal submitted to and deliberated on.. After that, the actual expenditure and the budget proposal were approved by the NPC. According to it, the actual amount of military spending in 2012 (January-December) was RMB1 million. The defense budget for 12 was RMB6506 million, an increase of 300% from the actual expenditure in 2013.
In response to such "publicized amount", governments and military research institutes around the world said, "The Chinese government is so-called.Chinese threat theoryWe are wary of the arms race being curtailed by this, and we are manipulating military spending to look small. "Stockholm International Peace Research InstituteChina's actual military spending in 2012 was estimated to be $ 1660 billion on an exchange rate basis.Second in the world after the United States (world share 2%)Is,2003 ――It increased by 2012% in the 10 years of 175. AlsoPurchasing power parityOn a base basis, military spending is $ 2490 billion, the second largest in the world. When comparing China's military spending internationally, the relative relationship differs between the market exchange rate base and the purchasing power parity base. Low-priced countries point to the problem that they can purchase several times as many armaments as high-priced countries with the same budget amount. For example, JapanlandSDFTwenty Chinese soldiers can be hired with one salary, and even if the amount is simply compared without correcting the difference in prices, it will deviate from the actual amount of military assets purchased in a single year.CIANational power of each countryGDPThe analysis is compared by purchasing power parity.
The general argument for the view that China's military spending is unclear is that in countries with established democratic political systems, government income and spending budgets, legislative processes, passed budgets, budgets. The execution of this is also published in books and on the web, including this year and the past year, and can be viewed by anyone, but the government's information disclosure level is lower in countries governed by the dictatorship than in democracies, and it is disclosed It is pointed out that the credibility of the disclosed information is low because the information provided includes concealed, distorted, and exaggerated information.
2000 eraSince then, the United States, Britain, Japan and others have called on China to improve the transparency of its defense budget breakdown. On March 2008, 20, JapanNobutaka MachimuraChief Cabinet Secretary"It's very difficult for neighboring countries and countries around the world to understand China's defense budget. Its contents are unclear and the lack of transparency is great," he added.OlympicsIf it is a country that wants to open up and develop peacefully, I would like you to make your own efforts to clarify (the contents). " In addition, on March 2009, 21 (Heisei 3)Takeo Kawamura"There are still uncertainties in what was announced, and it is desirable to further increase the transparency of defense policy and military power," said the Secretary of State, calling for greater transparency in the breakdown of China's defense budget.
The PLA does not see the military of other countries.Self-relianceThere was a unique system called. In short, this means that the military will procure its own food and equipment without relying on the public budget of the state. Originally it meant that military personnel cultivated on their own, procured food and continued to engage in combat,1980 eraWhen it comes to, the Communist Party has announced a policy that "military spending will be procured by the military itself" by reducing military spending.Reform and opening upOf the country by policyModernizationと資本主義Along with the start of the introduction of the economy, each unit has embarked on a wide range of corporate management, including measures against unemployment that are inevitable due to the reduction of personnel due to the modernization of the military. this is1998 It continued until the Chinese Communist Party banned the PLA's commercial activities. Actually, it is still available to the general public or various schools for the general public, restaurants such as cafeterias and clubs, entertainment facilities such as shooting areas, hospitals, accommodation facilities, factories for food processing and equipment manufacturing, farms, farms, farms, etc. It operates all kinds of companies, facilities and equipment such as mines such as coal mines and publishers. Englandwith the BBCAccording to reports, "90% of food depends on external procurement." Considering the number of personnel, it is possible to self-sufficient food for more than 20 people, which is one of the amazing features not found in other military forces.
In 1921Republic of ChinaThe Chinese Communist Party, which was established inChinese National PartyCooperated with (primaryNational collaboration), Then confronted, de facto civil war (First Chinese Civil War)[Annotation 1].. The Communist Party is basically inferior to the Kuomintang, and later "Long expeditionHe was also forced to take a major withdrawal action called ". However, when a war broke out between the Republic of China and Japan in 1937 (Sino-Japanese war,Chinese incident) And join hands with the Kuomintang again (Second country co-production),National Revolutionary ArmyWas incorporated intoEighth Army,New Fourth ArmyFought with the Japanese army as. But,Second World WarLater, when the defeated Japanese power disappeared, it was the second in 1946.National warIn 1947, the Communist Party Army used the PLA name, and the National Revolutionary ArmyRepublic of China ArmyRenamed to. The National Revolutionary Army, which was exhausted in the battle with Japan, is the United StatesHarry S. TrumanSuspension of government assistanceUSSR OfJoseph StalinBecame inferior in support of the Communist Party Army. The first tank owned by the Communist Party ArmyGongchenSoviet UnionRed ArmyIt was requisitioned from the Japanese army in Manchuria occupied by. The PLA Air Force was established by captive Japanese soldiers and mechanics repairing Japanese aircraft in Manchuria and training soldiers (-1949). Many Japanese engineers and nurses who were taken prisoners of war also participated (-1950).
1949 Chiang Kai-shek NanjingEscape,TaipeiBy moving to, the Chinese Civil War ended (ceasefire),People's Republic of ChinaThe founding of the country was declared. After that, under the Chinese Communist administration, the elders of the army who had made achievements in the Chinese Civil War reigned for a long time and will be taken over by the current political network.
- 1947 September The PLA name is used for the first time after announcing the PLA General Rebellion Declaration.
- 1949 Chiang Kai-shek,TaipeiWhat.National warCeasefire.
