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📺 | Masako (Eiko Koike) VS Yae "Yui Aragaki" is also worth seeing as an "actor confrontation"


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Masako (Eiko Koike) VS Yae "Yui Aragaki" is also worth seeing as an "actor confrontation"

 
If you write the contents roughly
I am looking forward to seeing how much he will contribute to the Kamakura Shogunate and demonstrate his political skills in the future.
 

The scene of Hojo Masako (Eiko Koike)'s exile, Minamoto no Yoritomo (Yo Oizumi) is unfolding from the beginning.Hojo Yoshitoki ... → Continue reading

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Political skill

Kamakura Shogunate

Kamakura Shogunate(Kamakura Bakufu) isYoritomo GengenFounded byJapan OfSamurai government..This eraKamakura PeriodThat.

Bando who served the shogunate after Yoritomo's deathsamurai(Lord) By the power struggle of YoritomoLegitimacyIs cut off, thenHojobyCustodySoonHojo justiceIs the torrent ofProfitBecame the de facto ruler of the Kamakura Shogunate.The samurai governmentMuromachi Shogunate-Edo ShogunateWas inherited to.

Overview

Outline of the establishment process

"Azuma mirrorAccording to1180 (Approval4 years) Became Yoritomo's residence in Okura Township, Kamakura on December 12th.Okura GoshoIs placedShogunateIt should be said that it is the prototype of the governing mechanism ofSamuraiWas established and the actual situation of the samurai government was formed.Imperial court TheDeclaration of October, XNUMXnd year of Genpei(1183 ) To YoritomoEastern countryInManor-Public territoryfromOfficial property-TributeAt the same time as guaranteeing the delivery, Yoritomo's control of the East was officially recognized.Battle of Dannoura(Genryaku 2nd year /Toshinaga4 years(1185 ))andTairaDestroyed, the same year,Bunji's charterIn (the first year of Bunji (1185)), Yoritomo was granted protection, establishment of a priesthood, and dismissal.andTakehisaNew Year (1190 ) YoritomoRightBig wordandGeneral KonoeToBe appointed,LordLine up inManor of the manor OfHousekeeping organizationBarrelPublic office(LaterGovernment office) With the right to open, it became legal as a governing body, and in the 3rd year of Kenkyu (1192).Conqueror General OfSwearingIt has been made.In this way, both in name and reality, it was established as a samurai government.GuardianAlthough the shogunate was in charge of maintaining the security of each country with the establishment of the government, its control was limited, but the scope gradually expanded.Seku no Ran,MasterAfter that, it came to establish national control.

Governance structure

The original Kamakura ShogunateKamakura-donoIt is a local administration headed by a samurai who is presided over by the government, and the rule is centered on the eastern country.Seku no RanLater, he made a leap to the national government and expanded his power, but he did not aim for the national government from the beginning, but was a local government premised on the imperial court power.One of the major reasons is the Kamakura ShogunateManorary systemIt is a government that presupposes.

The origin of the samurai corps that owns the land in the region is Tenpyo 15 (743 ), Promulgated by the imperial court to effectively collect taxesKonden Einen Shizai LawDue to the official approval of private land ownership by the enforcement of, ancient gentry and influential peasants have come to own the land, but in order to avoid strict tax collection by the Kokushi, influential landowners have made part of the land to the lord. Donated,ManorIt was an opportunity to get the position as a shōkan (development lord).Although the donated aristocrats are protected, this time the collection from the donated lord of the manorKokujiFriction with the neighboring gentryInvasionAlwaysLeading farmersWill eventually become armed,samuraiIs born.

Eventually to the leading farmersOriginThe samurai who doSamurai Of起源And,Dispatched fromLower aristocrat(Official),furtherMorning vassal,flatMorning vassalな どDojo family,Underground houseThe topMilitary aristocratTheMasterRelief of the main territory by forming a master-slave relationshipGunjiSoumura,Post(Station house) AndHarbor(Water station)ofmanagementAnd so onBandit(Fallen warrior hunt) AndPirate(Naval force)) Was ensured.He gained a clue to prosperity by serving in the war of the master and being given a new territory.[Annotation 1].

Minamoto no Yoritomo is a prestigious member of the prestigious aristocrats who control the samurai corps in each region. It can be said that it was a government that represented the interests of the samurai through the gratitude and service, which was mediated by the mansion public territory system, which provided the new grace salary.The political and military / economic foundations of the Kamakura Shogunate were acquired by Yoritomo as a reward for the Taira clan's follow-up.Kanto Tomoyuki Country,Kanto territoryMet[1].

The second reason that the Kamakura Shogunate is a government premised on the power of the imperial court is that the Kamakura Shogunate is established by satisfying various grounds for existence under the decree and legal system.

Originally in IzuHiruga Kojima OfRyujinThe event that Yoritomo was supposed to raise a soldier to pursue the Taira clan wasIinouIt was the so-called "decree" (strictly speaking, a textbook).Keiko OhbaYoritomo, who defeated the Heike Bushidan in the Kanto region, started his rule in Kamakura in 4, but at this point he was still in control.Taira ShomonIt was just a very private government, no different from that.However, in the second year of Toshinaga (2), the imperial court lost Yoritomo to the Heike and became a drifter.SubordinateAt the request of Yoritomo, Mr. Taira abolished the embezzlement of the villas and territories in the eastern country, and granted the so-called eastern country sovereignty to approve the authority to belong to the former Kokushi and the lord of the manor.And the authority to command the Kokuga, a local official of the eastern country, was also recognized for the fulfillment of this authority.So-calledDeclaration of October, XNUMXnd year of GenpeiIs[Annotation 2].

On March 2, 1185, the second year of the Genryaku calendar,Battle of DannouraYoritomo, who succeeded in destroying the Taira clan, was a mansion owned by the Heike as a meritorious person in pursuing the enemy in the morning.Heike deceasedIt was approved after demanding control of Kamakura-dono, and later acquired a territory called Kanto territory, a manor under the direct control of Kamakura-dono.Also, after the fall of the Heike, he flipped the flag to Yoritomo.Younger brother-Yoshitsune MinamotoUncle-Source house Goshirakawa PopeWhen Yoritomo was given a decree to pursue Yoritomo, Yoritomo protested against it, and made the imperial court take charge of the politics of the imperial court with the lord recommended by Yoritomo. In addition, it is authorized to place guardians and priests in the eastern country and Kinai for the purpose of the revenge.RiceI asked Yoritomo to give him the right to collect.So-called,Bunji's charterIs[Annotation 3].

