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🎥 | Taiwan BL drama "HIStory4 in love with you next door-Close to You", which is very popular in Asia ...


Taiwanese BL drama "HIStory4 in love with you next door-Close to You", which is very popular in Asia ...

If you write the contents roughly
In addition, you can enjoy e-books such as manga from a rich lineup of over 500,000 books.

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


E-book(Denshoseki) refers to books and magazines that are recorded electronically, not on paper, and read on the screen.[1].E-book,Digital books,Digital book,E-book,Online booksAlso called.PC,Smartphone,TabletFor browsingAppsOrE-book readerBrowse with. By converting printed books that have already been published into electronic files,Print,Binding, Stock keeping,distribution, Other costs can be significantly reduced and resold,Out of printCan be avoided. In addition,InfomationOne of the attractions of e-books is that they can be published independently without the intervention of such means.


1970 era

1980 era

1990 era

2000 era

  • September 2000-Electronic library publishing society of eight publishers opened an electronic library store electronic library publication.
  • February 2001- EBook Initiative JapanStarted providing e-book service to internet cafe "Necca".
  • February 2002- Shinchosha Co., Ltd.NEC Inter ChannelJointly launched the paid novel delivery service "Shincho Keitai Bunko" on the EZweb official menu.
  • February 2002- EBook Initiative JapanBut,Iwanami libraryElectronic versionIwamizawa City LibraryProvided to.
  • August 2003-With Kadokawa Digix (now Kadokawa ASCII Research Institute)Bandai NetworksHowever, NTT Docomo i-mode e-book "Bunko Unlimited Reading" started service.
  • February 2003- PapilesStarted an electronic bookstore for mobile phones within the service for KDDI's au official website.
  • February 2003- BitwayBut,CDMA 1X WIN"Handy Book Shop" was opened for mobile phones, and distribution of Japan's first electronic comics for mobile phones started.
  • February 2004- SonyIs an e-book reader that uses the E Ink displayLIBRIeReleased.
  • February 2004- GoogleAnnounces the Google Print Library Project, which digitizes the collections of affiliated libraries and makes them searchable.
  • 2005- Amazon.comIs a French e-book software companyMobipocket.comAcquired.
  • September 2006-9 comic publishers launch "Digital Comic Conference"[4].
  • February 2007- Shinchosha Co., Ltd.Launches the paid monthly comic magazine "Digicomi Shincho commercial".
  • February 2007- PapilesStarted the electronic comic rental service "Electronic rental book Renta".
  • February 2007- ShogakukanIs an electronic comic magazine "Mobile flowerIs published.
  • September 2007-International Digital Publishing Forum is an e-book formatEPUBReleased.
  • October 2007-France Bookee released the ebook reader Cybook Gen10.
  • February 2007- Kinokuniya Bookstore ,USA"OCLC NetLibrary", started the service of providing electronic versions of Japanese academic and educational books on the Internet.
  • February 2007- Chiyoda City Library, Started "Chiyoda Web Library", a service that allows you to rent and return electronic books on the Internet.
  • February 2007- Amazon.comIs an e-book readerKindle", and opened the e-book store "Kindle Store".
  • February 2007- Nexies groupBrandista launches the free electronic magazine "Tabiiro".
  • February 2008- Dai Nippon PrintingAnd its subsidiary am3Nintendo DSStarted video/book distribution "DSvision".
  • October 2008-Tokyo Bookstore Commercial Association,ACCESSLaunched "Mobile Phone Bookstore Booker's", a mobile site for selling e-books in collaboration with.
  • February 2009- Amazon.comFrom the publisher of Stanza, an e-book reader for iPhoneLexcycleAcquired.
  • 2009- Amazon.comBut the book publishing departmentAmazon PublishingEstablished.
  • February 2009- Burns and NobleBut e-book readerNookReleased.
  • December 2009-Sony Computer Entertainment Japan from the PlayStation Store PlayStation PortableStart of distribution of comic contents for consumers.