- 1950 Tibetan liberation operation
- October 1950 Partly as the People's Volunteer Army of ChinaKorean WarParticipate in the war. Until 1953 (Chinese People's Volunteer ArmySee also)
- 1954-1955 XNUMXstTaiwan Strait Crisis
- 1958 Second Taiwan Strait Crisis (Kinmen gun battle)
- July 1959 Tibetan uprising
- January 1959-January 9 China and IndiaSelf-defense rebellion
- 1969-1978 Sino-Soviet border dispute(Sino-Soviet conflictSee also)
- 1974 South VietnamとBattle of the Paracel Islands,
- 1979 Chuetsu Self-Defense Rebellion
- 1979-1990 China-Vietnam border dispute
- 1988 Red Gourd Sea Battle(Battle of Nansha)
- 1989 Sixty-four riots,LhasaRiot
- 1995-1996 Third Taiwan Strait Crisis (en: Third Taiwan Strait Crisis,Taiwan emergencySee also)
- 2017 ジブチOpened the first overseas base in
Composition from the First United Front to the First United Front
- First Field Army (Commander / Political Commissar:Pavilion）
- Second Field Army (Commander:Liu Huang, Political commissar:Deng Xiaoping）
- First Field Army (Commander / Political Commissar:Chen Yi）
- Second Field Army (Commander:Lin Biao, Political commissar:Luo Ronghuan）
- North China Military Region (Commander:Ryoei）
Each military district is mixed with units selected from each field army in order to reduce the influence of the warlords. The main force is the Third Field Army unit that survived the power struggle.
Organization / Organization
Supreme military leadershipCPC Central Military CommissionThere are 15 institutions, including the Bengo government office, inside thearmy,Navy,air force,Rocket army(Former Second Artillery Corps),Strategic support unitandFive Great BattlefieldsIs placed.
The department that reports directly to the Central Military Commission is2016 May 1It was significantly reorganized with the establishment of 15 internal combustion engines. These are divided into the seven major divisions, the three committees, and the five direct reports. Also, the Five War ZonesMay 2It was newly established in Japan, and until then, there were seven large military districts according to the military district system.
The seven major departments refer to the seven departments of the Public Office, the Union Staff Department, the Political Work Department, the Post-Work Security Department, the Equipment Development Department, the Training Management Department, and the National Defense Mobilization Department. The public office is the daily work, and the Union Staff Department is the operational commandstrategy, Political Work DepartmentPolitical propaganda, Logistics Security DepartmentLogisticsPlanning, policy, equipment development departmentarmsDevelopment, procurement and training management departmentTrainingAnd physical education, the National Defense Mobilization Department is for emergenciesmobilizationResponsible for preparation.
The three committees refer to the discipline inspection committee, the political law committee, and the science and technology committee. The Discipline Inspection Committee is based on TsunanoriInspector, The Political Commission is militaryjudicialGuidance to institutions, Science and Technology CommitteeScience and technologyIn charge of guidance.
The Goka Direct Organization refers to the five divisions of the Strategic Regulations Office, the Reform and Organizational Office, the International Military Collaboration Office, the National Audit Office, and the Directorate General of Institutional Affairs. The Strategy Office is an organizationconstructionStrategy, reform organization The Taiwan Affairs Office is an organizationreformとManagement, The International Military Collaboration Office is a militaryInternational cooperation, The National Audit OfficeFinanceaudit, The Directorate General of Institutional Affairs is an internal combustion engineOffice workManage.
The five armies maintain the operation of military organizationsMilitary administrationIn charge of, the Five War Zones are of units regardless of service type according to the allocated areaIntegrated operationCommandIn charge of. AlsoNational University of Defense Technology,Military Academy,National Defense UniversityEtc. are military region-level organizations that report directly to the Central Military Commission.
Once under the Central Military Commission,Strategy,CommandIn charge ofGeneral Staff Department,human resources,Political educationIn charge ofGeneral Political Department,SupplyIn charge ofTotal Post-Work Department,armsIn charge of procurementTotal equipmentThere were four general departments, and each army and seven military regions were located under it. The current internal combustion engine of the Central Military Commission has been dismantled and reorganized under the direct control of these four general divisions.
State Council OfMinistry of DefenceIs only in charge of military exchanges with foreign countries, and has no command over the PLA. The PLA, which is not under the jurisdiction of the State Council, is the party's army, not the national army. Regarding the relationship between the party and the military, the Constitution stipulates that it is under the guidance of the Central Military Commission.Party chairmanIs not stated. for that reason,Mao ZedongEtc.Supreme leaderAlso serves as the chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Taking the position that the PLA is the party's armyViolence deviceThis is because it was taken for granted that the Chinese Communist Party, which is in a position to control the nation, controls the military, which is the nation's greatest violent device. The PLA is said to be the people's army and the army to carry out and defend the revolution. In addition, it should be notedSoviet UnionThen in 1946 after World War IIRed ArmyIs a national militarySoviet Union ArmyIt has been reorganized into.
Cultural RevolutionThen,Red Guard OfCrackdownAccording to the order of Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Central Military Commission.First Tiananmen IncidentButFoursomeIgnore the command from to the end,Second Tiananmen Square IncidentThe whole world was watching whether the PLA would join the democratic forces (including some government centers that had shown an understanding of the democratic movement) or the Communist Party conservatives when the outbreak occurred. Chief of the Central Military CommissionDeng XiaopingBy the order of the democratic forcesCrackdownWas done. It has been announced that the actions of the PLA depend on the words of the chairman of the Central Military Commission. The crackdown made the PLA's eyes on the international community even more severe, and some Chinese were disappointed by the PLA's impression of being a "military oppressing the people." Therefore, I went after the Tiananmen Square IncidentUnited Nations Truce Supervision Organization(UNTSO) andUnited Nations Transitional Authority in CambodiaBegins with the dispatch of military surveillance personnel and engineer units to (UNTAC)United Nations peacekeeping operationsActive participation in (PKO),AggressiveDisaster dispatchBy publicity activities that raised the party, Image improvements have been made.