After that, Yoritomo had built a powerful independence force in Tohoku.Oshu FujiwaraIn November of the first year of Kenkyu (1190),RightBig wordandGeneral KonoeWas entrusted to (the rank is alreadyLunar calendarIn the second year (1185)Second placeBeing struck byBunjiIn the 1189th year (XNUMX)Second placeWas promoted to).

As a result, the third place or higherLordRecognized by the household affairs organizationGovernment officeHas been officially approved, and Yoritomo has installed it independently until then.Public officeRenamed as Mandokoro,Official office-General Konoe OfAbbreviationIt was called the right general housekeeping office in honor of the right general.Until then, YoritomoIndividualThe eastern government of Kamakura, which was based on the reinstatement of the official post and the eastern government, gained the position as a household household officially recognized by the imperial court and gained its legitimacy as a governing body.Takehisa2 years(1191 May 1Yoritomo, who returned to Kamakura, will be held at an epoch-making event such as an annual event and a celebration.The beginning of a good bookAnd as the fourth officer in charge of the right general housekeeping officeGovernment officeBeliefToHiroe Oe, To the orderNikaido administration, For the houseworkMitsuya NakaharaEachQuestionnaireButlerToSamuraiBettoYoshimori WadaTo the Samurai-dokoroKajiwara Keiji, To a public magistrateFujiwara Familiarity6 others,Kyoto guardianToForeignerAnd also a lordIchijo Noho, To Chinzei BugyoAmano distant viewAnd solidified the Kamakura Shogunate.

3 years (1192 May 7, Yoritomo from the imperial courtConqueror GeneralWas sentenced. ""YamatsukiAccording to the July 3th and 1192th articles of Kenkyu 7 (9), Yoritomo wanted "General", And at the imperial court that received it," Soukan "and"General Seito・ "Shogun" ・ "Superior GeneralAs a result of the proposal and examination of the four candidatesHira Somori"Soukan" who was appointed byMinamoto Yoshinaka OfOfficer"Seito Tai-shogun" was rejected as a bad example, and "Shogun" was also unprecedented in Japan.Sakaue Tamura MaroIt is said that the "Shogun General" who was appointed by the company was selected as a good example.In this eraHonorary positionTo the Shogun General who had turned intoLeft ministerAlso equivalent toSecond placeThe fact that he got a high rank is called a person in charge of the government based on military power.meaningWith the addition of a match, this became the presiding officer of the shogunateHereditaryBy doing so, the Kamakura Shogunate was established both in name and reality as an alternative government to the imperial court.Also, the appointment of Shogun General, who can mobilize soldiers and horses nationwide during the war, meant giving Yoritomo extraordinary power.[2][Annotation 4]..Later, Minamoto no Yoritomo was sacred to the samurai as the founder of the samurai government.

In this way, the Kamakura ShogunateImperial courtIt can be said that the government was established after receiving multiple approvals and delegations from the imperial court on the premise of the shōen-koku system, which is the public system of.

History

Established

Heian periodTerminal stage,Kiyomori TairaCentered onTaira administrationWas established, but there was a strong antipathy and resistance to the old and opposition forces.1180 ,Goshirakawa PopePrince ofIinouWas immediately defeated by the Taira clan, but with this as an opportunity, a force advocating the Taira clan stood up nationwide.

In such a situationIzuToExileMinamoto no Yoritomo, who had become a soldier, was raised in August andIshibashi Mountain BattleAlthough I lost inAhnからKazusa-ShimosaTaira clanSamurai(Bando Heishi) And others, and in October of the same year, entered Kamakura, a place related to their ancestors, and made it their home base.Yoritomo is to lead the Kanto BushidanSamuraiPutKamakura-donoIt came to be called.Immediately after thatBattle of Fuji RiverDefeated the Taira clan.

1183 January,Minamoto YoshinakaTaira京都Exiled from, but repeated violent actions.I was worried about thisGoshirakawa PopeAsked Yoritomo to go up, but Yoritomo converselyTokaido-Higashisendo-Hokuriku Road OfManor-Public territoryTo the originalKokuji-Main officeRequested the issuance of a declaration (declaration of October, XNUMXnd year of Kotobuki) to be returned to.The imperial court almost accepted Yoritomo's request, although the Hokuriku Expressway was excluded in consideration of Yoshinaka.As a result, Yoritomo gained control of both Tokai and Higashiyama, albeit indirectly.

In this way, Yoritomo, who established control of the East in both name and reality,1184 , In charge of administrationPublic office(AfterGovernment office) And in charge of justiceQuestionnaireAnd formed the actual state of the administration.At the same time, Yoritomo is his younger brotherMinori Nori-Yoshitsune MinamotoDispatched to the Taira clan to pursue him,1185 ,Battle of DannouraAnd destroyed Mr. Taira.

In the same year, Minamoto no YoshitsuneSource houseYoritomo gained the official position without permission, so Yoritomo pursued both sides.decree of emperorFrom Emperor Go-Shirakawa, and in the name of pursuing bothGuardian-GroundApproved the right of appointment and dismissal.This is called Bunji's royal license.As a result, the Yoritomo administration took control of military and police powers nationwide, and the theory that the shogunate was established at this time is predominant.For the guardian and Jito, the right to collect military rice,Officials in the officeThis was an opportunity for the Yoritomo administration to expand its territorial control nationwide.The local rule of the Yoritomo administration at this time is still conventional.Gonmon HouseIt is not superior to the rule by the Taira clan, and the establishment of the Jito is also the old territory of Mr. Taira (Heike deceased) And so on.

1189 , The Yoritomo administration used the excuse to hide YoshitsuneOshu BattleOshu FujiwaraThere are no samurai forces that can oppose it.The Yoritomo administration succeeded in solidifying the foundation of the shogunate in a series of civil wars that continued from the turmoil of the rule to the pursuit of Yoshitsune and the battle of Oshu.For this reason, there is also an evaluation that "the shogunate was not created because it won the civil war, but it won the civil war because it was created."[3].

1190 Yoritomo was appointed by General Ukonoe, the highest rank of the permanent military attaché, but he immediately resigned because of various political restrictions.1192 , Yoritomo is appointed as Shogun.As a result, the formation of the Kamakura Shogunate will be completed for the time being.However,1221 OfSeku no RanThere is also a view that the victory in the Shogunate will be the establishment of the Shogunate.

As mentioned above, the Kamakura Shogunate originally originated in the private administration of Minamoto no Yoritomo.This private government gained legitimacy of control by being approved by the imperial court.Therefore, the scope of control of the Shogunate isGuardianAlthough the military and police rights of each country were obtained through the establishment of the military police, the rule was mainly under the control of Yoritomo.LordIn principle, it did not violate the control of the imperial court powers (kenmon powers), at least until the Jokyu War.Also, looking at the Shogunate organization, it was very different from that of the imperial court, and Kamakura-dono's character as a household household organization remained strong.

