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Two new thrillers "Night House" & "Antlers" will be digitally distributed from today!

 
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The setting is a small rural town in Oregon that has been devastated.
 

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Oregon

Coordinate: 44°00'N 120 degrees 30 minutes west longitude /44 N, 120.5 W / 44; -120.5;

Oregon
State of Oregon
Oregon State FlagOregon Mark
()(State emblem)
State nickname: BeaverState of
Beaver State
Oregon Location
State capitalSalem
Largest cityPortland
GovernorKate Brown
Official terminologyUnwritten rules:English
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
9th in the US
255,026 km²
248,849 km²
6,177 km² (2.4%)
population(2020/)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
27th in the US
4,237,256People
17.0 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

33th
1859/May 2
Time zoneUTC -8, -7
STD -7, -6
latitude42°-46° 18'N
longitudeWest longitude 116°28'-124°38'
East-west width640 km
North-south length580 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

3,425 m
1,005 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-OR
WebsiteOregon State Government
SenatorRon Wyden
Jeff merkley

Oregon(Oregon embroidery,British: State of Oregon) IsWest Coast of North Americaに 位置 す るThe United States of America33 thState.The Pacific OceanTo the north alongState of WashingtonTo the southCaliforniaIn the southeast of the inlandネ バ ダ 州, EastIdahoIs. NorthColumbia river, EastSnake riverForm most of the state border.1843/ToOregon CountryUntil the traders, explorers and pioneers who established the autonomous government ofAmerican IndianMany tribes lived in.1848/ToOregon TerritoryWas established,1859/March 2The United States of AmericaPromoted to the 33rd state.

With a liberal atmosphere along with Washington and California, it is called "beyond the Redwood Curtain" for the conservative Midwest.

現代 のDeveloped countryUnusualDirect democracyMade by state,countyRegional government independent ofMetroHave.

Salem State capitalIt is the third largest population in the state. The most populous cityPortland.2020/CensusThe state's population is over 420 million, an increase of 2010% since 10.6.[1]..In the same year, Portland had a population of 652,503, the 25th largest in the United States, the metropolitan area with 2,512,859, the 25th largest in the United States, and the metropolitan area including Salem with 3,280,736, the 19th largest in the United States.[1]..Western state,Willamette RiverHaveValleyThe population is concentrated in, and eight of the top 10 cities in the state are in the valley.

There are various landscapes in the state.Be exposed to the windThe Pacific Oceanshore,Cascade MountainsRuggedGlacierEroded byVolcano, Multnomah Falls and many other waterfalls, deepEvergreen forest, And in most of the eastern part of the stateGreat basinPlateau type that extends toDesertAnd so on. Tall on the rainy western coast of the stateDouglas fir,SequoiaTrees are easy to catch fire over the eastern half of the statePineAnd juniper (Juniper) In contrast to the sparsely grown forest. Semi-dry shrubland from central to east of the state,Prairie,Desert,StepAnd the meadows are widespread. At an altitude of 11,249 feet (3,429 m)Mount hoodIs the highest point in the state.Crater Lake National ParkIs the only national park in the state.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Oregon) 2010[2]
English
 â€‰
85.63%
Spanish
 â€‰
8.63%
Racial composition (Oregon) 2010
White
 â€‰
78.5%
Hispanic
 â€‰
11.7%
Asian
 â€‰
3.7%
Black
 â€‰
1.8%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
 â€‰
1.4%
Mixed
 â€‰
3.8%

Origin of the state name

The name "Oregon" was first used in 1765.Robert RogersThere was a petition addressed to the Kingdom of England by the Major. The spelling at this time isOuragonIt was. The name then referred to the legendary western river (Columbia River). By 1778 the spellingOregonIt had changed to. Rogers' petition was written as follows:

The road is ... from the Great Lakes to the headwaters of the Mississippi River, from where the Indians Oregon (Ouragon) Was heading for a river called.

Another theory is FrenchhurricaneIt came from. This is a "storm" or "HurricaneMeans. Strong in the lower Columbia River in Indian folkloreChinookWinds (warm winter winds that blow down eastern Colorado that cause temperatures to rise sharply), orGreat planesIt was applied to the "Western River" based on the story of a Frenchman who probably experienced the Chinook style for the first time. The river in the west at that timeMinnesotaWas thought to begin in the west of the Great Plains and flow west through the Great Plains[3].

The poet Joaquin Miller explains the origin of the Oregon name in the 1904 magazine "Sunset" as follows:[4].

The name Oregon is "Oregon (Oregon)Aure il agua) ”Is audibly jammed and changed to“ Oragua ”,“ Or-a-gon ”, and“ Oregon ”, probably initially in the Farallon Islands with the name of his superior. AttachedPortugalNamed by the voyager of. Translated verbatim, it generally means a small waterfall. "This is the body of water. Up the Columbia River,Mount hoodYou should hear and feel the sound of water falling from the clouds. "Oreiragua (Aure il agua) "That is to understand the full meaning of Oregon."