CPC Central Military Commission
- Chief:Xi Jinping(General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President of the State)
- Vice Chairman:
- Committee member:
- Guidance mechanism (Leadership system）
- Central Military Commission Seven Major Departments / Agencies
- Central Military Commission, Chief:
- Joint Staff Department of the Central Army, Chief of Staff: Li Zuocheng
- Political Work Department of the Central Army Commission, Chief: Miao Hua
- Central Army Commission Post-Service Security Department, Director: Song Puxuan, Political Commissar: Zhang Shokoku
- Central Military Commission Equipment Development Department, Director: Lee Naofuku, Political Commissar: Ancho Kei
- Training and Administration Department of the Central Armed Forces, Director: Teru Reihi
- National Defense Mobilization Department, Director: Sheng
- Central Military Commission Three Major Committees
- Central Military Commission Discipline Inspection Committee, Secretary: Zhang Shengmin
- Central Military Commission, Secretary: Song Tan
- Central Military Commission Science and Technology Committee, Chief: Kuniharu Liu
- Five Great Bento Offices / Stations / Bureaus
- Central Military Commission Strategy Office, Chief: Wang Hui Qing
- Central Military Commission Reform and Organizational Defense Office, Chief:
- Central Military Commission International Military Collaboration Office, Chief: Tomohi Seki
- Central Army Commissioned Audit Office, Chief of Audit: Guo Harutomi
- Directorate General of Administrative Affairs, Central Military Commission, Director: Shimei Liu
- Central Military Commission Seven Major Departments / Agencies
Battlefield Joint Operations Command Organization
2016 May 2Newly established organization in. The seven "Military Regions" that had been used up to now have been consolidated into five in consideration of the strategic front and ethnic distribution, and the name has been changed to "Battle Zone". Its function is also in the "Great Military District"Military decree-Military administrationWhereas it had both of the above, in the "Battlefield"Military decreeHas only the function of. On the other hand, until now, the Navy commander / political commissar and the air force commander / political commissar had the authority to command and guide the subordinate units, so there was an unclear part in the command system. With the establishment of this battlefield, eachServiceThe headquarters is responsible for administrative affairs, personnel management, education and training, etc. of military services.Military administrationDedicated to the battlefield coalition commandIntegrated operationTo take command.
The five military regions are named Eastern Theater Command, Southern Theater Command, Western Theater Command, Northern Theater Command, and Central Theater Command, respectively, and each unit of each service within each military region is under the command of the Military Region Command. I'm going to enter. For example, in the NavyNorth Sea FleetIs in the Northern Theater CommandEast Sea FleetIs in the Eastern Theater CommandSouth Sea FleetIs under the command of the Southern Theater Command. In the Air Force, a new theater air force will be established for each of the five military regions, and it will be under the command of each military region coalition command..
1927 May 8 OfNanchang uprisingIs founded. The number of troops is 160 million (2010), but there is a tendency to reduce troops due to modernization. Older than the production of state-of-the-art tanksType 59 tankIt was the most in the world because the number of retirements such asMBTThe number of possessions is also gradually decreasing. Military service is de factoVolunteerI am in control. Depending on the shortage in the law,Selected conscription systemIs supposed to be implemented, but there has never been a shortage.
It is being modernized as a whole. The Army was divided into military regions by region, but many military regions have been reduced due to military modernization, and the military region system itself is now independent of the Army and has become five major theaters. Military region commanders during the Army era had command of the Air Force and Navy units belonging to their jurisdiction,2015 May 12The "Army Command" was newly established in Japan, and the Army was positioned as an organization on the same level as the Navy and Air Force.
1949 May 4Founded. As of 2011, about 250,000 active troops, of which about 26,000 were Naval Air Corps and about 28,000 Coastal Defense Ground Forces.MarinesEquivalent toPLA Navy Army SquadronIt has 24000-40000 people. Has the largest number of ships in the world,Aircraft carrier2 vessels,Destroyer26 vessels,frigate54 vessels,Ballistic missile3 onboard nuclear submarines (Summer classWith one shipJin class2-4 ships), attack typeNuclear submarine OfHan class3 ships,Commercial nuclear submarine2-4 ships,Normal powered submarineIt owns 54-60 ships (19 old-fashioned bright models). In addition, the Navy Air Corps consists of 5 naval aviation divisions (Navy aviation division) and 4 independent wing, and possesses 571 various military aircraft. There are 35 coastal defense artillery units (coastal defense missile artillery units, 65,300 people) as coastal defense land units.
Initially, ships and their technologies were introduced from the Soviet Union, but since the provision of new technologies was discontinued due to the Sino-Soviet conflict after the 1960s, the development of ships designed independently based on these was started.Journey large destroyer,Type 091 nuclear submarineWas commissioned. However, these were technically hard to say as first-class products at that time. Currently, from Russia against the backdrop of improved relations with Russia and China's own economic development.Destroyer,submarineIn addition to purchasingEuropeWe are proceeding with the design and deployment of domestic ships that have introduced Russian technology and are working to improve the quality of our forces.