Chronological Table

The rise of Mr. Hojo

Minamoto no Yoritomo, who achieved the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate,ShojiNew Year (1199 ) Suddenly died in January.It was Yoritomo's son who succeeded the site and became Kamakura-dono, who was 1 years old at that time.Source sourcewas.However, the influential people of the Shogunate are worried about leaving the affairs to the young Yoriie, and the influential gokenin will execute the trial and affairs on behalf of the Yoriie.XNUMX-person consensus systemI built a political system called.At the center of this collegial system was Yoriie's consort kin.HojoAndHojo Tosei-Hojo justiceFather and son are other influentialLordWas destroyed one after another (1200 : Kajiwara Kagetoki's strange,1203 : Hiki Yoshikazu's strange).

1203 Yoriie, who fell into a serious illness, was handed over by his grandfather Tokimasa.Izu OfShuzenjiImprisoned inMinamoto morningWhen he takes the next Kamakura-dono / Shogun position, the next1204 ToDeathdid.Tokimasa et al.HojoIt is reported that he was assassinated by his hand.Tokimasa assists the third shogun, MinchoCustodyHe took control of politics.The following year, 1205, Tokimasa was a son-in-law.Asahi HiragaConflict with Asaga, a plan to make him a shogunShigetada HatakeyamaAnd tried to abolish the real morning (Hatakeyama Shigetada's Ran).However, with Tokimasa's child's right timeMasako HojoRebelled against this move and, in solidarity with a leading gokenin, retired Tokimasa and killed Asamasa Hiraga (Maki case).

After this, Hojo Yoshitoki became the authority and tried to establish the power of Mr. Hojo.Yoshimori WadaAppeared as a counter-force.At the time of righteousness, over the strategy,1213 , Destroyed the Wada clan (Wada battle).In this way, the situation of the Shogunate, where armed conflict continues,ChoukyuNew Year (1219 ) The worst situation of the assassination of Shogun Minamoto no Sanetomo in January.The shogunate, who was confused by the disconnection of Yoritomo's direct line, requested the imperial court to be a pro-royal general.Haritoku no Kimi-Emperor GotobaRejected this, and after some twists and turns, a toddler of a regent who was a distant relative of Yoritomo.Fujiwara YoritsukeWas welcomed as the new general = Kamakura-dono.The second generation Kamakura-dono after thisSeta ShogunIs called.In this way, the real power of the shogunate was taken over by Mr. Hojo, who was in power.

Seku no Ran

Emperor GotobaIs oriented toward tyrannical politics as a heavenly heaven, and of the shogunateexistI felt lonely.After seeing the assassination in the morning as a turmoil and weakening of the shogunate, Toba decided to regain the government in the imperial court.And 3 years of Jōkyu (1221 ) In May, Go-Toba will follow Hojo Yoshitoki.decree of emperor(However, there are disagreements as to whether it was an attempt to defeat Yoshitoki on the premise of the survival of the Shogunate and recreate it into a system that is convenient for him, or whether he intended to defeat the Shogunate itself).Until thenHistoryGo-Toba expected that Yoshitoki would soon be defeated and the Kanto samurai would return, but the shogunate appealed for his gratitude since Yoritomo and put the majority of his family on his side.He took a short-term decisive strategy and defeated the imperial court in less than two months.

Postwar processing was carried out under the initiative of the Shogunate.Emperor Go-Toba, the mastermind, and the genealogy of Go-TobaEmperor-Prince ExileBeing treated byEmperor Nakayasu TheAbdication, Many aristocrats and samurai on the imperial court sidecapital offenseWas said.People at that timeHaritoku no KimiThe emeritus of the imperial court, includingEmperor・ I was shocked by the punishment of the vassals.In the society at that timeValuesTurned in the opposite direction.The prestige of the imperial court literally fell to the ground, and the shogunate was to monitor the imperial court.RokharaWill strengthen the control over the imperial court.

Immediately after the turmoil, the imperial court consulted with the shogunate about who the next emperor would be.Since then, the imperial court has always confirmed the intentions of the shogunate when deciding on the heavens and the emperor, indicating that the positions of the shogunate and the imperial court have been reversed.

Establishment of politics of authority

1224 To Hojo Yoshitoki,1225 To Masako HojoHiroe OeThe founding generation of the shogunate died, and the child of YoshitokiHojo YasutoshiBecame in power.Yasutoki is an uncle's uncle to prevent confusion during the alternation of generations.Hojo TokifusaCan be said to be an assistant to the authorityCo-sign(However, there is a view that Tokifusa was originally in the same role as Yasutoki), and it is a political decision-making council.PraiseWas set up and a group guidance system was established.This is because the Kamakura Shogunate is basically made up of a master-slave relationship between the Kamakura-dono (general) and individual gokenins.Mr. Hojo was only one of the servants of Kamakura-dono, and even though he was one of the leading gokenins, he was not the master.

Yasutoki decided to set clear court standards in order to deal fairly with the sudden increase in legal cases after the Jokyu War.This isDefeatCode called (Samurai law), And is evaluated as a simple and practical law.AfterMuromachi ShogunateHowever, in principle, this law is inherited.Yasutoki also emphasized that the ceremony was not infringed on the jurisdiction of the imperial court.

Such a series of measures by Yasutoki is regarded as the establishment of politics of authority.Since Yoritomo, the Kamakura Shogunate has largely relied on the personal qualities of Kamakura-dono, and its organization has only developed the Kamakura-dono's household affairs organization.However, the collective leadership system established by Yasutoki and the judicial system based on clear laws and regulations were not affected by unstable factors such as personal qualities, and produced stable political results.

Yasutoki's grandsonHojo TokiyoriInherited Yasutoki's politics of authority.Tokiyori focused on enhancing the judicial system1249 , For the impartiality of the trialAttractorWas installed.On the other hand, he also tried to strengthen the power of authority.1246 , With former general, Kujo Yoritsune, who attempted to eliminate TokiyoriMitsutoshi NagoshiExile the faction from the shogunate (Miya turmoil)When,1247 Is a leading gokeninYasumura MiuraDefeated the clan (Houji Battle).1252 , The shogun who was responsible for the rebellion against the shogunateKujo YoritsuguIs abolished, insteadSosonSucceeded in welcoming him as a new general.After that, General King (General Miya) Has been welcomed for generations, and it has become customary for the pro-king general not to participate in the politics of the shogunate.In this way, Mr. Hojo, who strengthened his tyranny under the King General, concentrated his power on the Hojo clan.Tokiyori takes control because of illnessHojo ChojiI gave it to him, but he continued to take control.As a result, the real power of politics deviates from the position of authority.At that time, the Hojo clanProfitBecause I called it (Tokumune), the above political systemTokusou exclusive controlThat.