2010 era

E-book format

Major e-book formats

An XML-based open standard promoted by IDPF, an e-book standardization organization in the United States. Vertical writing from EPUB2011 in 3rubyIs supported, and support for Japanese is improved. It has been adopted by multiple e-book stores in Japan and overseas.
It is an e-book format for Amazon Kindle. It is said to be short for AmaZon Wispernet. Developed by the French company MobipocketmobipocketThe format is based on the MOBI format, which was converted into an e-book format for Kindle with Amazon's acquisition of the company. Note thatDRMUnprotected MOBI format e-books can be read on the Kindle. Conversion from EPUB format is "Kindle Gen" published in "Kindle Direct Publishing"[2] You can do it with the tool.
Kindle Format 8
It is a format for Amazon Kindle that was adopted in 2011 in place of the conventional MOBI format. Abbreviation is KF8 or AZW3. Kindle Fire became the first e-book reader to support KF8. KF8HTML5andCSSIt is based on 3, and the extension is .mobi or .azw as before.
.book (dot book)
It is the successor format of the "(EBK) format" developed by Japanese Voyager in the 1990s. It supports vertical writing and ruby,ComicBook e-booksMobile comicsHas been adopted. "T-time" has been released as viewer software, and the paid version allows you to create your own files. Around 2005Mobile comicsViewer ofCelsisIntegrated with "Comic Surfing"BookSurfing Reader, And as of 2013Mobile appTo useMobile comicsIs the mainstream format.BitwaySupplied byWeb comicsIt has been adopted on many sites, and is the mainplatform.
sharpIs a format of electronic book content developed by. 21 major publishers participateJapan Electronic Book Publishers AssociationIt is used in the "electronic library publication" run by the company. "Bunko Viewer" as dedicated reader softwareZaurus,PalmOS,PocketPC,Handheld PC,WindowsIs published for free.

OtherPlain text,PDFGeneral-purpose document formats such as are sometimes used for commercial electronic book sales,JPEG,PNGIf the document is retained in a standard image format such as, still image browsing software can be used as it is as electronic book browsing software.

Reflow type and fixed type

Even if the electronic book has the same format, it is classified into a reflow (reflow) type and a fixed (fixed) type depending on the layout (arrangement of text and images).

The reflow type is a format in which the layout is changed according to the screen size change and the font size and line spacing can be arbitrarily changed, and is often used in text-based books such as novels and academic books. There is no concept of page.

The fixed type has a fixed layout even if the screen size is changed, and the font size cannot be changed, and is often used in books such as photo books and comics. It is said that the type that the whole page is captured as an image is also a fixed type, but since it is an image, it does not have text information and cannot search for character strings.Japan Electronic Book Publishers AssociationRecommends that the fixed type consists of only full-page images[8].

E-book browsing software

Terminal equipment

Mobile phone


In Europe and AmericaiPhoneな どSmartphoneIn, in the improvement of the screen size and operability,Amazon.com OfKindleThe spread of e-books has started because the environment has been improved, such as the ability to purchase content for consumers.

The iPhone is popular in Japan as well, but content maintenance was delayed except for mobile novels.[9].. This hits the distribution siteApp StoreLaunching content iniOSIt was because it was necessary to develop a leader for Android, but in that, from December 2008 on the Japanese App StoreSankei Digital Sankei ShimbunThe service of delivering a page was started and became a hot topic at that time as a pioneering attempt.

With the launch of the iPad in 2010, the tide has changed significantly, and many content providers are entering the market. same year,AndroidWith the full-scale release of OS-equipped smartphones, the establishment of an e-book site that supports it has also been promoted. Regarding this, NTT Docomo and Dai Nippon Printing2Dfacto, SharpGALAPAGOSOf the terminalvendorThe content supply approach is also being taken from the side.

Smartphones are a type of smartphone that has been attracting attention since around 2008 when it became very popular in Japan.iPhoneAs of 2009North AmericaThe recognition of e-books as a terminal is beginning to spread.[9].. The iPhone has been well received in Japan and is a product that follows that trend.iPadIs "Tablet terminalHowever, from the early summer of 2010, it has beenMass mediaHowever, it came to be often covered.