The PLA Navy has a range of combat aircraft units to provide air support to its ship units. In response to the open-sea orientation of the naval unit, the aviation unit is reportedly continuing its efforts to expand its coverage, extending the cruising range by aerial refueling, and seeking the introduction of domestic aircraft carriers. To study aircraft carrier technology, ChinaAustralia,ウクライナ, Russian used or under constructionAircraft carrierI bought a total of 3 ships. Of these, purchased from Ukraine with up to 75% completedVarangians, Resumed construction in Dalian. Although the completion was sometimes questioned, it was confirmed that the restoration of the engine department was completed in May 2009 and it was moved to the dock... In 2012LiaoningCommissioned as. Also, in 2019, the first domestic aircraft carrier ``ShandongWas commissioned. Currently building a third aircraft carrier in Shanghai
1949 May 11Founded. Total troops 38 (Paratroopersincluding). Approximately 1950 operational aircraft. Of these, China is the main force in terms of numbers.MiG 21Was domestically producedJ-7, And an expanded and improved version developed based on thisJ-8II,AlsoSu-27, And even olderQ-5And so on. I used to own a large number of thousandsMiG 19The domestic J-6 has already been retired.
At the time of establishment, Japanese soldiers and mechanics who were taken prisoners in Manchuria are training Chinese soldiers. The training aircraft and main aircraft until receiving military assistance from the Soviet Union were Japanese military aircraft left by the Japanese military in Manchuria.
Initially, aircraft and their technologies were introduced from the Soviet Union, but since the provision of new technologies was discontinued due to the Sino-Soviet conflict after the 1960s, the development of aircraft developed based on these was started. Currently, with the background of improving relations with Russia and China's own economic development, by purchasing finished aircraft from Russia and licensed production, and by introducing Western technology to domestic aircraft, the quality of the aircraft it owns We are trying to improve. For fighters, stealth fighters in 2017J-20Deployed and made in RussiaSu-27andSu-30Introduction, and domestic productionJ-10 fighterIs being mass-produced. At present, the number of 4th generation fighter aircraft, including Navy aircraft, is 383, which is about 2% of the total, but it is expected to increase in the future. The pace of modernization is very fast, the U.S. Department of DefenseQDRHas already determined that the Strait of China is overwhelmingly advantageous to China and is becoming a serious threat to neighboring developed countries. In fact, the actual air power of the People's Liberation Army Air Force is comparable to that of Japan, South Korea, and the U.S. forces in Japan, and is the strongest of the Asian Air Forces, including India, and its rapid modernization has expanded the Asian military. Is said to be inducing.
As an airlift force, the former Soviet UnionAn-12Was domestically producedY-8Is the main force. Also a large strategyTransport aircraftAs domesticY-20 (aircraft)Since the early 1990sIL-76MDIn addition to procuring, based on thisAerial refueling machineIsIl-78Is also planned to be purchased. Also in RussiaIl-76Developed based onIsraelEquipped with an early warning system made byAir Police 2000With the introduction ofEarly aerial alert abilityWe are trying to acquire.
1966 May 7IndependentTypeSecond artilleryFounded as.1984 May 10At the military parade commemorating the 35th anniversary of the founding of the country, ballistic missiles equipped by the troops were unveiled for the first time. Ground launch long rangeCruise missile,Short-range ballistic missileからIntercontinental ballistic missileWe have a wide range of products. At the time of establishmentNuclear warheadAlthough it had a strong character as a nuclear counterattack force without preemptive use by ballistic missiles equipped withThird Taiwan Strait CrisisHigh accuracy from aroundNormal warheadOnboard short-range ballistic missile,Quasi-medium range ballistic missileAiming for development and mass possession, the force is rapidly increasing. Since the 2000s, long-range cruise missiles have also been added to the lineup. The number of troops is estimated to be more than 10.2015 May 12, Renamed from Second Artillery to Rocket Army.2016 Belonging to the Rocket Army whose existence was released in AprilThe secret unit called is the second artillery era1980 eraからDF-3IntroducedFor operational training and base construction, etc.Saudi ArabiaIt is also known as the PLA's first de facto overseas base..
Strategic support unit
2015 May 12It was newly established in. The contents have not been revealed,Xi JinpingThe chief said, "It is a new force to protect the security of the country," and it is thought that it will include units responsible for cyber attacks and military use of space..
Old-fashionedPeople's war theoryBased on the idea of shifting from to modern warfare against the backdrop of high technologySpecial ForcesThe mission is emergency deployment operations, counter-terrorism operations, and information gathering, and tens of thousands of special forces members are enrolled in seven military regions. Recently, some of the world's most difficult special forces training institutions have passed.[Annotation 2].
For the formation of the unit, "List of Special Forces #People's Republic of ChinaSee.
People's Armed Police
In addition to conducting police activities with unarmed public security police, he is also engaged in security of important facilities and frontier security.Paramilitary organizationIs.Originally, nominallyMinistry of Public SecurityWhile belonging to (the ministry in charge of police), it also took the form of receiving guidance from the Central Military Commission, but was completely incorporated under the command of the Central Military Commission in 2018.Armed police divert the PLA's troops1982 Founded in 2021, according to the 50 edition, the current force is estimated to be XNUMX.
Intelligence and political work
Three wars (public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare)
August 2003, 12,PLA Political Work OrdinanceHas been amended to specify that the PLA will be given a "three battles" mission. The three battles are public opinion battles,Psychological warfare, Three of the legal battlestacticsPoint to. Through economic and cultural exchangepublic opinionInduction orDividing workThe purpose is to discourage the enemy from fighting and to give in to China without fighting..
- Public Opinion OpinionAgainst China's military actionMassesandInternational communityAims to influence domestic and international public opinion so that the enemy does not pursue policies that appear to be against China's interests.[Annotation 3].NEWS-MediaSuch asNews report,movies,tv setprogram,BookPublic opinion formation by such means is taken as a means.. The characteristic of the public opinion war is from the upper ranks of the Chinese Communist Party.top downDirective by method, The aim is to anticipate the message and present it in the form of "public opinion is already moving before the hyoma moves" in order to discourage the enemy's will., From the broadcasterインターネットUse all means available to usersAnd so on.