Master

After Tokiyori's death, it was the child who took over the position of Tokusou.Hojo Tokunewas.Before and after Ji-shu became Tokusou1268 ,Mongolian Empire5nd generationGreat Khan OfKubirai GoryeoI have requested tribute through.The imperial court left the response to the shogunate, and the shogunate decided not to respond, and decided to solidify the defense of the West.1269 1271 A national book arrived from Mongolia, and the imperial court proposed to send a return, but the shogunate chose to kill silently according to the original policy (indicating that the shogunate also held diplomatic rights).

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe country name was changed fromyuanIt is,Bunei11 years(1274 ) Attacked northern Kyushu in October, but encountered the stubborn resistance of the Kamakura samurai (Battle of Akasaka-Battle of Torikaigata), The Yuan dynasty withdrew at night and suffered heavy damage due to a storm on the way back.thisThe role of FumonagaThat is.The shogunate decided to work together with the imperial court to protect the nation, reinforce the security of the West, and at the same time, personnel and soldiers from the imperial court's territory, which was not controlled by the shogunate until then. Procurement has come to be accepted.This is one opportunity for the shogunate power to expand nationwide.Furthermore, the shogunate made a plan to invade the continent while strengthening the guard, but this plan failed on the way (First Goryeo Conquest Plan).

originallyHiroyasu4 years(1281 ), Invaded Japan again, mainly in northern Kyushu.At this time, I encountered the strong resistance of the Japanese army for nearly two months (Battle of Shiga Island-Battle of Iki Island-Battle of Takashima), Where the invasion was stagnanttyphoonWill be severely damaged.Furthermore, the former army was destroyed by the total attack by the Japanese army (Mitsuba Marine Battle-Takashima Sweeping Battle). thisThe role of KoanThat is.In conjunction with the previous invasionMasterCalled.The shogunate sent troops to the continent and made a plan to fight back, but this plan was not executed either (Second Goryeo Conquest Plan).

During this time, Ji-shu was not a time-consuming consensus, but an aide or an aide (in the name of a quick response to an emergency).MiuchibitoI made a policy decision on my own initiative.Under these circumstances, he is the top of the Miuchibito.Internal jurisdictionGradually began to take power, and during the Koan periodTaira no YoritsunaAnd the leading gokeninYasumori AdachiWas in competition.With the understanding of Ji-shu, Yasumori tried to improve the economic base of the shogunate and to realize a policy that guarantees the status of the Gokenin.However, Ji-shu1284 Tosudden deathThen the next1285 , Taira no Yoritsuna suddenly attacked and killed Taisei and subdued the Taisei school gokenins (Shimotsuki riot).It is said that this incident completed the Tokusou monopoly.

Around this time, in the imperial court,Emperor GosagaOver the subsequent throneDaikakujiMochiin TempleDivided into two systems, the shogunateSuccession to the throneAsked for adjustment.The shogunateRyokanIn order to show the principle and arbitrate and respond to domestic and foreign crises, the shogunate also told the imperial court.TokumasaHe demanded a political reform called.In response to thisEmperor KameyamaIs the 9th year of Koan (1286 ) In December, the hospital rating was given by Tokuseirei.Miscellaneous complaintsDivided into, followed byEmperor Fushimi TheCorrect response6 years(1293 )In MayRecord officeThe organization was reformed and the political organization was renewed to ensure smooth political execution.However, in the process of succession to the throne and the implementation of Tokuseirei, the confrontation with the shogunate came to the surface, and it became a distant cause that made the anti-shogunate movement latent again in the imperial court.

The heyday and decline of Tokusou monopoly

Taira no Yoritsuna is a young man who succeeded Ji-shu.Hojo TeiAnd made an effort to strengthen the Tokusou monopoly.Adachi Yasumori had a collegial magistrate (Chinzei High School) in Kyushu in order to judge the awards and proceedings of the Kyushu Gokenin who worked in the defense of the Mongol invasion. New institution (Zhenxi)を設置した。頼綱政権は、この機関を通じて西国の荘園・公領への支配を強めていった。その反面、さらなる元寇の可能性を根拠として、御家人らへの恩賞給与は僅かにとどまった。正応6年(1293年)、成人したHojo TeiIt is,Taira no Yoritsuna一族を討滅した(Hei Zenmon Incident)。貞時は、政治の実権を内管領から取り戻し、実質的な得宗専制を一層強化していった。まず、頼綱政権下で停滞していた訴訟の迅速な処理のため、合議制の引付衆を廃止し、判決を全て貞時が下すこととした。当初、御家人らは訴訟の進行を歓迎したが、ほどなく独裁的な判決への反発が高まった。そして、Yongren5 years(1297 ), When a great comet appeared, anxiety spread to the world, and at that timeTokumasaAccording to the idea, Sadatoki assigns the property to the original owner free of charge.Yongin's virtuous ordinanceWas promulgated.This Tokuseirei had a serious impact on the monetary economy that was becoming widespread at that time, and also caused great upset in society.

After that, the four members of the Hojo clan took over one after another in place of Sadatoki, but Sadatoki continued to dominate the shogunate as Tokusou.During the Sadatoki era, the number of Hojo Ichimon's chigyokoku increased significantly.On the other hand, the general Gokenin class has new burdens such as foreign police officers and Nagato police officers, and cannot fully cope with the spread of the monetary economy. Hierarchical differentiation progressed.Some gokenins increased their territory, but not a few gokenins tended to fall, and the number of unskilled gokenins who could not serve the shogunate due to loss by selling or pledged their territory increased. It began to.On the other hand, there are some who get up by acquiring or acquiring the territory from them, and some of themNon-gokeninIs also included in large numbers.These footless gokenins and the empowered non-gokeninsVillainAnd further promoted social change.Under such circumstances, in the 3rd year of Kagen (1305), Sadatoki was a co-signer who was a senior vassal of the Hojo clan.Hojo TokimuraAttempted to further strengthen the power of the Tokusou family, but failed due to the resistance of the Hojo clan.Kamoto Ran)did.After the turbulence, he was drunk and abandoned his affairs.MiuchibitoByCongregationLed the shogunate, and the position of Tokusou became as formal as the shogun.[4].