Book "Place Names in Oregon" (Oregon Geographic Names), The theory that was boosted as "the most credible explanation" isToponymyThis is an article published in the magazine "American Speech" by George R. Stewart. According to Stewart, the name Oregon was born out of the mistake of the person who typed it on a map of France published in the early 18th century. In this theory, the Wisconsin River (Ouisiconsink)Ouaricon-sintThe river that flows to the west is written in two lines with the spellingOuariconSeemed to be called.

According to the Oregon Tourism Board (also known as Travel Oregon), the current Oregon people (also known as Travel Oregon)British: Oregonians,[ˌɒrɪˈɡoʊniənz][5]) Is the state name Oragan (OR-UH-GUN), And never pronounced Origon (OR-EE-GONE).[6].

Former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joy Harrington in the 2002 draftDetroit LionsAfter being nominated forORYGUNI handed out a sticker with the words "" to the reporters so that they could learn how to pronounce the name of their state of origin.[7][8]..This stickerUniversity of OregonIt's sold in bookstores and is supposed to be spelled out as a joke that means "to Oregonians and Oregon lovers who throw out those who say our state name in such a funny way."[9].

History

Humans have lived in Oregon for at least 15,000 years. There are already records of Oregon in the 16th century.18st centuryLatter half,United Kingdom OfJames CookNavigated the coast of Oregon.1818/In the United Kingdom and the United StatesOregon CountryIt was decided to jointly own. Full-scale development1830 eraProceed toOregon TrailMany settlers came from the eastern part of the country.1846/Divided Oregon by agreement, currentCanadaWithBorderSet the boundary between the two countries. However,1853/From OregonWashingtonThe current Oregon border is not the Canadian border because of the separation. Oregon was promoted to the state in 1859 and is now home to more than 380 million people.

The earliest inhabitants

Humans began to live in the Pacific Northwest 15,000 years ago.Lake countyThe oldest traces of mankind have been found in the Noya Paisley Cave. Archaeologist Luther Cressmann dates the material found in Fort Rock Cave to 13,200 years ago.[10].. By 8000 BC, there were settlements throughout Oregon, with populations concentrated near the lower Columbia River, western valleys and coastal coves.

European expedition

By the 16th century, Bannock, Shasta, Chinookan, Karapuya, Klamath, Molala,Nez PerceMany Indian tribes, including the tribes, Takelma and Unpkua, lived in Oregon.[11].

The first Europeans to visit Oregon saw southern Oregon from off the Pacific coast in 1543.SpanishThey were explorers. Europeans did not return until 1778, but that year British James Cook explored the coast. In the late 18th and early 19th centuriesFrench CanadianTrappers and evangelists have arrived in eastern Oregon. As proof of that, in the eastern part of the stateFrenchMany place names of origin are left.

Advance to the West of the United States

In 1805, the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionNorthwest routeI traveled to the Oregon area for the purpose of exploring.Columbia riverA winter camp called Fort Clatsop was built near the mouth of the river.British explorer David Thompson also explored by land.

1811 years,North West CompanyDavid Thompson became the first European to sail the entire Columbia River. Along the way, a stake was erected at the confluence with the Snake River to mark that the area would be owned by the British and North West companies. ThompsonMontrealWhen he returned to, he advertised the area's abundance of fur-collecting animals.

In 1811 againニ ュ ー ヨ ー クFrom the cityJohn Jacob AstorInvested in the mouth of the Columbia River as the western base of the Pacific Fur Company(English edition)(CurrentAstoria (Oregon)) Was built[12].. This was the first permanent settlement for Europeans in Oregon.

From 1812US-UK warSo Britain took control of all of the Pacific Fur Company's bases. The Treaty of 1818 states that Britain and the United StatesRocky mountainsIt was decided to jointly manage the area to the west and the Pacific Ocean. In the 1820s and 1830sHudson bay companyIs Fort Baan Coober (in 1825)John McLaughlinControlled the Pacific Northwest from its headquarters in the Columbia area. Fort Vancouver is on the opposite bank (Washington) across the Columbia River from what is now Portland, Oregon.


In 1841, a skilled trapper and entrepreneur, Ewing Young, died, leaving a considerable fortune, but no heirs and no mechanism to execute his will. At a rally after Young's funeral, an organization to manage the property was proposed.Jason Lee OfMethodistDr. Islay Babcock, a member of the missionaries, was elected Supreme Judge. Babcock in 1842 Shampoo Yi (with Lee's missionary office)Oregon CityWe held two rallies at (in the middle of) and were interested at that time.オ オ カ ミDiscussed animals such as. These rallies became the predecessor of the 1843 All-Citizens' Rally and took the form of a caretaker government presided over by an executive committee created by David Hill, Alencon Bears and Joseph Gale. This government became the first public government in Oregon Country and was subsequently incorporated by the United States government.

In 1841 againHudson bay companyGovernor George Simpson has stopped not encouraging the company's long-held policy of settlement.That policy is profitableFur tradeIt was because it became an obstacle.In an attempt to maintain the Columbia district, Simpson ordered the Hudson's Bay Company Farm near Fort Vancouver to move around 200 Red River Colony pioneers (James Sinclair Expedition).

From 1842 to 1843,Oregon TrailMany new American pioneers have entered the Oregon Country through. At one point, Britain and the United States went into a third war in the last 75 years, but in 3.Oregon TreatyByBorder issuesWas settled peacefully. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel north. In 1848Oregon TerritoryWas officially organized.