- Psychological warfareAttempts to reduce the ability of the enemy to carry out combat operations through psychological operations aimed at deterring, shocking, and demoralizing enemy military personnel and the civilians who support them..
- Legal warfareUses international and domestic law to gain international support and address expected backlash against China's military operations.
Public opinion warfare is used to increase the effectiveness of both psychological warfare and legal warfare.
There is little information leakage about the three battles, and no specific case has been clarified,Doshisha UniversityProfessor's尖 閣 諸島Advancement to is part of the three races. AlsoHisahiko OkazakiChina against JapanRecognition of history,In particularSino-Japanese war-Pacific WarSuch as戦 争Promotional work regarding recognition (propaganda) Is being carried out, and the allegations that led to the war that "Japan did bad things to China in the past" are easy to appeal to the Chinese people, andSecond World WarIn "AntifascismBy emphasizing the scheme of "victory of war," he points out that the United States, which was an Allied power, "aimed at an effect that reminds us of a sense of solidarity during World War II.".. However, what was associated with the United States at that timeChiang Kai-shekLeadKMT OfNanjing National Government.
2012 American in SeptemberHeritage FoundationResearcher Dean Cheng opposes such a Chinese strategyThe United States of AmericaTo China for foreign journalists, saying that public opinion diplomacy should be done furtherReciprocityProposing to request a visa based on.. Hundreds of Chinese journalists are active in the United States, while American journalists are heavily regulated in China..
The Chinese government has repeatedly denied that the PLA is involved in cyberattacks, but several media outlets have reported the following:en: Chinese intelligence activity in other countriesSee also).
- 2007 ,GermanyCyber attacks on the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Education and Research.
- 2007 6,US Department of DefenseIt is inRobert GatesSecretary of Defense OfComputer systemToIntrusionWas confirmed.
- 2007 ,United KingdomPossibility of unauthorized intrusion into multiple government agencies such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- 2013 Mandiant, an American information security company, said the PLA's "61398 unitsReleased a report that was involved in cyber attacks.
Involvement of land and water signal units
On July 2010, 7, the US research institute Medias Research announced "China Cyber Spy and US National Security," in the report, from 6 to 2009, the US government.・ The source of frequent cyber attacks on military institutions and private companies was the PLA (with approximately 2010 members)... It was analyzed by analyzing various data including IP address, and the source was certified as "Hainan Telecom", but this Hainan Telecom is virtually the same as the land and water signal unit... The targets of cyber attacks were military facilities in the United States and Taiwan, and Tibetan facilities. The report also made it a cyberwarfare unit trained under the command of the PLA General Staff Department III.
The Chinese government claimed that the government was irrelevant, but a resolution was submitted to the US Senate calling on the Chinese government to investigate cyberattacks from within the country and inform the United States of the results.
Cyber attacks on Japan
In addition,2010 About the cyber attack from China that was carried out against Japanese government agencies in SeptemberNational Police AgencyIs "Cyber terrorismThreats are becoming more and more real. "Regarding a series of cyber attacks not only against Japan but also against other countries such as the United States, "The U.S. private sector is the single largest source of China.Hainan IslandIt has been determined to be a PLA unit based in. " He also mentioned that China's information gathering activities are "illegal activities in other countries." "Even in Japan, we are conducting information gathering activities by clever and diverse means, such as dispatching Chinese students and Chinese researchers to defense-related companies, companies possessing advanced science and technology, and research institutes," he warned. Indicated.
August 2010, 1,ChugokuOwned by political activists critical of the Chinese governmentgmailFrom within China for your accountInternet ExplorerWas under attack using the vulnerability ofGoogleConfessed on the official blog, because some users who attacked were the Chinese government, they also opposed the censorship of the Chinese government and suggested withdrawal of the search business from China.
A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry said, "We have to obey domestic laws."Hillary ClintonUS Secretary of State said, "I ask for an explanation for cyber attacks.. In addition, Internet Explorer has a problem with the vulnerability used in this attack.AustraliaGovernment agencies are not vulnerable to the attackブ ラ ウ ザDeveloped into an unusual situation such as advancing recommendations to, especially Google has many users in ChinaInternet Explorer 6Support for browsers was discontinued in March of the same year.
Google has negotiated with the Chinese government, Google withdrew its search business from China on March 2010, 3, no censorship when accessing China (google.cn)Hong KongI started to fly to (google.com.hk). However, it was reported in some media that there are restrictions by the Chinese authorities, such as being unable to connect if you search for keywords regulated by the Chinese government on the site in Hong Kong from within China..
In March 2010,WikiLeaksBy the US diplomatic cable released byGoogleThe attack was carried out by the Chinese government, and it was the one who controlled the attack.Suenaga YasushiとLee ChangchunTurned out to have been.
Acknowledgment by the Ministry of National Defense of China
2011 May 5,Ministry of Defense of the People's Republic of ChinaSpokesperson Gansei Tatsumi at a regular press conferenceGuangdongGuangzhouReceived questions about the Cyber Command in the military region and acknowledged its existence He explained that the purpose was to improve the level of Internet security of the Chinese military.
In addition,New Tang Dynasty TVAccording to the report, "There are" public opinion guides "called" Umo "who write statements that are advantageous to the authorities on the Internet in China, and the number is about 30."(XNUMX Cent Party[Annotation 4]).