Mobile phone

Equipped with communication function and liquid crystal display, application (i-appli-EZ app-S! AppSuch asJavaApp) can be downloadedfeature phoneWill become an e-book terminal as soon as it is equipped with browsing software that supports e-book contents. In many respects, mobile phones have become widespread as e-book terminals because of the widespread number and small size, the fact that small screens have already been downloaded due to e-mails, etc., and downloading has become common. There is plenty of potential. In Japan, in November 2003auIs on saleWIN seriesThe full-scale service has started. Communication packet charges at that time were generally pay-as-you-go, and when you download and view books and comics on your mobile phone, the packet charge is higher than the content charge (so-calledPake death), it was difficult to realize. However, the packet flat-rate model has appeared from au's WIN series, and it has become possible to deliver even large book contents. (In 2003, the downloadable capacity of books was limited to 1 MB per file). At this time, the CP (which provided the book contentsContent provider) Are Toppan Printing (Bitway), Sharp, and Mobile Book JP. ComicsLetterpress printing(Bitway) Handy Comic (CurrentBookLive) Was only.

In the first half of 2004NTT DoCoMoIs on saleFOMA 900i series(Bothfeature phoneWas the forerunner ofJavaApp (EZ app-i-appli) Is becoming richer, the application version reader, which is the format reader used in e-book sites for PCs,CelsisDeveloped by and. Then, at the request of the publishing industryBitway platformBecome a supplier, not only Bitway's "Handy Comics",NTT SolmareCP such as (Comic Seymour)ComicDeliveryMenu siteOpened. furtherRinging songAs with the site, the publishers themselves, who are similar companies and suppliers, have also entered the market. These are especiallyMobile comicsIt is described as. Current[When?] TheWeb comics OfSelfish siteIncluding, there are more than 1000 sites.

Also, from around 2005Aozora BunkoThe text description of (your own) text was written asSelfish site (HTML)WWWPublished above,ReviewsSpreads reputationMobile novelIn this way, a form similar to an electronic book has spread.

In the early days of mobile comics, write a book (or its manuscript)scanAlthough it was only to charge and distribute what was done on a one-story basis, from around 1, there was a form in which it was delivered directly on the site without posting it in the book, gradually ``Web comicsWill be called.

According to some data, the size of the content market for pay mobile phones in Japan began to grow in 2005, reaching 2007 billion yen in 300, but manyMobile comicsAnd the user base is limited.

auThe group has installed a high-resolution LCD optimized for browsing e-book contents since June 2009feature phone"Book mobile biblioWas released, but it was sold out without a successor model in the spring of 2010 because it did not become a hit because of size and weight. (Appears at the end of 2010biblio leafIs an ebook reader. )

Personal computer

Personal computerIt is,softwareBy selecting, you can use it in various ways, and playing e-books is one of them. From desktop PCs to netbooks to mobile information terminals, they are lined up continuously with slightly different portability and uses, and the large ones have large screens and allow for video display, but they are portable. Portability is impaired. The small ones have a small screen and do not have functions such as video playback that require processing performance, and are portable even though the usage time is limited.

PC application

There are some that play electronic book contents by downloading them to a PC and executing them. Most of them are e-book playback software compatible with their own e-book file format.HTML,PDFFor electronic book contents in widely used formats such as the above, reproduction software dedicated to electronic books is not required. It is unclear whether the countless downloadable contents in HTML or PDF format existing on the Web, such as product catalogs and advertisements, can be called an electronic book.


On April 2010, 4, sales began in the United States, and then on May 3, sales began in countries around the world. iPadAttracted attention not only for video and music playback functions and game functions, but also for electronic book browsing functions. Such flat-type portable PCs called "tablet PCs" are highly functional mobile phones.SmartphoneThe screen is too small, but the notebook PC is too large and too inconvenient for the purpose of reading e-books, and it is welcomed as suitable for the reader group. The category of portable information terminals is starting to form.

exclusive device

Dedicated terminals for browsing electronic books are also called electronic book readers, and require a number of issues compared to books.