Donated Land Ownership Act of 1850 and in Oregon, IndiansIndian settlementDue to the forced relocation to, the settlements have increased.

After state promotion

Oregon was promoted to the state of the United States on February 1859, 2.SlaveryEstablished as a place to avoid discussions on the matter, its first state constitution had a "whites only" clause.[13].

Civil WarWhen the outbreakUS ArmyRegular troops withdrew from this area and were dispatched to the east. Volunteer cavalry recruited in California were dispatched to northern Oregon to help peace and protect the inhabitants. The Oregon 1st Cavalry was on duty until June 1865.

In the 1880s, railroads developed, the state's timber and wheat markets grew, and cities grew rapidly.

20th and 21st centuries

In 1902, Oregon became a proponent called the Oregon System.ReferendumIntroduced a direct democracy by the people of the state through. Many of Oregon's referendums are politically conservative, but some are liberal, reflecting the diversity of political ideas within the state.

Built on the Columbia River from 1933 to 1937Bonneville DamAfter the construction was completed, the manufacturing industry began to develop.Hydropower, Food and woodWestern partHowever, the periodic ups and downs of the United States construction industry have caused the state economy to experience many difficult times.

A submarine on the west coast of the United States in 1942 I-25Started fromZero type small water reconnaissance aircraftReached over Oregon, four 4 kgIncendiaryWas dropped into the forest. The two September 1942 attacks on Oregon were the only aircraft bombings of the continental United States in history.

Geography

National parks and historic areas
Park or areaPlace
Crater Lake National ParkSouthern Oregon
John Day Fossil Beds National ReserveEastern Oregon
Newbury National Volcano ReserveCentral Oregon
Cascade Siskiyou National ReserveSouthern Oregon
Oregon Gaves National ReserveSouthern Oregon
California TrailSouthern Oregon, California
Vancouver Fort National Historic SiteWestern Oregon, Washington
Luis Clark National Historical RoadIllinois,Missouri,Kansas,Iowa,Nebraska,South Dakota,
North Dakota,Montana,Idaho, Oregon,State of Washington
Lewis and Clark National Historical ParkWestern Oregon, Washington
Nez Perce National Historical ParkMontana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
Oregon TrailMissouri, Kansas, Nebraska,Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon

The topography of Oregon is roughly divided into the following eight regions.

In the mountains of western OregonMount hood,Mount JeffersonThere are four of the most prominent mountains in the United States. These mountainsPlate tectonicsOne of the plates mentioned in theory,Juan de Fuca PlateFormed by volcanic activity in Japan, it continues to pose a threat to volcanic activity and earthquakes in this area. The most recent major activity is 1700Cascade earthquakewas there. WashingtonMount St. Helens Eruption in 1980It was visible from Oregon.

The Columbia River, which forms most of Oregon's northern border, has also played a major role in the geological changes in the region and has contributed to economic and cultural development. The Columbia River is one of the largest rivers in North America, in southern Oregon.Klamath RiverTogether with one of the two rivers that cross the Cascade Range. About 2 years ago, during the Missoula floods, the Columbia River flooded most of Oregon many times. The fertility of Willamette Valley today is due to these floods. In some rivers such as Celilo FallssalmonIt is abundant and has been the center of economic activity for thousands of years. Many hydroelectric dams were built on the Columbia River in the 20th century, which have had a major impact on salmon habitat, transport and commerce, electricity and flood control.

OregonFrontierBefitting the undeveloped land, which is the original meaning ofTemperate rainforestIt is a state with diverse landscapes from to the barren deserts of the southeast.

Oregon is the longest north-south 295 Miles It is (475 km) and has the longest east-west width of 395 miles (640 km).98,381 in Oregon, including land and water Square miles (255,026 km2), The ninth largest state in the United States[14].

The highest point is 11,239 above sea level フ ィ ー ト (3,428 m)Mount hoodIt is the summit. The lowest point is in the Pacific OceanSea surfaceIs[15]..Due to the Cascade Range and the eastern highlands, the average height in the state is 3,300 feet (1,000 m).

Crater Lake National ParkIs the only state in OregonNational parkIt is the deepest lake in the United States with a depth of 1,943 feet (592 m).Crater LakeThere is[16].. Oregon claims that the D River is the shortest river in the world[17], Montana also claims that the Rock River is the shortest in the world[18].. Area 452 square inches (0.292 m) in the state2) And the smallest park in the worldMill Ends ParkThere is. Oregon's geographic center of gravity is the westernmost of the 48 states on the continent of the United States. However. The westernmost point is in Washington State.

Monogenetic volcanic groups generated by ancient volcanic activities such as The Big Hole and Hole in the Ground are located in the central and southern regions.Lake countyExists in.

In the eastern part of the stateMalheur National ForestMushrooms that are said to be the largest single organic matter in the world undergrowth Armillaria solidipes Live in[19].