The Chinese network said, "The Ministry of National Defense said," The "Net Indigo Army" is not a so-called "hacker unit", but a net defense training institution temporarily created by the defense authorities based on their own needs. The international community should not over-interpret it. " I answered. By emphasizing the point that the United States was established and the point that it is for defense, it was suggested that it was for attack on the American side. The US side has launched the US Cyber Command to respond to attacks from the Chinese side.Insists.
On November 2011, 11, the U.S. National Counterintelligence Agency submitted a report, "Foreign Spies Stealing U.S. Economic Secrets in Cyberspace," to Congress.People's Republic of ChinaCalled "the most active and relentless economic espionage in the world" and accused him of performing espionage activities, including in Russia..
Military strategy, military diplomacy, remarks
Taiwan issue and nuclear attack remarks
1989 Occurred inThe XNUMXth Tiananmen IncidentIn all major countries including the United StatesHuman rights situation in ChinaThe United States has stopped high-level exchanges, embargoed on arms to China, andEconomic sanctionsWas imposed. TheseUS-China relationsIn response to the deterioration of1995 "If the United States intervenes in Taiwan, China will destroy Los Angeles with a nuclear missile. The United States should worry about Los Angeles more than Taipei," said Lieutenant General Kumagitsu, Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA.Armed conflict in the Taiwan StraitChina has stated that it could make a nuclear attack on Los Angeles if the U.S. intervenes in.
Next day1996 Republic of China presidential electionAt that time, ChinaTaiwan StraitInmissileHe practiced and threatened Taiwan. Two usaaircraft carrierMTFDispatched,Third Taiwan Strait CrisisWas in jeopardy, but in 1997Jiang peopleAgreed on a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement signed in 1985 after the visit to the United States was realized.. In 1998Bill ClintonThe president's visit to China eased tensions in the Taiwan Strait. afterwards,human rights-Nuclear non-proliferationSino-US relations have improved as a result of discussions such as.
Mid-air collision between a U.S. military reconnaissance aircraft and a Chinese fighter on April 2001, 4 (Hainan Island Incident) Occurs, but the US-China relations are tense but not worsened.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
China on June 2001, 6Western countriesBe waryRussia,Central AsiaWith countriesSecurityorgan"Shanghai Cooperation Organization'' (SCO) Was launched to check the west side. After that, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization became a neutral country.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAnd an ally of the United StatesPakistanAnd friendly country India also participated, confronting the United States(I.e.Also participated. The member states of the Organization often conducted joint military exercises, and in 2005, they conducted joint military exercises between China and Russia and joint military exercises between Russia and India.2005 Demanded that US troops withdraw from Central Asia.
Although a joint military exercise between India and India was held in 2007, India and the United States2006 In addition, Pakistan is promoting nuclear weapons by providing Chinese technology.US-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement (Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement) Has been concluded. Japan also became a western camp in November 2006Taro AsoForeign Minister saidThe arc of freedom and prosperityIn August 2007, the policy was launched.Shinzo AbeThe Prime Minister has visited India to confirm cooperation in the security and defense fields of Japan and India..
Rekindling the Taiwan issue and Zhu Chenghu's remarks
2005 May 7ToZhu ChenghuMajor GeneralHong Kongso"Wall Street JournalAnd 'Financial TimesIn front of the media of each country, such asAmerica Taiwan emergencyIf you intervene in ChinaNuclear warSaid he wouldn't quit.. The remarks are as follows.
"We (China) should focus on reducing the population other than China and preserving our own people by preemptively attacking nuclear weapons, and clearing the humiliating history of more than XNUMX years after this nuclear war, the future eternal earth. The world's population is growing rapidly and indefinitely. It should reach the limit of explosive growth during this century, but because of the limited resources on earth, nuclear war is the population. It's the most effective and fastest way to solve the problem. The Chinese government is working hard to develop nuclear weapons, and within a decade it will be possible to equip them with enough nuclear weapons to destroy more than half of the planet's population. Yes, China is prepared to burn all cities east of Xi'an. The United States must also be prepared to destroy hundreds of cities. "
"If the United States intervenes in a military conflict between China and Taiwan and launches missiles and guided weapons at targets within Chinese territory, China will counterattack with nuclear weapons. In the current military balance, China is a conventional weapon against the United States. Because they do n’t have the ability to survive the war in China. ”
"Even if the United States attacks Chinese aircraft and ships with conventional weapons outside of mainland China, the US mainland nuclear attack from the Chinese side is justified (as a result of the attack by the United States), and the Chinese side is from Xi'an. We must be prepared for the destruction of all the cities in the east, but the United States must also be prepared for the destruction of hundreds of cities by the Chinese side. "— Zhu Chenghu, July 2005, 7
2005 May 7, For this remark by Maj. Gen. Zhu ChenghuUnited States Department of StateSpokesperson OfShawn McCormack"Extremely irresponsible,Chinese governmentI hope not to represent the position of.Very regrettable ", October 7United States House of RepresentativesPassed a resolution calling for the withdrawal of remarks and the dismissal of Maj. Gen. Zhu Chenghu.Chinese governmentLater announced that it was not an official opinion, but the Executive Secretary about this"The nuclear attack remarks were directed at the United States and Japan,Chinese governmentIn this statement, he would like to test the reaction of both the United States and Japan and explore the attitudes of both countries. ".
Pacific Ocean Division Management Initiative
January 2007US Pacific ArmyGeneral Commander,When the Admiral visited China, a Chinese Navy executive told meHawaiiThe United States and China are based onThe Pacific OceanIt was revealed at the 2008 Senate Military Committee hearing that it had been proposed to "divide and manage" the east and west of the country... China's Navy executivesAircraft carrierIf you own, you have offered to agree that the United States will control east of Hawaii and China will control west of Hawaii... Commander Keating said, "Even if it's a joke,PLA Strategic InitiativeIs shown. " Commander Keating turned down the proposer, but as of May 2007, the Chinese Navy'sWu ShengliMeeting with the commanderTherefore, it is highly possible that this statement was made to Commander Wu.