  • Easy to read screen
  • Smaller and lighter than a book
  • Long-time operation
  • Easy to buy content
  • The price of the dedicated terminal, which is the initial cost, is low

Other requirements include shock resistance, simple water resistance, compatibility with multiple e-book formats, and anti-theft measures.

In addition, since it is a portable information terminal, it is required to support the functions of similar devices as much as possible.

  • Screen colorization
  • Video, still image, music playback function
  • Internet connection function

Improved technology

  • On the displayElectronic paperIs beginning to be used.
  • Large capacity and low priceFlash memoryWith the adoption of, a large number of electronic books can be stored.
  • batteryPerformance of the electronic circuitPower savingThe technology enables long-term use.
  • Cross platform-Cloud computingWith the development of, even if you start reading the same e-book on different terminals, you can read from the same page again on different terminals due to the mutual connection between the same e-book service accounts.

The latest technology, especially for e-book terminals, has a new type of electronic paper, which is more energy-saving than ever.コ ン ト ラ ス トIs said to be realized[9].. Some Pixel Qi companies have two modes: electronic paper and liquid crystal.

The price of the terminal itself is still expensive. This area is related to mass production effect due to spread and formulation of common standardCommoditizationAlthough competition for lower prices is expected due to factors such as the above, there is no trend at this time such as standardization of e-book data formats, and it is unknown whether they will continue to become popular enough to replace paper media.

Dedicated terminal example

As for what is still on sale,Amazon Kindle","Rakuten Kobo"Although it has not been released in Japan, "Barnes & Noble Nook"and so on. For more information"Ebook readerSee.


Sharp's June 1999ISPSince it is also a portal site, PDAZaurusLaunched the electronic bookstore "Zaurus Bunko". In this contentXMDFFirst adopted format. In November 2001, Toppan Printing's Bitway started service for PDAs under the name "@irBitway". In 11NTT DoCoMoDepends onInfogateFor connecting PC/PDAM-stage BookStart.NTT SolmareFor the PDA connected to the kiosk terminal "Foobio",Sony style CLIEAlthough the number of contents was small, it was selling e-book contents.

Service form

E-book sales service

According to Media Do Holdings, a major domestic e-book distribution business in Japan,Kindle,comixology,Rakuten Kobo,Nook,Google Play,iBooksIs an overseas six major electronic bookstore[10].

Pay as you go
A method where payment is made each time a product is purchased[11].. There are individual purchases from one at a time, bulk purchases (bulk purchases), separate purchases of only the toco you want to read, such as Inugami Bookstore, points or ticket purchases.
Automatic continuous charge type monthly point purchase
Automatically continue to purchase certain points per month, and purchase e-books at the purchased points. If you run out of points, you will need to add points each time, or register a new monthly course and cancel the old/monthly course. Points have an expiration date. Supports carrier payment (mobile phone company charge collection service) and credit card payment.
Automatic continuous charge type flat-rate reading unlimited
The e-book specified by automatically purchasing a certain all-you-can-read plan becomes all-you-can-read. Supports credit card payment and carrier payment (fee collection service of mobile phone companies).
Automatic purchase service
A service that allows you to purchase electronic magazines and books that you have automatically applied for on the release date. Only basic credit card payment is supported.
Prepaid lump sum subscription type
Monthly to yearly subscription.Fujisan.co.jpIt has been adopted only for. There are some magazines that cannot be viewed after the end of the subscription. Supports credit card payment and Web account transfer.
Timed rental
A service that allows you to browse e-books for a limited time. It will be returned (browsing completed) when the time passes in streaming format.Rent!Have adopted a ticket system in which they purchase tickets and purchase e-books with tickets.
Magazine function type
A format that is regularly distributed like a magazine that is a periodical publication. Advertise e-books by promoting in-house content in the form of free serialization for a limited timeBoy jump +There is also a type that sells e-books by regularly distributing for free or for a period.
User-generated content (UGC) type
Mainly publish user-generated electronic publications for a limited time and sell them (EveryistaSuch).
Free ticket distribution type
Granted when a ticket that can be read for free meets certain conditions.
Free for a limited time
You can read e-books for free for a certain period.
Complete over-the-counter payment type
A form in which e-books are handled only at the cash register of the store (GEO Manga).