Major cities and towns

Oregon's populous city
citypopulation (People, 2020 Census)[1]
1. Portland652,503
2. Eugene176,654
3. Salem175,535
4. Gresham114,247
5. Hillsboro106,447
6. Bend99,178
7. Beaverton97,494
8. Medford85,824
9. Spring field61,851
10. Corvallis59,922
11. Albany56,472
12. Tigard54,539

Oregon's population is mostly concentrated in the western part of the state, including Willamette Valley. SouthEugeneFrom (the University of Oregon)Corvallis(Oregon State University is located) and the state capitalSalemThe largest city in the northPortlandThe cities are lined up. Largest populationcity ThePortlandIs.ThenEugeneIs the second place.

At the mouth of the Columbia RiverAstoriaWas the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of its current form in the Rocky Mountains of the United States. Was the end of the Oregon TrailOregon CityWas the first incorporated city in the Oregon Territory, the capital of the state from 1848 to 1852, after which it was moved to Salem. It is also home to the first public library (300 books at the time) established in the western part of the Rocky Mountains. Close to the state center of gravityBendIs one of the 10 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States[21].. In the southern part of the stateMedfordIs a fast-growing metropolitan area, with Rogue Valley International Medford Airport, the third busiest airport in the state. To the south, near the state border with CaliforniaAshlandThere,Tony AwardThe award-winning Oregon Shakespeare Festival is being held.

climate

The western part of Oregon is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Its climate is mild, but it can be extremely hot and cold, affecting other parts of the state. The western part of the state's center of population is moderately humid and warm, while the less populated central and eastern plateau deserts are fairly dry. Record high temperature on August 1898, 8 in Pendleton 10° F (48 ℃), but the lowest temperature ever recorded was -1933 in Seneca on February 2, 10.° F (-47 ° C) was recorded.

Law and government

The author of Oregon Country's book The Republic of the Pacific, written in 1839, predicted that the territory would become an independent republic. Four years later, in 4, Willamette Valley pioneers passed a referendum to establish the Government of the Republic.[22].. Oregon Country was annexed to the United States on August 1848, 8, and continued to function until the territorial government was established. On February 13, 1859, the Oregon Territory was promoted to a state.

State government

The Oregon Government, like the Federal Government, is stipulated in the State ConstitutionSeparation of three powersIt takes the form of.

The Governor of Oregon has a four-year term and is limited to two consecutive terms, but there is no lifetime limit. There is no vice-governor. In the absence of the Governor, Oregon's Secretary of State is the lead successor in accordance with Chapter 4, Section 2A of the State Constitution. Other state-wide positions include state treasurer, prosecutor-general, supervisory director, and secretary of labor. The two-year Oregon Legislature has 5 members in the Senate and 8 members in the House of Representatives. The Oregon Supreme Court has seven elected judges. This includes two judges who have declared gay. The judges are mutually elected to elect a six-year term secretary. The United States can overturn or amend the Oregon Supreme Court's rulingUnited States Supreme CourtOnly.

There has been a long-standing debate in Oregon politics about changing the Oregon Legislature from a two-year session to an annual one, but voters are resisting the transition from citizen lawmakers to professional lawmakers. .. The Oregon budget is prepared every two years andconsumption taxMost of the revenue isincome taxRely on. This often leads to budget shortages or excesses. Special sessions have to be convened to deal with budget shortages resulting from the recent economic recession, and the need for more frequent sessions has become a problem. Oregon Proposal No. 2010, passed in 71, requires the Oregon State Capitol to hold an annual session to discuss 160 days in odd-numbered years and 35 days in even-numbered years.

Oregon people since 1988United States presidential electionでDemocratic PartyI have selected candidates. In 2004 and 2006, the Democratic Party won the State Senate and House of Representatives. Since the late 1990sUnited States House of RepresentativesWith four DemocratsRepublican PartyOne member of the Diet is being sent out. State elected since 1United States SenateBoth lawmakers are Democrats. Democratic candidates have been selected in the Governor's election since 2, with Democrat John Kitzhaber recently defeating Republican Chris Dudley in 1986.

The Democratic base is mostly concentrated in the urbanized areas of Willamette Valley. Two-thirds of the area east of the Cascade Range is usually Republican-backed. 3 and 2 Republican CandidatesGeorge W. BushWon all the counties in the area. However, the region is sparsely populated, and the results in the more populous counties of Willamette Valley dominate when aggregated state-wide.

Oregon's politics is very similar to that of Washington, which is north of it, including issues between urban and rural areas.

In the 2002 general election, Oregon votersConsumer price indexApproved a referendum to automatically raise the minimum wage every year according to the inflation rate measured in[23].. In the 2004 general election, he approved a referendum banning same-sex marriage. It also approved a referendum to limit land use restrictions. In the 2006 general elections, it restricted the use of land expropriation laws and extended state prescription drug coverage.

It is an alcoholic beverage controlled state as the distribution, sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages is regulated by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Wine and beer are available at most grocery stores, but alcoholic liquors are hard to come by.

In March 2011, the cleanliness of public spaces (mainly roads and their surroundings) was evaluated for overall effectiveness and quality, and was ranked among the top seven states on the US Garbage Assessment Sheet.[24].

Relationship with the federal government

Oregon, like any other state, has sent two members to the United States Senate. It has also sent five members to the House of Representatives since 2.

