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Women also had the freedom to play an active role on the battlefield and choose their own marriage partners, but the culture will change under the influence of the Han Chinese.
"The Legend of Xiao Chu" is a historical drama set in "Ryo". "The Story of Minglan-The Story of Minglan ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Of the People's Republic of ChinaEthnic identification workThen.HanIt is called as, and accounts for more than 94% of the population of the People's Republic of China.ChineseAlso called.OverseasAsChinese・ Often self-proclaimed as a Tangjin..During the Qing dynasty, more than 80% of the population were serfs not included in any group.Family names such as the ruler Manchu and the controlled Han Chinese were names that were only allowed to be held by nobles and commoners, and peasants could not have the name tribe.With the founding of the People's Republic of China and the progress of modernization policies, most of the population without surnames and tribes will receive the ethnic names of surnames and Han Chinese..
It should be noted that the word "Han Chinese" has emerged in modern times.Until now, it was called "Han Chinese". "Han Chinese" is a noun that was stylized by introducing the Western concept in modern times, and the word "Han" has always resembled the name of a cultural community in ancient China.
Formation of Han Chinese
The origin of the Han Chinese is Chinese漢Goes back to the era of.The origin of the Han Chinese is that Emperor Gaozu founded the Han Dynasty after being relegated to Hanzhong in the western part of China and becoming the Han King.
According to Shou Qiang, Chairman of the Japanese Culture Association of Singapore, “The Han people were not called the Han people in the past,KasatsuWas called. Although the name Han Chinese has been used since the days of the Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220), Chinese people on the mainland still refer to China as a summerChinese civilizationIs sometimes called the Huaxia civilization.However, the Han Chinese were formed by being mixed with different ethnic groups, such as Xianbei and Mongolia, and the invasion of Goguryeo and Japanese pirates of the Korean dynasty for a long time.According to scholarsweekdynasty(1066 BC - 256/) FounderTakeo Yin(Commercial) dynasty (16th century BC --The last generation of (1066 BC)帝辛After defeating (King Zhou), he settled in Zhongyuan and made his family the legendary predecessor of China.Shennong-Yellow Emperor-Yao-ShunIt was called "Kazoku" after that.AlsoSummer: dynasty(21th century BC - 16th century BC) Founder'sDayuIt is said that the tribes that lived in Nakahara came to be called the "Huaxia tribe" because their descendants were called the "Natsu tribe".Their culture at that time was neighboring as Huaxia culture or Huaxia civilization.DongxiangTribeBeidiTribe,XirongTribe,NanbanAwarded by the tribe, imitated, and finallyMainland ChinaIt expanded to the north, south, east and west.Through this thousands of years of process, the Huaxia have formed today's Han Chinese while absorbing and being influenced by other ethnic groups..
221 BC,秦 OfEmperor ShikiUnified China, and the disjointed Hua Xia were unified, and civilization developed highly in the subsequent Han era. In the age of HanFormer Hanas well as the Back HanFor a total of 408 years, the prints have expanded unprecedentedly and the culture has developed to a high degree.During this period, the Huaxia tribe began to be called "Han Chinese" by the surrounding peoples.This is the origin of the Han Chinese.The Han people were formed during the Han era, and after that, they formed the present Han people through several ethnic fusions and the conversion of different ethnic groups to Han.[Source required].
In the book “Chinese Folklore” written by Hayashi Keisho, the Han people are centered around the Hua XiaDongxiangSystem, Jingu system,BaiyueSystem andTohusystem,HunsIt is argued that it is a race formed by absorbing ethnic groups such as ancestry. The Huaxia system, which lived mainly in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River, is located in the eastern Immans of the lower reaches of the Yellow River.Yangtze RiverMiddle-class Jingu system andPearl RiverIt was reborn as Han Chinese through the process of fusion and integration with the Baeketsu system centered on.
Han peopleYellow River CivilizationIt is an ethnic concept formed by the mixture of the Hua Xia who created.. Therefore, even if you are from a different raceHan tradition of cultureIf you accept, you will be considered a Han tribe.[Source required]
Underlayed the word Han Chinese漢朝(Former Han-Back Han), the population reached 6000 million at its peak,Yellow Ran,Era of the Three Kingdoms,FurthermoreHachio no Ran-Eiji RebellionDue to social confusion and unseasonable weather since the end of Han Han, the number of people registered in Nakahara's family register fell below 500 million.