Service for businesses

E-book service as an advertising medium

Complete advertising revenue type content media
Advertising revenue type without in-app purchase (Brandista, Nico Nico Manga, etc.).

Electronic publisher

E-book solution

E-book agency

An electronic book agency is an electronic book distributor that deposits contents from publishers or copyright holders and supplies the contents to domestic and overseas electronic bookstores or electronic libraries.

Other solution companies

Electronic library service

Electronic library on the Internet
Aozora Bunko, Digital Library Manabi Library, etc.
Digital library service of the library
National Diet Library Digital Collection,Hearty Trustな ど

Services for libraries

In public libraries, 2002 HokkaidoIwamizawa City LibraryStarted an e-book browsing service, but due to low demand, it was canceled after a two-month free trial specified by the bookstore. University libraryThen,Kinokuniya BookstoreDeal withOCLC(Later transferred to EBSCO Publishing[14][15]) Academic-educational Japanese/Western electronic book distribution service,Net Library However, it has been popular since early times. Especially in October 2009,Letterpress printingKinokuniya BookstoreCooperation[14][16] After that, the number of e-book content of academic Japanese books is increasing.

E-book lending service for library users
Library distribution center"TRC-DL" with OverDriveMedia Do"OverDrive Japan" etc. are provided.
Library limited electronic book browsing service
Letterpress printingDigital library services, etc.

Delivery form

In the 1980s and 90sfloppy disk,CD-ROMThere were many media distributed, but from the latter half of the 90s, the Internet became widespread, and communication networks became the mainstream.

Distribution methods on the network are roughly divided, and e-books are stored and read from the distribution destination on the terminal.DownloadMethod and read online without storing data on the deviceStreamingThere is a method.

Delivery form of mobile phone

In the case of mobile phones, because of the specifications of terminals for each carrier,KDDI (au),Softbank mobileIs a download method,NTT DoCoMoIs a streaming method. In November 2003, the first download-type comic distribution on mobile phonesBitwayThe company started. Mobile phone comic viewers were initiallyVector formatWith comic surfingRaster methodIt started with 2 methods of Bitway Viewer. After that, raster-type functions were implemented in comic surfing and became mainstream.

Prioritize copyright protection and require certification

This is a format in which some or all of the electronic book data is downloaded to the terminal, but an Internet connection is required for viewing.serverDownload the information fromcacheWill be remembered asFileRemains open during browsing and can't be saved as static data. Since it is not possible to browse unless it is connected to a server on the Internet, the provider can obtain a fairly reliable copyright protection, but the convenience for the viewer is impaired. Basically generalWeb browserToPluginThe extension program called is installed so that you can browse it, but there are some that work separately from the web browser.


Digital divide

With or without dedicated terminalDigital divide(Information disparity) may occur. Especially in the United States, the government is active in making public announcements by electronic means such as the Internet, but not all people are in an environment where they can browse with their own computers. This point is a shackle for the US government to make it a fully electronic bulletin. This problemDeveloping countriesIt is even more serious, and books that originally provide the knowledge to enrich society create a digital divide, creating a risk that the poor will not be able to get to those books. To mitigate the digital divide problem in developing countries, for example$100 PCAn inexpensive computer plan with sufficient performance[17] However, it is not possible to give an immediate answer as to how widespread it will be and how support can be provided after it has spread.