OchoFirst yearMay 10(1311 May 12), When Sadatoki dies, the child'sHojo high timeHas succeeded the Hojo Tokusou family.According to Sadatoki's will, he became a 9-year-old high school assistant of the Taira no Yoritsuna clan.Takatsuna Nagasaki (Yenki Nagasaki)And the survival of the Adachi clanTokiaki Adachi("Holy calendar])[5]..Masakazu 5 years (1316 ) In July, when he was high, he became the authority at the age of 7, and from the previous year.Co-signHad becomeSadaaki KanazawaBecame the assistant.

Military memoirs"Taiheki』(Around 1370) tells the story, Hojo Takatoki does not care about politicsFighting dog,DakurakuHe is a tyrant who indulges in play such as, and his aides are also incompetent and corrupt, and because the successive riots are suppressed by powerful rule, the shogunate rapidly loses authority and power, and the development is drawn.However,"MasukagamiAnd 'Holy calendarOther documents such as ”, and Mr. Hojo's private library.Kanazawa libraryIt is revealed that the expression of "Taheiki" is a great exaggeration from the historical materials that remain in.[6].

Emperor Go-Daigo's defeat movement

On the other hand, it was divided due to Ji-shu's intervention in the imperial court.Royal family OfMochiin Temple-DaikakujiIs even within the Daikakuji lineLegitimacy OfKuniyoshi-shinno(Emperor Nihonjo OfLegitimate man) School and anotherEmperor GodaigoThey were divided into groups and were in conflict.Then, each faction of the imperial court asked the shogunate to mediate these disputes, and the shogunate was involved in the disputes within the imperial court.

Bunho2 years(1318 ),Emperor GodaigoIs enthroned,YuanhengFirst yearMay 12(1321 May 12)Emperor Go-UtaReceived the transfer of affairs from, and started pro-government.

Yuanheng4 May 9(1324 May 10), Emperor Go-Daigo was suspected of defeating the plan, and as a person concerned (Yorikane TokiChild) andPresident TajimiWere killed (Midnight strange[7]..In addition, it is a confidant public house.Hino ShisaToshiki HinoWas captured.In the official judgment, the emperor and Toshiki were falsely accused, but Suketomo cannot be said to be guilty or innocent.Sado IslandWas exiled to[7]..The emperor was actually planning to defeat him, but he said he wasn't punished because the shogunate was dismissed.[7]..There are various theories about the process leading to the conflict between the emperor and the shogunate, and it is not constant.Detail isMidnight strangeSee.

In any caseMotohiroNew Year (1331 ), Emperor Go-Daigo planned to overthrow.this isYoshida SadafusaIt was discovered in advance by the secret notice of the emperor, and the following year the emperorOki IslandWas swept away (Genko War).However, with this as an opportunity, he is dissatisfied with the Shogunate and Tokusou.Masanari Suzuki,Akamatsu NorimuraSamurai called villains in various places such as (Enshin) will raise soldiers of the anti-Bakufu in various places.

Genko 3 /Syokei2 years(1333 ) In April, a leading gokenin dispatched to Kyoto to subdue the anti-Bakufu forcesTakauji Ashikaga (Takauji) TheTakaie NagoshiAfter seeing that he died in the war, he turned around and headed to Emperor Go-Daigo on May 5th.RokharaDropped.

Ruin

The day after the fall of Rokuhara,Nitta Yoshisada Ueno countryThe troops that were raised in the Kanto region and had 150 horsesLordBecame a large army within a few days with the support of[8]..On the other hand, the shogunateSadakuni Sakurada-Takashige NagasakiThey organized a subjugation army and had them intercepted by a large army, but theyBattle of Kotesashihara,Battle of KumegawaLost in[9].Hojo YasuieEven after the addition of reinforcementsBattle of Bubaigawara,Battle of SekidoThe Shogunate army routed to Kamakura, and the Nitta group approached Kamakura.

On May 5, Nitta Yoshisada launched an attack on Kamakura with a large army (which is said to be hundreds of thousands in exaggerated expressions in Gunki Monogatari), and a fierce battle was fought with the shogunate army.Battle of Kamakura[10]..On the day of the cornered authorityAkahashi MoritokiHad suicide, etc.[11]The Nitta army suffered enormous damage due to the fierce resistance of the Shogunate army using the terrain.

On May 5, the troops led by Nitta Yoshisada took advantage of the low tide.InamuragasakiI broke through and rushed into Kamakura city.The two armies fought a fierce battle in the city, but by the 22ndAkahashi Moritoki,Sadanao Daibutsu,Sadamasa Kanazawa,Mototoki FuonjiInfluential military commanders of the Shogunate army died in the war and committed suicide one after another[12][13][14]..DefeatedHojo high time-Sadaaki Kanazawa, Nagasaki EnkiTakashi Nagasaki・ The 283 vassals of the Adachi Tokiaki clan are from Bodaiji.Toshoji TempleGathered at the temple and set fire to the temple to commit suicide (Toshoji Battle[15].. Same day,Guardian PrinceRetired from the shogunate and left home.Three more days later, on May 3,KyusyuChinzei tandai also turned into an anti-Bakufu powerSadatsune Shoji,Sadamune Otomo,Shimazu SadahisaIt fell by them.

after that

Defeat the ShogunateKenmu's new governmentStartedEmperor GodaigoPlayed a deadly battle with himselfHojo high timeTo mourn the bodhi ofTakashi AshikagaCommanded toKamakuraTo the ruins of the Takatoki mansionHoukaiji TemplePlanned to build[16][Annotation 5]..Although the construction was suspended due to the subsequent war,TurbulenceIt was resumed by Mr. Takauji, who took control of the Shogunate by controlling (1350-1352).Shohei9 years/Bunwa3 years(1354 ) Completed around[16][Annotation 6].

Under the Kenmu administration, he was a deceased child at the time of Tokusou Hojo Takato.Hojo train(Middle and predecessor)Ran of the Middle Ages(Kenmu2 years(1335 )) Wake up, Takauji's younger brotherNaoyoshi AshikagaDefeated and occupied Kamakura and temporarily revived the Kamakura Shogunate,Seito ShogunIt was attacked by Takauji Ashikaga and died in 20 days.Civil war of the Northern and Southern DynastiesThen, Emperor Go-Daigo pardoned the morning enemySouthern DynastyFight as a person,Battle of MusashinoThen he regained Kamakura, but this time he was defeated by Takauji, and after that he was executed or disappeared.