4st centuryFrom the northNaivetyNorth ofNomadic peopleToNorth China PlainIs controlled (→The Five and Sixteen Kingdoms), As a result, the Han Chinese Department that lived in Zhongyuan moved to the south (→Hakka)did.Also laterLiao,Fri,yuanSomewhatAfter paymentAnd thenclearDue to the conquest dynasty, the Han Chinese fell into the non-dominant class.
Chinese ethnicity and dialects
- : Yangtze RiverIt is widely distributed north of the country, and its mother tongue is.
- Jinjiang: Shanxi Province,ShaanxiDistributed in the north, western Inner Mongolia, etc.Jin ChineseIs the mother tongue.
- Kuretsu : JiangsuSouth,Shanghai,Zhejiang Province,Anhui ProvinceSouthern andJiangxi ProvinceDistributed in the northeast,WuIs the mother tongue.
- : Guangdong,Guangxi,Hainan,Hong Kongas well as the MacauDistributed inCantoneseIs the mother tongue.
- Min Hai people : Fujian Province, Guangdong,Hainan, Distributed in part of Zhejiang Province,AcronymIs the mother tongue.
- : Hunan Province,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionDistributed in a part ofShogoIs the mother tongue.
- : Jiangxi, eastern Hunan,Hubei ProvinceDistributed in the southeast, southwest of Anhui and northwest of Fujian,贛 語Is the mother tongue.
- Hakka people: East Guangdong, West Fujian, South Jiangxi, South East Hunan, West Taiwan andSichuan ProvinceDistributed in a part ofHakkaIs the mother tongue.
- :Sichuan,ChongqingAlthough it was distributed in various places, it became extinct due to repeated great wars. LaterThe descendants of Lake HirotoMoved toSouthwest official talkIs the mother tongue.
Expansion of different ethnic groups and rule of Han Chinese by different ethnic groups
The northern part of China was conquered by Mr. Tuoba, a Xianbei of the Northern Wei, and after the Northern Wei, the Han Chinese fell into a controlled race.Due to the great migration and expansion of different ethnic groups that began in the Sixteen Kingdoms, the conquered Han Chinese were forced to stop resistance and swear their loyalty to the foreigners or flee to South China.During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, Han Chinese men were frequently slaughtered by different ethnic groups.The Han Chinese, who were non-dominant in the Sui and Tang dynasties, where the Xianbei rulers were founded, were sometimes promoted.Since then, the Jurchen and Khitan have conquered China and ruled the Han Chinese.Many Han Chinese became slaves to different ethnic groups, and Han Chinese who swore allegiance to other ethnic groups were appointed.MongolianConquered the Han Chinese and founded the country, and finally the Manchu tribe (Jurchen) destroyed the Han Chinese dynasty, the last dynasty of the Han Chinese, and ruled the Han Chinese for hundreds of years.Due to the rule of different ethnic groups, there is a huge difference in the genes of the Han Chinese in North China and South China.The current Han Chinese are mixed-race under the rule of the Manchu people and different ethnic groups.
Han people since the 19th century
However, the situation has changed significantly since the mid-Qing era. Calm and stable within the territoryEconomy, Continued to grow with new agricultural crops such as corn and sweet potatoespopulationHowever, the population was estimated to be 18 million in the first half of the 2th century, but it was said that the population had doubled in the first half of the 100th century, just 19 years later, to exceed the estimated 2 million.)United KingdomDue to policy changes such asSilverDecrease inflow of (Opium Warreference),18st centuryDecrease in productivity due to global cooling (some have objections) since the second half,Taiping Heaven RebellionIt became impossible to support it due to a series of rebellions at the end of the Qing period. finally,19st centuryIn the latter half, a situation that could be called a population explosion occurred, and a large amount of Han people began to spread and move to surrounding areas.
Hebei-ShandongNorth China’s population isInner Mongolia-ManchuriaMove toSouth ChinaThe population ofSoutheast AsiaMainly in various places, someJapan-Korea,FurthermoreAmerica-AustraliaI moved to.Of these, Manchuria (now northeastern China) is an area adjacent to the mainland of China, and was virtually inland due to the overwhelming population pressure of the Han Chinese.Exceptionally, it should be geographically closest to mainland China South Korea OfChinatownabout,20st centuryIt declined from the middle to the second half, and finally disappeared. As a reasonPark ParkStrong nationalism and anti-communist policies such as the times are mentioned, but they are attracting attention as an extremely peculiar example.