Weaknesses as an electronic device

In addition, these e-books and browsing terminals are somehowElectronicsIt also includes problems specific to these devices. For example,electricityWithout it, it cannot be used in the first place, sopower failureIs difficult to use in places where power supply is normal or where it is difficult to obtain power, and delicate electronic devicesPrecision mechanical equipmentAs shown in the above example, it is easy to break down, it is easily broken by shock or water immersion, the operation of electronic equipment is necessary, and above all the terminal itselfObsoleteDoing so not only impairs the product value of the terminal itself, but also when switching to a new modelcompatibilityDue to the problem ofMigrate dataThere are also concerns that it will take time to do so, or that there will be no choice but to give up the data for older models.In addition, the light emitted by the liquid crystal of the electronic device tends to cause eye strain.Furthermore, since it is rewritable electronic information, it is a security issue to completely avoid intentional attacks by a third party such as falsification or deletion of documents.

E-book deletion by business

Since it is a paper publication, the electronic book may be unilaterally deleted and become unusable even after payment of the price due to the circumstances of the service provider.[18][19][20][21].

Unauthorized sale by publisher

  • Sale of pirated e-books[22]
  • Doujinshi bootleg sale[23]
  • Sold as e-books with leaked personal information[24]

Copyright protection and portability

If you convert paper publications into digital information, you will be able to easily make duplicates of digital information unless you have some distribution control mechanism in the distribution method or playback device.P2PThere is a high possibility that the rights of the copyright holder will be infringed, such as illegal sales of original works being blocked by illegal duplication of information such as type sharing software. To avoid this, widespread duplication will not be performed by providing an online authentication function from the beginning for e-books or introducing a hardware key that makes it impossible to view it only on the downloaded terminal. It has become. Most of the rights of the copyright holder are protected by this, but for the user, if the purchased content is bound to a specific device and the portability is limited, or if the browsing key is damaged, it can not be played at all and in the worst case Convenience will be greatly lost due to the fact that there is no means other than repurchasing. Some point out that these are one of the factors that hinder the spread of e-books.[25].. In 2010App StoreFound a lot of pirated e-books that scanned paper publications at[26].. In 2010, users scan the books they have at hand and convert them into electronic information by themselves.self cateringHowever, in addition to the danger that an illegal copy of scan data will be distributed, a bunch of cut books that are originally destroyed by self-catering work will appear. Feared to cause another piracy issue that could result in multiple scans of a person[27].

Electronic rights issue

Most of the content was produced by related parties under the contract of publishing on paper media, and the digitization and publication of these contents entwined the interests of those parties, and new contracts were targeted because of digital information. There are various non-technical hurdles in digitizing content, which makes it difficult to understand the range of distribution media and data formats.

GoogleThe company was sued by the author/publisher organization in the United States for infringing the rights by promoting electronic books without publishing them to the copyright holders and publishing them on the network, resulting in more than two years of dispute. , The settlement has been finally reached by paying a large amount of settlement fee, thoroughly charging users and collecting copyright fees.

One of the challenges for content providers is how to handle the complex rights relationships associated with e-books. The majority of current e-books are electronic versions of works that have hitherto been distributed mainly in paper media. Also, such works are the most popular and sell well in the market. However, when reprinting previously published works by computerization, it is often not clear who owns the rights. Note that, as a means of digitizing, there are a method of scanning a paper medium and a method of digitizing by converting DTP data prepared for printing, which has become mainstream in recent years, into data for electronic books. Although the method of scanning also scans a paper medium layout, there is a view that the publisher (not the author) holds the right to this layout (copyright), and such a very complicated right The processing of relationships has made the publishing industry hesitant to digitize. Also, it is difficult to distribute original e-book works due to profitability, which may be one reason why e-books are not popular. In the case of conventional paper publications, publishers have income when they are wholesaled to a bookstore agency (actually there is a time lag of several months). Yes, but it is difficult to build such a system with e-books. Some e-book readers offer advance payment (prepayment of sales), but it is hard to say that it is working well.