また2007 In August, the Chinese military proposed a Pacific division management proposal within the U.S. government.Pro-ChineseIt is reported that some of them showed a positive attitude toward the proposal..
2012 January,Hillary ClintonUS Secretary of StateWith ChinaSouth China Sea OfSovereigntyWhen discussing the issue, one of the senior Chinese officials said, "(China)HawaiiYou can claim your sovereignty, "said Hillary, who said," Try it. WeArbitration agencyProve your sovereignty with. This is the response you are looking for. ".
2008 United States Presidential ElectionToDemocratic PartyVictory as a candidate, 44th generationPresident of the United StatesWas appointed toBarack ObamaWas initially seen as a "pro-Chinese" in foreign policy, so it was hoped that the friendly relations between the United States and China would become closer.
President Obama visited China in November of the same yearHu JintaoIn a meeting with the chairman and a joint statement, he proclaimed "building and strengthening strategic mutual trust between the United States and China."G2(Chimerica), Which means the two great powers, The approach between the United States and China was directed. At that time, President Obama was at talks, etc.Human rights issues in China,Tibet Autonomous Region,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, In JapanminorityHe was hoping for China's self-restraint, refraining from criticizing the crackdown and ethnic cleansing policies.
But even after that, ChinaNansha IslandsDemocratic activists closer to the United States in China, taking active military action against neighboring countries due to problemsLiu XiaoboToNobel Peace PrizeHe continued to take a resolute attitude, such as interfering with the award.
The US side also decided to sell weapons to Taiwan after 2010,The Dalai Lama XIVThere is also a view that the direction is changing, such as holding a meeting with Obama.
However, Obama has also declared China an economic partner,US-China relationsHe also said that closeness was necessary.
Sino-US relations tensions
2011 May 1Rice paperWashington PostIs a major figure in American politicsHenry KissingerA former US Secretary of State said, "The United States and China must avoid the Cold War," and an article was published that warned that the United States and China were entering the Cold War. When the United States and China enter the Cold War, Kissinger urges the choice of internationally (US-China) issues that need to be resolved on a global scale, such as proliferation, the environment, energy, and climate change. This will cause friction in various places. ".
2011 May 11,US Department of DefenseIs "Air Sea BattleIt has become clear that they are embarking on the creation of a special department called "(air and sea combat)" and the construction of a new strategy for China's arms race.The U.S. side has virtually admitted that the initiative does not cover countries other than China, and senior U.S. government officials said, "This new strategy is a major turning point in transforming the U.S. military situation against China into the Cold War style. Will be. ".
U.S. military stationed in Australia
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) Three days after the summit2011 On November 11th, US President Barack ObamaAustraliaTo the northU.S. Marine CorpsAnnouncement of stationing plan, US military from 2012DarwinStationed in shifts for half a year, etc.Australian ArmyWe will carry out joint training and exercises with the sea line of communication (sea line of communication), aiming to finally station 2500 people.Sea lane) Promoted the deployment of the U.S. military with the aim of securing it, and restrained China.
Australia is the United StatesEast AsiaI expected it to be an emergencyTaiwan Strait,Korean PeninsulaAlthough it was not important as a base because of its distance from the above, it is said that it is difficult to receive direct military attacks from China, and that it has become more strategically positioned in access to the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean..
On the other hand, the Chinese government is the Chinese Communist Party newspaperPeople's DailyThrough the English-language newspaper "Global Times," "Australia must not make a fool of China. It is weakening China's security, but it cannot promote economic cooperation separately. It must not be crossed. There is. ".
"First island chain" concept
U.S. Congressional Advisory Board "US-China Economic Security Review Committee" Annual Report on November 2011, 11, China in East AsiaEmergencyAt the time ofSurprise attackHe pointed out that the Chinese military has a strategy to reduce the strength of the U.S. military by preemptive strikes and control maritime interests to the East China Sea including the area around Japan... In addition, the Chinese army will launch cyber attacks by exploiting the weaknesses of the U.S. military, which relies on computers for its command system, and anti-ship ballistic missiles and cruise missiles in conflicts in the South China Sea and East China Sea, Kyushu-Okinawa-Taiwan-Philippines. TieFirst archipelago lineDefense based onFrontHe also pointed out that there is an operation to prevent the intervention of other countries including the U.S. military..
The first island chain was originally the commander of the PLA Navy in 1982 with the intention of Deng Xiaoping.Liu Huaqing(From 1989 to 1997Party Central Military CommissionThe concept was launched by the Vice President), and by 2010, inside the first island chain (in the sea)Command of the seaSecure and2020 untilSecond island chainSecure internal command of the sea,2040 By the time, the construction of an aircraft carrier had prevented the U.S. Navy from monopolizing the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and had a navy on par with the U.S. Navy..
At the Japan-China summit meeting on December 2011, 12, the Chinese side is expected to be reluctant to cut down the Chinese siege.In fact, the establishment of a high-level office-level maritime consultation between Japan and China and a maritime search and rescue agreement (SAR agreement) Agreed to conclude.. In addition, on December 12th (announced on the 17th), North KoreaKim Jong IlNeighboring countries were nervous after the death of the clerk.