Southeast Asian Chinese
Southeast AsiaBecame a Chinese or Chinese, and became a living area of his own.ChinatownIs making up.SingaporeThen Chinese are the majority.Malaysia-IndonesiaThen once took the lead in the economy, and therefore had a majority in the regionMalayThere was friction with the native race.
Thai ChineseHas a strong tendency to assimilate to Thais, and some of the Thais also have a culture derived from China, and are fully integrated with Thais both economically and politically. There are many Chinese who occupy important positions in the government.
フィリピンBut Chinese tend to assimilate to Filipinos. There are many old Chinese from the Ming and Qing eras, and localization and mixed races are progressing. Even nowChineseIt is estimated that there are about 60 to 100 million people who have left Chinese customs.Corazon Aquino,Rodrigo DuterteFor example, the blood of Chinese people is flowing to those who have experience as president.
Myanmar(Burma)National warAfter periodKMTIt begins with the escape of the remnantsYunnanWhile the influx of Chinese from China continues, some groups of indigenous Chinese have migrated from pre-modern times. They are recognized as an indigenous minority by the Myanmar central government,KokanIt is called. The main settlements of the KokansShan StateNorthernYunnanIs a border area withKhokan DistrictIs called.
Due to the long dominance of different ethnic groups, there is a huge difference in the genes of the Han Chinese in northern and southern China.
Han ChineseY chromosome haplogroup TheO2 systemAccount for the overwhelming majority, up to 65.7%To be observed. Regarding other Y-chromosome haplogroups, regional differences are severe,AustronesianRelated toO1a systemSome (especiallyShanghaiCentered onEast ChinaMostly observed in rural areas (167 out of 40 people from East China, that is, 24% of the samples were observed)). Ryohiro region (Guangdongas well as the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region) Part ofO1b1 system(AustronesianAbout 30% is also observed. C2 system TheNortheastern ChinaAbout 17% [15% ~ 23%] of Han Chinese (former Manchuria),North ChinaAbout 14% [11% ~ 18%] of Han Chinese,South ChinaApproximately 7% [0% -22%] have been observed in the Han Chinese.
- ^ Travel China Guide-Han Chinese
- ^ Windows on Asia-Chinese Religions
- ^ China-Travel China Guide-Religions and Beliefs
- ^ Every Culture-Han people: Religion and Expressive Culture
- ^ Every Culture-Han Chinese in the People's Republic of China
- ^ WiktionaryDescendants of YanhuangThere is an item.
- ^ China's Modernization and History of Sociology, by Zhuo Zhang
- ^ "About Chinese Society" Naoyoshi Facial, Chairman, Japanese Society of Singapore[Broken link]
- ^ "Chinese Ethnic History" 1930 Commerce and Print House Publishing
- ^ JoongAng Daily News(Japanese WEB version)There is no pure pedigree'Han' in China] June 2007, 2
- ^ The rise and fall of the East Asian people-Tara Obayashi (Author), 4 years of Han and other peoples
- ^ Jinam, Timothy; Nishida, Nao; Hirai, Momoki; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki; Umetsu, Kazuo; Kimura, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Jun et al. (2012-12). “The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations” (English). Journal of Human Genetics 57 (12): 787–795. two:10.1038 / jhg.2012.114. ISSN 1435-232X.
- ^ "Press conference "Genetic closeness of the three human populations in the Japanese archipelago"”(Japanese). Tokyo University. 2021/11/8Browse.
- ^ Yali Xue et al 2006, Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times
- ^ Shi Yan, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hui Li, et al., "An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4." European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 1013-1015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.64.
- ^ Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi :10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- ^ Rui-Jing Gan, Shang-Ling Pan, Laura F. Mustavich, et al., "Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure." Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 53: 303–313. DOI 10.1007 / s10038-008-0250-x
- ^ Hua Zhong, Hong Shi, Xue-Bin Qi, et al., "Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia." Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 55, 428–435; doi: 10.1038 / jhg.2010.40
- ^ Yuan, Dejian; Lei, Xiaoyun; Gui, Yuanyuan; Wang, Mingrui; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Zuobin; Wang, Dapeng; Yu, Jun et al. (2019-06-09). “Modern human origins: multiregional evolution of autosomes and East Asia origin of Y and mtDNA” (English). bioRxiv: 101410. two:10.1101/101410.
- ^ Chen, Hongyao; Zhang, Ye; Huang, Shi (2020-03-11). “Ancient Y chromosomes confirm origin of modern human paternal lineages in Asia rather than Africa” (English). bioRxiv: 2020.03.10.986042. two:10.1101/2020.03.10.986042.