Supply of Out-of-Copy Publications

There are copyright-exempt contents such as Project Gutenberg and Aozora Bunko, but such past works alone cannot meet the needs of e-book users. Volunteers or public interest projects for the purpose of providing free of charge perform the work of converting copyrighted books into free contents using digital information. in JapanNational Diet Library[28] And several university libraries, museums, etc.CopyrightAlthough old books and old documents that have passed the applicable period are digitized, they are inconvenient for users because they are described in different file formats. On the contrary, since the commercial distribution network of electronic books cannot be used basically, there is a side that the convenience of the viewer is impaired.

Impact of publishers and bookstores

If electronic books are distributed, electronic book publishers will purchase the publishing rights directly from the authors and sell them. If that happens, publishers and bookstores are expected to be hit hard.

Major publishers in Japan2010/In 2 monthJapan Electronic Book Publishers AssociationTo counter major online bookstores such as Amazon.[29].

Major industry groups

  • Japan Electronic Publishing Association(JEPA) --Established in July 1986.Established by a major publisher for the purpose of securing the publishing rights for CD-ROM type e-books.For the entire industry. Efforts to support EPUB 7 in multiple languages.
  • Federation of Digital Publishers (DPFJ, Denshoren)-February 2010, by 2 major publishersJapan Electronic Book Publishers AssociationEstablished as (Denshokyo). Formulated "EPUB Denshokyo Format" and operated "Electronic Bunko Publishing". CD-ROM formatISO 9660Efforts to support Japanese. In October 2021General incorporated association Digital Comic AssociationMerged with.
  • (AEBS, Jikyo)-In July 2010, with major and mid-sized printing companiesElectronic book agencyEstablished by 89 companies.Distribution survey of e-books ・ Development of distribution infrastructure.
  • (JEBA) --A voluntary organization established in April 2018 by five companies that operate e-book sales sites.
  • General Incorporated Association ABJ --In January 2020, Media Do, 1 major publishers, for the purpose of preventing the distribution of pirated ebooksJapan Cartoonists AssociationEstablished by.

The following are the groups that once existed.