After Oregon was promoted to state, he sent a member of the House of Representatives (Lafayette Grover) to join the 1th Parliament in less than a month. Then in 1, 35, 1890 and 1910, the number of seats increased by one.

United States District Court The Oregon district is hearing federal cases in the state. There are four courts in Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. In portlandFederal bankruptcy courtEugene also has a second court[25].. Oregon belongs to District 9 of the Federal Court of Appeals. The referee will be held at the Pioneer Court in downtown Portland, a national historic site built in 1869.

Politics

Results of the presidential election[26]
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
2008/40.40% 738,47556.75% 1,037,291
2004/47.19% 866,83151.35% 943,163
2000/46.46% 713,57747.01% 720,342
1996/39.06% 538,15247.15% 649,641
1992/32.53% 475,75742.48% 621,314
1988/46.61% 560,12651.28% 616,206
1984/55.91% 685,70043.74% 536,479
1980/48.33% 571,04438.67% 456,890
1976/47.78% 492,12047.62% 490,407
1972/52.45% 486,68642.33% 392,760
1968/49.83% 408,43343.78% 358,866
1964/35.96% 282,77963.72% 501,017
1960/52.56% 408,06047.32% 367,402
1956/55.25% 406,39344.75% 329,204
1952/60.54% 420,81538.93% 270,579

Oregon is politically divided by the Cascade Range, considered liberal in the west and conservative in the east.2004 United States Presidential ElectionIn 2008, political analysts analyzed the most liberal and most on the Likert scale.conservativeBecame the most politically polarized state in the United States with many voters[27].

In Oregon historyAn era of innovationIn the efforts of William S. Julen and his direct political alliance, many electoral reforms have been adopted. Under its guidance, the overwhelming majority approved the 1902 referendum, in which citizens created provocation rights and referendums to propose or approve amendments to the Proposal Act or the State Constitution. Oregon became the first state to adopt such a mechanism. Today, about half of the states follow suit.[28].

Then, in 1904, select a political party candidatePrimary electionWas introduced and in 1908 became a public office in the State Constitution.recallModifications have been made, including. A recent amendment is the country's first assisted suicide by a doctor[29]. this isDignity deathCalled the law, it was challenged by the Bush administration in 2005, but was dismissed by a hearing in the United States Supreme Court. Other medicatedmarijuanaWas legalized, and the strongest counterurbanization in the country and amendments to the Environmental Conservation Act were made. Major 2004 in 37 reflects a reaction to land use. However, a referendum in 2007 removed many of the major 37 provisions.

In referendums held after 1902, 288 out of 99 voting rights and 61 out of 25 referendums were passed, but not all of them were successful in court opposition. During the same period, Congress made 363 proposals, of which 206 were approved.

OregonAbsentee ballotIt was also a pioneer in the country, and was experimentally approved by the Oregon State Capitol in 1981, and the 1988 referendum required all counties to vote by mail. Mail voting is the only voting method in Oregon[30].

It was also the first state to adopt an effective health care program called the Oregon Health Plan in 1994 under the guidance of Governor John Kitzhaber. This has made it possible for most citizens without private health insurance to receive medical care.

Seven electors are assigned to the presidential election. Oregon has selected Democratic candidates in the last six presidential elections. In the case of 7Barack ObamaWon more than 56% of the total votes cast, a 16% difference.

In the 2020 general election, voters in Oregon passed a bill (110th bill) to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of many drugs, including hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin, called street drugs.Another bill, the Psilocybin Mushroom Service Program (109th Bill), was passed in the same election.Many small-drug decriminalizations and legalization of psilocybin mushrooms have become the first states in the United States to pass at the state level.

Demographics

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
185012,093
—
186052,465333.8%
187090,92373.3%
1880174,76892.2%
1890317,70481.8%
1900413,53630.2%
1910672,76562.7%
1920783,38916.4%
1930953,78621.8%
19401,089,68414.2%
19501,521,34139.6%
19601,768,68716.3%
19702,091,53318.3%
19802,633,15625.9%
19902,842,3217.9%
20003,421,39920.4%
20103,831,07412.0%
20204,237,25610.6%
US census bureau[31]

As of the 2020 census, Oregon's population was 4,237,256, an increase of 2010, or 406,182%, compared to 10.60.Population density is 17.0 people / km2.

Race

The racial makeup of the state is as follows: Values ​​other than Hispanic do not include Hispanics.

22.6% of Oregon's population is under 18, and 77.4% are over 18.

OregonCenter of gravity TheLinn CountyIn[32].. Over 57% of the state's population lives in the Portland metropolitan area[33].

As of 2004, Oregon's population includes 309,700 foreign-born (8.7% of the state's population).

The population of Oregon is classified by ancestors as follows.[34]

About 62% of the state's population is of English, Welsh, Irish or Scottish descent, in whole or in part. Most of the counties in the state are predominantly from northwestern Europe.Malheur CountyとJefferson CountyToMexicoAmericans of descent are concentrated.

Future forecast

The United States Census Bureau predicts that Oregon's population will increase to 2030 by 4,833,918. This is an increase of 2000% compared to 41.3.[35].. The state's own forecast is that it will reach 2040 in 5,425,408.[36].