Urban construction

Entering Kamakura and building a city have epoch-making meaning in the history of samurai who had been subordinate to the officials of Kyoto until then.First of all, Yoritomo built the residence andTsuruoka Hachimangu ShrineTo maintain.Tsurugaoka Palace occupies the center of the city of Kamakura both geographically and spiritually, and is located in Kyoto.Inner sideComparable to, downward from the centerTendai sect-Shingon sectMonk,MonkWas in control of the operation.WhereHoseikai such asAnnual eventIs maintained, while it is dedicated at that timehorseback archery,KasagakeBecame an important event representing the samurai society.

Construction to decorate the new samurai capital continues,Minamoto no dynasty OfBodhiShochojuinAndHiraizumi TheChusonji TempleImitated the second floor of the main hallOshu BattleAnd many battlesMemorial serviceToothYoshitsune Minamoto-Yasuhira FujiwaraTens of thousands includingGrief-GhostSqueezeMeifuTemple for prayingEifukuji Temple, In the 13th centuryJufukuji Temple-Toshoji Temple such asZen BuddhismTemples were built one after another.Zen Buddhism is especially protected,Kita-KamakuraToraijinOpen mountainToKenchoji Temple,Round TempleSuch a giant shows greatness[17].

Principle of existence and Shogunate organization

Thanks and service

The existence of the Kamakura Shogunate was based on samurai, especially the Kanto Bushidan.These samurai became members of the Kamakura Shogunate by becoming the family members of "Kamakura-dono" (= Shogun).The samurai who became a family member of Kamakura-donoLordWas called.The master-slave relationship between Kamakura-dono and the Gokenin isThanks and serviceThis system, which is maintained by a reciprocal relationship called Gokenin system, is called the Gokenin system.

Thank you
It means that Kamakura-dono guarantees the control of the Gokenin's territory or provides a new land salary. There were two types of "Gon": Honryo Ando, ​​which guarantees control of the territory, and Shinonkyuyo, which is a new land salary.Both are gokeninsGroundIt was done in the form of appointing to.
Service
It refers to the military service and economic burden that the Gokenin bears on Kamakura-dono.Specifically, it is an emergency military service represented by "Iza Kamakura", and guarding the inside and outside.Kyoto Daiban, The guardian of the shogunateKamakura guard, Later in the Mongol invasionForeign police guard,Nagato Keigo BanIt is done in the form ofKanto official affairsThere was also an economic burden called.

As described above, the two were connected by enjoying mutual benefits.The master-slave contract was made by sending a list of gokenins when they visited Kamakura-dono, and the shogunate managed the gokenins by means of the gokenin list.

Economic base

The Kamakura Shogunate had its own economic base as follows.

Job system

Conqueror General(Kamakura-dono
The head of the Kamakura Shogunate.During the time of the first Yoritomo, it was regarded as a samurai lord, but when General Genji ceased in his third generation, he began to welcome the regents (3nd generation) and the imperial family (2th generation) from the imperial court and became a mere corpse.
Custody
Assistant to the general of the Kamakura Shogunate (Kamakura-dono).Gradually absorbed the authority of the shogun and became the de facto leader of the Kamakura Shogunate.HojoHowever, even after the head of the Hojo Tokusou family handed over the authority to a clan member, the Tokusou family head continued to take control.
Co-sign
A position next to or in line with authority.
Praise
The highest collegial body for policy decision-making in the Shogunate.The shogunate management system of the senior vassal congress after Yoritomo's deathXNUMX-person consensus systemIs developed and established.As the Tokusou monopoly progresses, it will be neglected.
Congregation
Originally it was a private meeting of the owner of the Tokusou family, but as the Tokusou monopoly progressed, it became the supreme decision-making body that virtually replaced the appraisers.
Attractor
He was in charge of hearing the proceedings filed in the Shogunate.The results of the trial were submitted to the appraisers and decided by the appraisers.
Samurai
He was in charge of the command of the Gokenin.
Government office
Originating from Yoritomo's household affairs organization, he was in charge of general affairs and finances of the Shogunate.
Questionnaire
He was in charge of the proceedings related to the proceedings filed in the Shogunate.
Guardian
Ground
Kyoto guardianRokhara
Originally, the mission was to coordinate liaison with the imperial court, but after the Jokyu War, Rokuhara Tandai was tasked with monitoring the imperial court and commanding the Saigoku Gokenin.
Chinzei BugyoZhenxi
For details, see Chinzei Bugyo and Chinzei Tandai.
Oshu General Service
Ezo Kanrei, Ezo Kanrei

Changes in the location of the Shogunate (Gosho)

NameperiodEstablished / relocated person
Okura Shogunate1180 (4 years of Jisho) ~ 1225 Yoritomo Gengen
Uto (Tsu) MiyatsujikoShogunate1225 (First year of Karoku) ~ 1236 Hojo Yasutoki
Rensho Hojo Tokifusa
Wakamiya Oji Shogunate1236 (2nd year of Katei) ~ 1333 Hojo Yasutoki

[18]

Discussion about the Shogunate

at that time,Samurai governmentToShogunateI didn't call itImperial court-Official house TheKantoCalled by the samuraiKamakura-dono, From the general publicsamuraiWas called. "Azuma mirrorAs you can see in the example of calling the Shogun's mansion "Bakufu", the shogunate was originally a concept that refers to the shogun's camp and residence.The samurai government was called the shogunateEdo PeriodLatter half,BakumatsuIt wasn't until then that the concept of the Kamakura Shogunate appeared.1887 (Meiji20 years or later[19]..For the above reasons, the concept of the Kamakura Shogunate as a governing mechanism, or the time of its establishment, is a matter of later generations in modern history, and although there is a prima facie theory, there is no unified view. is the current situation.HistorianHayashiya Tatsusaburo"It is uncertain in history where the essence of the shogunate should be placed in the first place."Also, the same historian pointed out that the Kamakura Shogunate could command samurai nationwide, but could not complete the rule of the whole country, and in particular, the involvement in succession to the throne was passive (received a military challenge from the imperial court). (The result, or the result based on the request from the imperial court)administrationAs long as the court is still in control of the national affairs in many fields other than the military and police aspects, and the Kamakura Shogunate is still in control of the national affairs, we will reconsider whether the Kamakura Shogunate can really be called the samurai government. Shouldn't it?Is proposing[20].

Currently, regarding the year of establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate, Yoritomo established the rule of the East in the 4th year of the Jisho era (1180), in fact.Eastern countryIn 2, when the declaration of the second year of Juei was made to approve the control of the government, in the first year of the Genryaku (1183), when the public office and the inquiry office were opened, the appointment of guardians and priests was permitted. doBunji's charterIn the first year of Bunji (1185), the first year of Kenkyu (1190), when he was appointed as the head of the guardian deity of Japan.Conqueror GeneralThere are various opinions such as the 3rd year of Kenkyu (1192), which was appointed to[Annotation 7].

