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In addition, the sightseeing limited express train "Aso Boy!" Where you can fully enjoy the Aso caldera.
 

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Sightseeing limited express train

Aso Caldera

Aso Caldera(Aso Caldera)KumamotoIt is incalderaThe terrain.

Overview

25km north-south, 18km east-west, in the centerCentral crater hill OfAso GoryōThere is a caldera bottom in the northAsoya, SouthernNango ValleyIt is divided into.

Lake bottom sediments in Aso and Nango valleys in the caldera[1]..It is thought that lakes appeared at least three times in the caldera after the formation of the Aso caldera by geological surveys and boring surveys.[2]..In addition, the currently exposed central crater hills are nothing more than the mountain bodies formed from 8 years ago to the present in the latter half of the activity period, and the mountain bodies in the early stage of activity are buried in ejecta.[3].

Formation history

There are four Aso calderas called Aso-27, Aso-9, Aso-1, and Aso-2 that occurred 3 to 4 years ago.Pyroclastic flowFormed by the activity associated with the eruption of.The largest one was Aso-4, which released a large amount of pyroclastic material, and the pyroclastic flow was continuous on land at that time.Akiyoshidai(Yamaguchi )[4]..The distance is as much as 160km. The vastness currently seen in the Aso-4 eruptionPyroclastic plateauWas formed.After thatErosionIt is believed that the caldera edge has expanded to the current size.The fact that Aso-4 volcanic ash covers the Japanese archipelago widely1982/Was noticed for the first time1985/Announced in[5][6]..Also these 4 timesPyroclastic flowThe volume of the inner ring is estimated to be about 200 km.3Is[7].

Main eruption age and eruption volume
  • Aso1: About 26.6 years ago[8], Eruption volume 32 DRE km3[9].
  • Aso2: About 14.1 years ago[8], Eruption volume 32 DRE km3[9].
  • Aso3: About 13 years ago[10], Eruption volume 96 DRE km3[9].
  • Aso4: Approximately 9 years ago, eruption volume 384 DRE km3[9].

Note) DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent)Converted magma eruption amount..The amount of eruption deposits is much higher than this.

The size of the Aso caldera

The size of Aso Caldera is often one of the largest in the world[11][12][13]And one of the best in the world[14][15]Is said.In addition, it is a funnel-shaped caldera like the Aso caldera, which forms a stable settlement inside the caldera and is wide.FarmlandCleared,National road,TrainIt is said that the example laid up to is rare in the world.[16]..The largest caldera in the world isIndonesia OfToba Caldera(Major diameter about 100km, minor diameter about 30km)[17][18]..Like Toba CalderaBias type calderaThen, it is not uncommon to reach 70-80km.Also, in JapanKussharo Caldera[19](Major diameter about 26km, minor diameter about 20km) is the largest, and Aso is second only to this.[17]..Therefore, the Aso caldera is expressed as "the best in the world" or "the best in Japan".[Note 1][17]Will be different from the facts.

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ For example, "Aso Volcano World's No. XNUMX Caldera"[20]The book is published.

Source

  1. ^ "Kukino Formation (Nail So) Minamiaso Village". Kumamoto (February 2010, 1). As of February 6, 2016originalMore archives.2021/10/22Browse.
  2. ^ Kuniyuki Furukawa & Hiroki Kamata 2005.
  3. ^ Shinji Nagaoka & Mitsuru Okuno 2004.
  4. ^ Junko Fujii et al. 2000.
  5. ^ Yukio Hayakawa. "Tephra spatiotemporal distribution map of Japan Aso 4". Gunma University Faculty of Education Yukio Hayakawa Laboratory. 2021/10/22Browse.
  6. ^ Yo Machida, Fusao Arai & Mitsugu Momose 1985.
  7. ^ Koji Ono 1984, p. 44.
  8. ^ a b "Aso pyroclastic flow". Kumamoto Prefectural High School Education Study Group Geography Subcommittee. 2021/10/22Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d Takahiro Yamamoto 2014.
  10. ^ Shoichi Shimoyama 2001.
  11. ^ "About Mt. Aso”. Aso Volcano Museum. 2021/10/24Browse.
  12. ^ "About Mt. Aso”. Asoyama Volcano Disaster Prevention Liaison Office. 2021/10/24Browse.
  13. ^ "Overview of Aso City”. Aso City. 2021/10/24Browse.
  14. ^ "Aso Caldera”. Aso Geopark Official Site. 2021/10/24Browse.
  15. ^ "Mt. Aso Profile: One of the largest calderas in the world”. Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Nippon Dotcom (April 2021, 10). 2021/10/24Browse.
  16. ^ "Aso Caldera”. JST Digital Teaching Materials [Earth] Visual Information Collection. As of April 2015, 4originalMore archives.2021/10/24Browse.
  17. ^ a b c Setsuya Nakada (October 2002, 8). “Q & A about volcanoes (Question # 2509)”. Volcanological Society of Japan. 2021/10/24Browse.
  18. ^ Yukio Hayakawa. "Volcano Chapter 4 Volcano Shape”. Gunma University Faculty of Education Yukio Hayakawa Laboratory. 2021/10/24Browse.
  19. ^ "Kussharo Caldera". Quaternary volcanic rock body / intrusive rock body database.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Geological Survey of Japan. 2021/10/24Browse.
  20. ^ Masao Matsumoto & Hataro Matsumoto 1981.

References

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