Religious

The population composition of Oregon people by religion is as follows:[37].

As of 2000, the largest parliamentary group had 348,239 membersRoman Catholic.The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsTwo people,Assembles of GodWas 49,357 people[38].

2009 yearsGallupIn a survey, 69% of Oregon's population claimed to be Christians[39].. The largest of the rest is non-religious. In the 2008 American sectarian surveyネ バ ダ 州Along with, the non-religious population ratio became the largest state with 24%.[40][41].

In most of the 1990s, conservative groups of Christians would establish an Oregon Citizens' Alliance to pass legislation to prevent "gay attentive training" in public schools and legal benefits to homosexual couples. But failed.

The largest Russian in the United States in the stateOld believerThere is a community of[42].. Northwestern Tibetan Cultural Association headquartered in PortlandNew ageThe movie "What the Bleep Do We Know !?" was filmed in Portland and released.IslamIt is estimated that there are 6,000 to 10,000 people.

Indian tribe

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Nez Perce,,North,,,,,,,,,,Tay,,,,,,,,,such asイ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribe is indigenous. Most of them live on the coast of the Rogue River and are mainly salmon fishermen.

Since the 1850s, the U.S. federal government has united several tribes into oneReservation placeTo push into (Reservation)Ethnic cleansingPerform administration and "Indian WarIs causing.

Above all,Modoc WarIs a MODOK warrior who refused to move and stood in a lava field.Edward CanbyIt was the first and last battle in American history, shooting a general and killing a white general in the battle between Indians and whites. The MODOK Kintpuash (Captain Jack), who led the battle, was hanged and his body was antiseptic and spectacled in the east for only 10 cents.

Four tribes have been revoked from the federal government as "extinct tribes" and confiscated on reservations and are in dispute over recertification.

≪Indian tribes officially recognized by the US federal government≫

≪Indian tribes not officially recognized by the US federal government≫

  • ""
  • "SoutheastCherokeeUnion Southwest Cherokee Wolf Clan "
  • ""
  • "

Indian Casino

There are currently nine "Indian Casinos" in Oregon: It is expected to increase further in the future.

  • "Kokuwill"
    • "The Mill Casino & Hotel"
  • "Unpukua cow mountain stream band"
    • "Seven Feathers Hotel & Casino Resort"
  • "Burns Paiute"
    • "Old camp casino"
  • "Warm Spring Reservation Tribal Union"
    • "Car-Ne-Ta Highlands Desert & Casino"
  • "Klamath"
    • "Kura-Mo-Ya Casino"
  • "Kus Lower Unpukua & Siuslow Union"
    • "Three rivers casino & resort"
  • "Siretsu Indian Tribal Union"
    • "Chinook-style casino & council center"
  • "Grand Rondo Tribal Conference"
    • "Spirit Mountain Casino"
  • "Eumatila Indian Reservation Tribal Union"
    • "Wild Horse Resort & Casino"

Economy

Oregon's gross domestic product was $ 2008 billion in 1,616, making it the 26th largest state in the United States. Per capita income for the same year was $ 38,801[43].. The Willamette Valley land was fertilized by the Missoula Floods, which was carried by sediments from the Missoula Ice Lake in western Montana.[44].

HazelnutIt is one of the four major production areas in the world, producing 4% of the domestic production. Wine production dates back to before Prohibition and became an important industry in the 1s. In 95, there were 1970 wineries, the third largest in the country. FrenchAlsace,BurgundySimilar varieties of grapes are cultivated due to the similar climate and soil in the regions.

In the southern coastal areacranberryIs cultivated and its production is 7% of the domestic production. It ranks 23rd among the state's agricultural products. From 2006 to 2008, it produced 4,000-4,900 million pounds (18,000-22.000 tonnes) of berries each year. For cranberry cultivation, approximately 27,000 acres (108 km) of land in southern Coos County and northern Curry County, centered on the coastal city of Bandung.2) Is used.

Aquatic and terrestrial wheat is grown in the northeastern part of the state, especially around Pendleton. Dairy produces cows, sheep, dairy products, eggs and chicken.

The vast forests make it one of the largest lumber and forestry industries in the country, but production has fallen due to wildfires, over-cutting, and federal forest management lawsuits.According to the University of Oregon Forest Resources, between 1989 and 2001, timber cut from federal forests was 43 million board feet (3,300 m).3) To 1 million board feet (7,300 m)3) And decreased by 96%. However, the yield of private forests is relatively constant.[45].

Even with the recent shift to final products such as paper and building materials, the decline of the state lumber industry could not be stopped. As a result, in January 2002, Portland-based Willamet IndustriesWeyerhaeuserAcquired by Louisiana-Pacific headquarters from PortlandTennesseeNashvilleMoved to and original lumber like GilchristCastle townHas declined. Despite these changes, Oregon's softwood production was 2001 million board feet (60 m) as of 5,600.3), Which is the largest in Japan. Second place is Washington State's 2 million board feet (42 m)3), Below California,Georgia,MississippiAnd continues[46].. Rural unemployment increased due to stagnation in forestry and sawmill industry[47].

Major companies, etc.

Some of the companies based in Oregon are shown in the table on the right.