21st centuryIn the field of school education, the year of establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate was changed from the 3rd year of Kenkyu (1192) to the first year of Bunji (1185).Second World WarThe theory that was previously treated as a popular theory was the first year of Bunji (1185).Dai Nihon ShiryoAnd "" are also regarded as "the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate = the beginning of the Kamakura period" after the same year, and "Heian Remains"When"Kamakura remains] Is also adopted in the same year.On the other hand, some researchers deny the view that the Royal Charter of Bunji allowed the appointment of guardians and Jito, and from that standpoint, the theory of the first year of Bunji (1185), which presupposes the Royal Charter, cannot be established. Has been done.Similarly, other theories have been disputed (such as the existence of Japan's general guardian Jito).HistorianYasushi KawaiFrom the rebel forces in the eastern country, the Kamakura Shogunate was approved by the imperial court and won the internal turmoil with the Heike clan and relatives and spread its power throughout Japan, until it eventually established its own power mechanism with Kamakura-dono at the top. It was established through at least three steps, and it is difficult to cut out a specific point in time and discuss it as "the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate".[21]..Based on these discussions, the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate was arranged step by step in official textbooks such as the Teikoku Shoin, and in 1192, the notation "completed" was adopted for the year of establishment.[22].

Research since modern times

Medieval as a feudal system

Since modern timesHistoryIn research中 世 OfsamuraiTimeWas understood to be a dark age when dynasty culture declined.but,Katsuro Hara,Ishimoda ShoAccording to these studies, the Middle Ages became JapanFeudal systemWas established, and the Togoku Bushidan was evaluated as a driving force for the reform.[23].

Eastern state theory and kenmon system theory

1960 eraTwo medieval state theories appeared in.Shinichi SatoMakes the Kamakura Shogunate another nation in the Middle Ages alongside the imperial courtEast country independent state theoryAdvocate.on the other hand,Toshio KurodaMakes medieval political power a joint governing system with kenmon such as the imperial court, temples and shrines, and samuraiGonmon system theoryClarified.However, the evaluation in academia is in good contrast.1970 eraIs already in a situation such as "the theory of the kenmon system"[24], Sato himself at leastSeku no RanThe Kamakura Shogunate up towatchdogI had to admit that I was in a kenmon system situation to serve as[25]..In 1983, Sato reiterated the Kamakura Shogunate as the "second type of medieval nation" in "Medieval nations of Japan" and raised the theory of eastern independent nations.[26], It has not been possible to obtain an evaluation among researchers for the two main systems, which is the main point.[27][28], The result is that the similarity with the kenmon system theory is pointed out.In this way, the view that the Togoku samurai government is the driving force for the transformation of medieval society has been weeded out.[29][30][31], The theory of kenmon system is emphasized as a powerful theory even in the 21st century.[32].

The actual state of the administration

Kazuto HongoAccording to the Kamakura Shogunate, the Kamakura Shogunate was created by the lords of the Kanto region who worshiped Minamoto no Yoritomo to guarantee land ownership.[33]Is the actual situation.In other words, when the administration became stable, Genji was no longer necessary for the territorial lords, and was eliminated, and Yoritomo'sLegitimacyWas cut off[34]And

Hojo Takatoki administration

Surveyed historical materials of Kanazawa Bunko and political trends at the end of the Kamakura periodShin NagaiAccording to Hojo Takato, he did not care about politics, but he could not enter the political arena because of his illness, and his aides emphasized stability rather than reform and focused on assisting him. Therefore, it seems that the truth is that the administration has gradually declined.[6]..Nagai's high-time administration collapsedthe reasonThe following four are listed as[35].

  • 13st centuryFrom the end, the climate of the earthMedieval Warm PeriodからLittle Ice AgeAfter establishing superiority to the imperial courtMuromachi Shogunate,Edo ShogunateUnlike, the Kamakura Shogunate did not have the political authority to deal with this cooling.[35]..In charge of militaryGonmonHowever, the possible policies were limited, and we could only take measures in them.[35].
  • I mentioned earlierRyokanI was caught up in the internal contradiction of the Emperor's family.[35].
  • Monetary economyBy the penetration ofLordThe system is breaking down, and the Kamakura Shogunate, which is based on the Gokenin system, is also collapsing.[35]..Of course, unlike the previous two, this problem was a problem that the Kamakura Shogunate itself had to deal with.[35]..Also, at that timeVillainAn emerging force called was appearing, and there were a series of insults at temples and shrines, but the problem with this was also behind the scenes.[36].
  • Although related to the previous section, the central part of the Shogunate was reluctant to reform.[35].Shimotsuki riot(Koan 8 (1285)) ・Hei Zenmon Incident(Sho 6 years (1293)) ・Kamoto RanFrom this lesson, the shogunate, which was exhausted by a series of internal conflicts such as (Kagen 3 (1305)), came to be composed of coordinating Noh scholars centered on Sadaaki Kanazawa.[35]..Coordinated routes were used as the basic guideline, partly because high times were sick.[35]..The Takatoki administration was excellent as a gradualist and stability-oriented bureaucratic group.[37].

Nagai said, "If this leader had managed the administration in the mid-term when the Kamakura Shogunate was full of power, it would have been evaluated as a politician who built a good and peaceful time at high times."[38]"But what society wanted was a shift to a new social structure. This shift in consciousness is a major cause of stagnation."[38]It has said.