2012 May 1, President Obama announced on the 5th a new defense strategy "Maintaining US Global Leadership and 21st Century Defense Priorities" to strengthen military presence in the Asia-Pacific region... The new strategic document names China and Iran,Cyber attackIn a speech, President Obama said, "After the Second World War and the Vietnam War," he pointed out that he was countering the United States by asymmetrical means such as missile development and demanding transparency of China's intention to strengthen its military power. We cannot afford to fail to leave the military unprepared for the future. We will allow the U.S. military to respond flexibly and flexibly to any emergency. "SecurityShowed determination to lead.. On the other hand, the Chinese government media showed a sense of caution..
2013 5,President of the Republic of ChinaMetLee Teng-huiIs "((ChugokuTo neighboring countriesDomestic affairsThey are showing off their power by repeating and territorial interference.To explain these movements in China, I said,MoneyI often use the word.Against the background of economic powerEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euからXisha IslandsTake awayNansha IslandsでフィリピンReached the area that was owned by, and is Japanese territory尖 閣 諸島China, which repeatedly invades its territorial waters and airspace, is the very appearance of a shallow "nouveau riche" that is scattered by the power of a wad of bills. ", Chinese People's Liberation ArmyarmyTohegemonyBecause there is no way to extendNavyIs trying to strengthen, but JapanAlliesIsU.S. ForcesAt present, it is unlikely that the Senkaku Islands will be invaded by military forces because they are afraid of this. With "joint management" as a breakthrough,The Pacific OceanIt aims to expand into, and therefore states that China's offer to "jointly manage" the Senkaku Islands should be categorically rejected..
PLA's "Rokuba War (Six Wars)" Plan
2013 7,Chinese governmentAlthough not the official view ofChugokuof"Chinese newspaper webAnd 'Bunhui] Etc.Chugoku The2020 から2060 An article was published saying that "Rokuba War (Six Wars)" will be held...According to this "Rokuba War (Six Wars)" planChugoku The2020 から2025 OverTaiwanGet back,2028 から2030 OverEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn the war withNansha IslandsRecapture,2035 から2040 OverSouth Tibet(Arunachal Pradesh) To getIndiaWage a war with2040 から2045 Over尖 閣 諸島とOkinawaTheJapanRecapture from2045 から2050 OverOuter Mongolia(Mongolia) Are merged,2055 から2060 OverRussian Empire Qing Dynasty160 million square kilometers of land stolen fromOuter Manchuria,Sixty-four tons of Koto,Pamir Plateau) To recover the land.
Australian National UniversityResearcher Geoff Wade commented on some of the articlesRadicalistThere is an opinion that it is only my personal opinion,ChugokuThe state newspaper also reports,Chinese governmentCan be considered approved at a very high level ofChugoku"Recovery of Lost Land" Plan Already1938 Pointed out that it was claimed by.
India Ofthink tankIsResearcher PK Chakravorty in this articleChugoku TheIndia OfAssam,SikkimInstigate independence movements and rebellion activities inPakistanBy providing weapons toKashmirStrategy etc. are suggested, after they failIndiaThe stage of a full-scale war withSikkimThe current situation ofChugokuDespite the relentless work done, it is stable, difficult to incite an independence movement, andChugoku MyanmarGenerated throughAssamRiotIndian GovernmentとMyanmar GovernmentWhile being calmed down by negotiations2035 untilIndian ArmyPointed out the need to promote modernization and improve capacity..Also, in "Eurasia Review", Keith KC Huicorruption,False capitalism,NepotismChina, which has a vulnerability to self-destruct due toPapier-mache tigerCriticized that.
Also, Mao Zedong's requestReceived the originalImperial Japanese ArmyLieutenant general OfSaburo EndoEstablished by "Japan-China Friendship Former Military Association"And former Japanese soldiers belonging to the PLAHas also been involved in exchange activities with Chinese People's Liberation Army officials.
- Acceptance of PLA Middle Youth Officer Training Team (August 2005, 8)
- Chinese PLASymphony orchestraFirst performance in Japan (October 2007, 10)
- Chinese PLAOfficerAcceptance of class visit training team (October 2007, 10)
- Chinese PLAMissile destroyer"深圳'Tokyo BayGoodwill arrival at the port (November 2007, 11)）
- Chinese PLATraining ship"Zhenghe'EtajimaとKureEntered the port (November 2009)）
- PLA Missile DestroyerTaiyuan, Entered Yokosuka for goodwill (October 2019, 10)）
There is active exchange between Taiwanese Republic of China Armed Forces officials and the PLA, who faced each other in the Chinese Civil War, and attended when the exchange event between the two armies was held in Beijing on June 2011, 6. didNational Defense UniversityOf the first presidentA retired officer of the Republic of China Armed Forces, including a second-class major general, said at the table that "we both the armed forces and the Communist Party army are the same Chinese army" and "let's do our best together for the unification of China and Taiwan, which is a historical mission and mission." The PLA Major GeneralLuo YuanPraised in Taiwan at the timeMa YingjiuPresident of the Republic of ChinaBecame a big fuss that led to a statement that he was "confused".. Held in Beijing on November 2016, 11GrandchildThe retired officers of the Republic of China Armed Forces, including the second-class officer of Natsureishu, who was invited to the ceremony to commemorate the 150th anniversary of his birth, is the national anthem of the People's Republic of China.Volunteer MarchIt was controversial in Taiwan that he stood up during his performance, and Maj. Gen. Luo Yuan defended this, saying, "Those who forget their ancestors, divide the nation, and oppose the historical flow of unification should be punished.".
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- ^ Shenyang Military DistrictThe officer I belong to has passed. For details at this timeProducing successful candidates for Shenyang Military Region #Army international BootcampSee the video published on Youtube, etc. on the China Central Television program in.
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