10 private companies headquartered in Oregon[48]
Company Name Headquarters locationMarket capitalization($100 million)
1. NikeBeavertonnear$ 32,039
2. Precision cast partsPortland$ 16,158
3. FLIR SystemsWilson Building$ 4,250
4. Stancorp Financial GroupPortland$ 2,495
5. Schnitzer SteelPortland$ 1,974
6. Portland General ElectricPortland$ 1,737
7. Colombia SportswearNear Beaverton$ 1,593
8. Northwest natural gasPortland$ 1,287
9. Mentor GraphicsWilson Building$ 976
10. Triquint SemiconductorHillsboro$ 938

Since the 1970s, the high-tech and service industries have been the main employers.TektronixWas the largest private employer in the state until the late 1980s.Washington CountyIn the eastIntelHas taken over the growth initiated by Tektronix by building and expanding several facilities. Intel is the state's largest commercial private sector, operating four facilities, including Loneler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorne Farm.HillsboroIt is in[49].. Intel was the state's largest employer until 2008, after which it was replaced by non-profit Providence Health and Services in January 2009.[50].

Spin-offs from Tektronix and Intel and new entrepreneurs have created a so-called Silicon Forest area. 2001 recessionInternet bubbleThe collapse of the area struck the area severely. Many tech companies have reduced their workforce or closed their businesses. Open Source Development Loves (Open Source Development Labs) ButLinux kernelョ ョ 狗 狗Linus TorvaldsIt was news when I hired him in 2004.BiotechnologyGiant companyGenentechPurchased land in Hillsboro and expanded its production capacity[51].. Oregon is large, taking advantage of cheap wages and reducing cooling costs due to the climate of the central stateData centerThere are several.GoogleHas a data center in The DallesFacebook Is building in Prineville.Amazon.comResumed data center construction at Boardman.

There are also large companies in other industrial fields.NikeWorld HeadquartersBeavertonIt is in.A lawsuit between Nike and the city of Beaverton has ruled that the Nike campus will not be part of the city of Beaverton until 2040.Nike has a Beaverton address as an address, but it's not in Beaverton, so it's not involved in city taxes or ordinances.[52]..Harry and David, who sells gift items under several brands, is in Medford.Medford also has the domestic headquarters of Lithia Motors, which is part of the Fortune 1000.One of the largest general book publishers in the west, Graphic Arts Center Publishing, and a heavy-duty truck manufacturer in Portland.Freightliner,ChainsawOccupy a global share of partsOregon ToolThere is.

OregonsalmonAlthough it is one of the largest catches in the world, the marine fishery has increased and the river fishery has decreased.TourismKarma is also a powerful industry. Evergreen mountain forests, waterfalls,Crater Lake National ParkPrimitive lakes and scenic beaches attract tourists all year round. The Oregon Shakespeare Festival in Ashland attracts spectators and complements the scenic beauty and outdoor activities of the southern part of the state.

There are many breweries in Oregon, and Portland is the largest city in the world by number.[53].

In portlandLas Vegas,San FranciscoIt is said that there are more strip clubs per person than[54].

Oregon's unemployment rate is 2011% as of April 4[55].

Taxes and budget

Oregon prepares a state budget every two years, with an annual budget of $ 2 billion in 2007. This includes general funds, federal funds, lottery funds and other funds. personalincome taxIs 88% of general funds. Lottery funding has increased steadily since it was approved for creation in 1984, surpassing the plan to $ 2007 million in 6.[56].

Oregonconsumption taxIt is one of the five states in the United States without it. Voters have always opposed the sales tax and have dismissed it in the proposed nine votes. The latest proposal was in 5, but was rejected with 1% against and 9% in favor.

またCorporate taxIs a minimum of $ 10 a year, totaling 2005% of general funding in the 2007-2 two-year budget. It is not disclosed which business is paying the minimum value[57].. As a result, the state relies on income taxes for its revenues. It is the fifth state in the country with the highest income tax. According to the United States Census Bureau, it ranked 5st among the 2005 states in 1 per capita tax.[58].. The average tax amount is Astruxh $ 1,791.45, which is only higher than the other nine states.[58].

Some local governments impose sales tax on services. For example, the city of Ashland imposes a 5% sales tax on cooked ingredients.[59].

Oregon is one of the six states with revenue restrictions[60].. The Kicker Act stipulates that if income tax exceeds economists' expectations by more than 2%, the excess will be returned to the taxpayer.[61].. Since enforcing this law in 1979. Repayments occurred 11 times out of the 2 7-year budget[62].. A 2000 referendum converted the kicker law from state law to a state constitution, changing some of its provisions.

Federal funding to the county government, which was granted in place of timber income when logging of state-owned forests was restricted in the 1990s, could be disrupted for several years. This issue has significant implications for future income for rural counties that have come to rely on payments for providing basic services.[63].

Of the state government spending, 55% is for public education, 23% is for personal services (child protection, low-income medical assistance, elderly care), 17% is for public safety, and 5% is for others. Spent for service[64].