The process leading up to the defeat of Emperor Go-Daigo

2007 ToShosuke KochiThe new theory of "false accusations" was advocated by.According to Kawachi, Emperor Go-Daigo is a solid emperor who inherits the will of his father, Emperor Go-Uda. Was sticking to.It is said that the arrest of the Go-Daigo group was a trap set by the Daikakuji line, the Kuniyoshi-shinno group, or the Jimyoin line, who were political opponents in the court of the Go-Daigo.The reason why Hino Suketomo was exiled is that if the Emperor Go-Daigo is completely acquitted, the shogunate will be held liable for the failure of the investigation, and even the Japanese good faction and Jimyoin line will have to be newly investigated. He said he wanted to neglect the case because he couldn't get it and it would be a national emergency.In other words, it is said that the Daigo faction was the victim, and even though there was no blunder, only his own faction was damaged. Since the latter half of the 4s, several researchers have appeared to support Kawachi's false accusation theory.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, in recent years, on the contrary, the view that the origin of the samurai is not on the side of the influential peasants but on the side of the aristocrats has become mainstream.Detail is"Military aristocrat''Samurai # "Professional" Origin of the samurai』See the item.
  2. ^ According to "Hyakurensho", October XNUMXnd, XNUMXnd year of Toshinaga, "October XNUMXth, ... He makes a declaration that he should follow. It depends on Yoritomo's deeds. " See "Hyakurensho", October XNUMXth, XNUMXnd year of Toshinaga.
  3. ^ According to the description after October 1185, 10, in "Azuma Kagami", "Shohachi, Dingmi, the average guardian priest of the assistant nations, Shoen-koku of the kenmon, and the U.S. As stated in "Tonight, Hojo-den, Azuma Kagami, Fujiwara Tsunefusa, etc." I asked him to be.Moreover,Kujo Kanemis diary"TamabaAccording to the report, "On the XNUMXth, Yang Earth Monkey, the Hojo clan, the guardian priest of the nations, the rice, the reason why it should be left to the application as soon as possible. It will be told to the Hojo clan. " "Azuma Kagami" December XNUMXth, XNUMXst year of Bunji, "Tamaha", "Kichiki" December XNUMXth, XNUMXst year of Bunji.reference.
  4. ^ However, "About the Assistant General of the Shogunate of the Kamakura Shogunate," edited by "Medieval Historical Materials and Systems," Gunsho Ruijū, 2005, pp. 137-194. There is also a theory that the Shogun General was completely honored during this period and was not given any authority.
  5. ^ Donation of Takauji AshikagaKenmu2 years(1335 May 3Attached (collected in 3 materials of "History of Kanagawa Prefecture")[16]
  6. ^ "Draft donation by Shogun Ashikaga Takauji" "Draft textbook by Shogun Ashikaga Takauji" (collected in 3 materials of "History of Kanagawa Prefecture")[16]
  7. ^ For more information on these theories, see Mitsusada Inoue, supra, and "Kokushi Daijiten 3", edited by the Kokushi Daijiten Editorial Committee.

Source

  1. ^ Takeshi Abe; Kazuhiko SatoHen "History of Japanese villas traced by people" Tokyodo Publishing, 1990. 
  2. ^ Tomio Takahashi"Shogun Another National Sovereignty"Chuokoronsha, 1987, pp. 73-74.
  3. ^ "Medieval Community and General Power"Kuko Shoin, 2011, 161 pages.
  4. ^ Shigeo Hosokawa"The destruction of the Kamakura Shogunate"Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, 2011, pp. 132-133.
  5. ^ Nagai 2009, p. 53.
  6. ^ a b Nagai 2009, pp. 3–24.
  7. ^ a b c Kawachi 2007, pp. 304–347.
  8. ^ Minegishi 2005, pp. 37–38.
  9. ^ Minegishi 2005, p. 57.
  10. ^ Minegishi 2005, p. 62.
  11. ^ Minegishi 2005, p. 63.
  12. ^ Nagai 2003, pp. 148 ・ 150.
  13. ^ "Taheiki" Vol. XNUMX "Sadanao Daibutsu and Sadamasa Kanazawa
  14. ^ "Taheiki" Vol. XNUMX "Shinobi Suicide"
  15. ^ "Taheiki" Vol.
  16. ^ a b c d "Kanagawa Prefecture: Kamakura City> Komachi Village> Houkaiji Temple" "Japanese Historical Place Names" 平凡 社, 2006. 
  17. ^ Hiroo SatoHen "Overview of Japanese Thought History" Minerva Shobo, 2005. 
  18. ^ Kamakura city. "The highlight of Kamakura City "Okura Shogunate" Kamakura GreenNet"(Japanese). 2009/10/6Browse. [Broken link]
  19. ^ Kokushi Daijiten Editorial Committee, edited by Kokushi Daijiten, "Kokushi Daijiten 3", Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1983, p. 549. 
  20. ^ "About the samurai government"Yasuo Motoki Hen "Medieval Japan Politics and Institutions" (Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, 2020) ISBN 978-4-642-02966-7 P316 --330.
  21. ^ Yasushi Kawai"Reexamine the time when the Kamakura Shogunate was established" (First appearance: "Jikkyo Geographical History and Civil Affairs Materials" No. 76 (2013 ) / Collection: Kawai "Samurai Society during the Cloister Rule and the Kamakura Shogunate" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2019)) 2019, P276 --288.
  22. ^ "Teikoku Shoin | Social Studies Q & A — History". www.teikokushoin.co.jp. 2019/11/4Browse.
  23. ^ Tsuguharu Inaba 2012, p. 54.
  24. ^ Sato 1976.
  25. ^ Sato 1976, p. 5.
  26. ^ Shinichi Sato, "Medieval Nation of Japan," Iwanami Hyundai Bunko, March 2007, p. 3.
  27. ^ Shosuke Murai "Shinichi Sato, "Medieval Nation of Japan""History Magazine, Vol. 93, No. 4, Historical Society of Japan, 1984, 95-96 (p.510-521), two:10.24471 / shigaku.93.4_510, ISSN (+0018) 2478-XNUMX, NOT 110002368296.
  28. ^ Takashi Yoshida, Masataka Uwayokote "(Book Review) Shinichi Sato, "Medieval Nation of Japan""Study of Legal History," Vol. 1984, No. 34, 1984, p. 177.
  29. ^ Kenji Okuyama "Transformation of the image of medieval history in high school Japanese history: Through the treatment of the Jito system"Social Studies," Vol. 38, National Society for Social Studies Education, 1990, p. 93.
  30. ^ Masayuki Taira "Transformation of medieval historical statues and Kamakura Buddhism (1)"Jikkyo Geographical History and Civil Affairs Materials" No.65 Jikkyo Shuppan, October 2007, pp. 10-3. (Retrieved January 4, 2020)
  31. ^ Yutaka Ando "Examination of the content composition frame related to history learning "Kamakura period": Medieval history in junior high school ("Kamakura period") Basic consideration for reconstructing learning content (Part 1)"Bulletin of Hokkaido Kyoiku University, Educational Science, Vol. 59, No. 1, Hokkaido Kyoiku University, August 2008, 8 (p.40-39), ISSN 13442554, NOT 110006825912.
  32. ^ Tsuguharu Inaba 2012, p. 56.
  33. ^ "Kazuto Hongo, the law of Japanese history, kindle version, position NO.2898 / 3041" Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2021.
  34. ^ "Kazuto Hongo, the law of Japanese history, kindle version, position NO.2761 / 3041" Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2021.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nagai 2009, pp. 40–42.
  36. ^ Nagai 2009, pp. 48–52.
  37. ^ Nagai 2009, pp. 53–56.
  38. ^ a b Nagai 2009, p. 42.

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