  • E-book consortium (e-Book Japan)-established in October 1998. Publisher/Home Appliance Maker/Publication agency145 companies participated.Ministry of International Trade and IndustryA book-on-demand demonstration experiment was conducted as a measure of. It seems that the demonstration experiment was completed at the end of January 2000 and it was disbanded.
  • Ebook Committee-Established in 1991.Mainly SonyE-book(8cm CD-ROM) It was an organization for popularization.Dissolved in April 2000 due to the end of sales of ebooks.
  • EPWING Consortium-Established in October 1991. It was an organization to popularize the "EPWING" convention, which is the format of the CD-ROM electronic dictionary, but it stopped working around 10.EPWINGEstablished a format (JIS X 4081 "Japanese electronic publication search data structure").
  • Digital Textbook Teaching Materials Association -Established in July 2010 for the purpose of developing and popularizing digital textbooks. Mainly textbook companies participate. April 7,Super Education AssociationAbsorbed into.
  • General incorporated association Digital Comic Association --Established in September 2006 by 9 publishers that publish manga. "Digital Comic Council EPUB22 Fixed Layout Specification Guide" and "Denshokyo / Digicomikyo Common Bibliographic Information" formulated. In October 3, absorbed by The Electronic Book Publishers Association of Japan.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "What is an ebook?”. JEPA Japan Electronic Publishing Association. 2021/8/7Browse.
  2. ^ "History". Papiles. 2017/11/24Browse.
  3. ^ "Challenges and outlook for e-book services". Kinokuniya Bookstore. 2017/11/24Browse.
  4. ^ "Digital Comic Council to be established 22 publishers established on 29th”. Bunka Tsushinsha. 2017/11/24Browse.
  5. ^ "Five electronic bookstores were founded and the "Japan Electronic Bookstore Union" was established.”. PR TIMES. 2018/4/29Browse.
  6. ^ Ryo Takano. “Applications for the use of the "ABJ mark", which allows anyone to distinguish between pirated and legitimate websites, are being accepted ~ Official operation will start from November 11th". HON.jp News Blog. 2021/8/4Browse.
  7. ^ "ABJ, a general incorporated association by KADOKAWA and Kodansha, started full-scale activities as the core of anti-piracy measures”. Dentsu Public Relations Inc. (October 2020, 10). 2021/8/4Browse.
  8. ^ "Digital book EPUB 3 production guide". Japan Electronic Book Publishers Association (September 2015, 1). 2015/3/15Browse.
  9. ^ a b c Takuya Otani, Phil Keys, "Opening pages to major e-books", Nikkei Electronics June 2009, 6 issue
  10. ^ "Media Do Launches Electronic Distribution of Japanese Original Manga Overseas”. Media Do Holdings Co., Ltd. 2017/11/28Browse.
  11. ^ "What is a billing method?”. Softbank Payment Service. 2017/11/28Browse.
  12. ^ "Residents can read magazines and mangas for free! "Bune Unlimited Reading Mansion" is now available!”. Viewn Corp. 2017/11/28Browse.
  13. ^ "Capital alliance with Voyager Shinchosha, Kodansha, and Impress”. Voyager Co., Ltd. 2017/11/28Browse.
  14. ^ a b NetLibrary_Topics -Kinokuniya BookWeb Pro <<Read on January 2020, 01; As of February 10, 2011Internet archiveSaved in
  15. ^ "Notice Regarding Changes to NetLibrary Business Company" (PDF) (Press Release), Kinokuniya Bookstore, (March 2010, 3), https://web.archive.org/web/20130717191154/http://www.kinokuniya.co.jp/03f/oclc/netlibrary/netlibrary_ebsco.pdf 2020/1/10Browse, "Currently remains in the Internet Archive" 
  16. ^ “Kinokuniya and Toppan Printing agree to collaborate on “NetLibrary”, an e-book distribution service for libraries, and build a new business model for publishers” (PDF) (Press Release), Kinokuniya Bookstore, (March 2009, 10), https://web.archive.org/web/20110206031459/http://www.kinokuniya.co.jp/release/netlibrary091001.pdf 2020/1/10Browse, "Currently remains in the Internet Archive" 
  17. ^ IDG Japan "MIT Media Lab to release prototype of "100 dollar notebook PC" in November] ITmedia, September 2005, 9.
  18. ^ Rakuten's e-book service "Raboo" ends ITmedia July 2012, 9
  19. ^ Lawson's e-book service "Elpaca BOOKS" ended. Point refund equivalent to purchase price ITmedia July 2014, 1
  20. ^ "E-books that companies should have bought disappear, successive evacuation of companies"Asahi Shimbun], January 2014, 1.2020/1/10Browse. "Articles limited to members. Only part of the beginning of the article is published. Currently remains in the Internet archive."
  21. ^ Notice of termination of service at Kokusai Bookstore and presentation of Comic Seymour Points [1] NTT Solmare January 2014, 1
  22. ^ "Not just comics, the reality of Kindle "pirate publishing" Some criticized Amazon's examination system as "unlike Manga Village Pro"”. ITmedia, Inc. 2018/4/29Browse.
  23. ^ "What if my fanzine was sold without permission at the Kindle store...? I asked Amazon what to do”. ITmedia, Inc. 2017/11/30Browse.
  24. ^ "GMO Internet leak information Temporary sale as an electronic book". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2017/11/30Browse.
  25. ^ "Internet users Why don't you use e-books?"web_R25], January 2011, 9.2020/1/10Browse. "Currently remains in internet archives"
  26. ^ Piracy of e-books "Critical responsibility to Apple" "Illegal in itself" 4 groups strongly protest
  27. ^ "Self-catering forest" system change, pre-opening suspended, seeking consideration for right holders? -PC-watch impress
  28. ^ National Diet Library: Digital Library Collection As of April 2010, 7
  29. ^ Shuji Nishi "Publishers unite to become electronic books Aim to take initiative in the domestic market"Asahi Shimbun, January 2010, 1.2020/1/10Browse. "Currently remains in internet archives"


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