Education

Primary and secondary education

As of 2005, there were 559,215 children and students receiving primary and secondary education in the state. There are 20 public school districts under the jurisdiction of 199 educational service districts. As of 2007, the major school districts were Portland Public School District (46,262 students), Salem Kaiser School District (40,106 students), Beaverton School District (37,821 students), Hillsboro School District (20,401 students), Eugene School District (18,025 students).

Colleges and universities

Public university

Oregon University SystemThere are seven public universities and one affiliated institution in the state.EugeneHeadquarters inUniversity of OregonIs in OregonLiberal ArtsThe flagship school of education[65],US News & World ReportIt is the only university in Oregon that the magazine has added to the national university evaluation list.[66].CorvallisHeadquarters inOregon State UniversityIs characterized by a R & D-type flagship school that ranks high in science, engineering and agriculture. This university is also ranked high in the world research of academic value.

Also headquartered in MonmouthWestern Oregon UniversityHeadquartered in AshlandSouthern Oregon University, And headquartered in La GrandeEastern Oregon UniversityIt has three regional universities. In Portland, Oregon's largest cityPortland State UniversityAs a city universityOregon Health & Science University (OHSU) exists as a medical college, in Klamath FallsOregon Institute of TechnologyHas a campus. OHSU is co-educating physicians with the University of Oregon. The university was ranked second in the United States Medical School in a survey by The Med School 100.[67].. There is also a science and engineering school in Hillsboro.

Oregon has historically sought to finance higher education, but Oregon is now the 5th largest education budget per student in the United States due to higher education budget cuts over five years ago. ing.However, in 46 Congress forced a 2007% annual tuition increase,Oregon State UniversityAllotted more money than the governor requested.

There are 17 statesCommunity collegeAlso supports.

Private universities

There are also a variety of private universities in Oregon. Catholic universityUniversity of Portland,Marylhurst UniversityIn addition, Reed College, Concordia University, Lewis and Clark College, Maltonomer Bible College, Portland Bible College,Warner Pacific University, Cascade College, National College of Natural Medicine and Western Seminary, a theological graduate school, are also headquartered in Portland.University of the PacificIs on the outskirts of PortlandForest gloveThe headquarters is located in.

There is also a private university in the southern part of Willamette Valley. In McMinnvilleLynfield College, In the nearby city of NewburghGeorge Fox UniversityExists. In the state capital SalemWillamette University(Oregon's oldest university founded during the caretaker government) andCorban UniversityTwo private universities are headquartered. Near Salem is America's largest Roman Catholic seminaryMount Angel SeminaryThere is. In addition to the University of Oregon, the city of Eugene is home to the campuses of Bushnell University, Eugene Bible College, and Gutenberg College.

Art and culture

Movies

Many films have been filmed in Oregon. For example, in 1975Rooster Cogburn, 1978Animal House, 1985Goonies(A coastal town in northwestern OregonAstoria1986), XNUMXstand by Me』(EugeneSuburbsBrownsvilleTaken in), 1990 "Kindergarten Cop, 1994Rapids, 2003Hunted, 2008Wendy & Lucy] And so on. Matt Groening, who was born in Oregon and produced the cartoon The Simpsons, repeatedly mentions his hometown of Portland.[68].Fuji Television OfTV drama"Love from OregonIt is also known that it became the stage of.

The TV program "MAN vs. WILDWas set in the badlands of Hell's Canyon and Oregon[69].

Sports

There are two professional sports teams in Oregon, both based in Portland.NBA OfPortland Trail BlazersとMajor League Soccer OfPortland TimbersIs[70].

Until 2011, the Portland Trail Blazers were the only professional sports team. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Trail Blazers performed well in the NBA in terms of both victory and defeat and spectator mobilization. At the beginning of the 21st century, the popularity declined due to personnel and financial problems, but the problematic player left.Brandon Roy,LaMarcus AldridgeandGreg OdenAcquired and played newcomers like[71][72].

Trail Blazers is in the Lloyd district of PortlandRose Garden ArenaIt is also home to the Portland Winter Hawks, a member of the Junior Western Hockey League.[73].

Timbers is just west of downtown PortlandProvidence ParkI'm playing a match at. Timbers changed the multi-purpose stadium to a football-only structure in the fall of 2010, increasing the number of spectators. In March 2009 Timbers announced that they would play Major League Soccer from 3[70].

There was a minor league baseball team in the past in Portland.Portland BeaversAnd Portland Rockies, etc.PGE ParkI was playing a match at. AlsoMajor league baseballIs also working to attract the team of[74].

Eugene and Salem also have minor league baseball teams. Eugene Emeralds and Salem-Keizer Volcanoes are A-classNorthwest LeagueIs a member of[75].. NewbornInternational Basketball LeagueAlso has four teams. Portland Chinooks, Central Oregon Hot Shots, Salem Stampede and Eugene Shargers.[76].

Celebrity from Oregon

Transportation

Tourism

State symbols, etc.

  • State Birds- Western grasslark
  • State Tree- Bay pine
  • Nicknamed State-Beaver State
  • State Motto-Alis volat propriis (she flies with her wings)

国際 関係

Sister municipality (country)

Japan's sister cities

  • (Japanese flagJapan)-(Oregon State FlagWithin the state),Years

footnote

[How to use footnotes]


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