Ryusei Yokohama talks about stoic thoughts (photographed by TOWA)
Ryusei Yokohama "I'm still alive" The conflict I had after the break
If you write the contents roughly
There was also a strong sense of crisis that we had to pursue the actor business more and more.
Not enough yet.I have to drive more and more.Ryusei Yokohama (25) is the latest movie "The Wandering Moon" (May 5 ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Above, I mentioned the definition of Kojien, which says, "In a play, a movie, etc., a person who impersonates the person and plays with lines, gestures, facial expressions, etc." "Theatre, movie, etc." means theater, movie, etc.TV drama-musicaland so on.In other words, an actor is a "person who plays a role."
Greek tragedyWas initially played by an actor.afterwardsAeschylusIncreased the number of actors to twoSophoclesIs reported to have increased to three.The Ancient GreekIs an actorPoliceWas rewarded from.
Ancient rome,Europe Of中 世Then the number of actors was small.. However,15st century OfFranceAnd in neighboring countries, mystery play (Mystery) Is in fashionThe Old Testament-New TestamentGet the subjectJesus Christ Ofbirth-Passion-ResurrectionIn the center of the city, where the story ofCathedralIt was held in various places that local residents and others participated as temporary actors in the square in front of them for several days.
16st centuryTo become and,Comedia DelarteImprovisational plays with songs and dances using masks have become popular, and actors have become established as professions...Male actors were mainly active, but at the end of the 16th centuryItalyAnd professional actresses have also appeared in France.. HoweverUnited KingdomLooking at, it is not yet in the 16th century, for exampleElizabeth TheaterIn, the role of a woman was played by a boy dressed as a woman, and a professional actress appeared.17st centuryIt was only in the second half.
- History and etymology of Japanese names
For the kanji expression of actor, see "Literary』(平凡 社) According to [Xunzi,Wang Ba] Has the expression "actor dwarfism", and [Han Feizi, Dwarfism] has the expression, "The actor's dwarfism is a place where the owner's side is swallowed rather than solid" (parental character "hai").in short,Chinese bookThe expression in is far back than the Japanese expression.
Types and classifications of actors
Actors may be cast or categorized by focusing on their characteristics and areas of specialty.However, there is no clear standard for this genre classification and it is fluid.
Classification by activity range
Actors are sometimes categorized by focusing on their main range of activity: "stage actors," "movie actors," "television actors," and "musicalClassification such as "actor" may be performed.
Actors who are active mainly in stage theater are stage actors.[Note 1]..A movie actor is an actor who appears exclusively in a movie in the United States.HollywoodThere are many in. "TV actors" are not exclusively released to theatersTV dramaIn the United States, where the living is clear, in addition to stage actors and movie actors, "television actors" are also distinguished and established.In the United States, like other professions, the actor business is established by strict contracts, and in the world of movies and television, detailed occupational classification is made to secure legal rights and by occupation.UnionThere is a history of activities, and we do nothing other than what is written in the contract, and it is customary to make it illegal and to go to court.U.S. movie actors do not appear in TV ads in principle[Note 2].
Classification by gender
There was a time when actors were taken for granted to be men, so there were times when exceptional female actors were especially called actresses.And since the time when actresses appeared, male actorsRetro NimIt was also called an actor.Even now, it is sometimes classified as "actress" or "actor" by focusing on the gender of the actor, but in modern timesSex discriminationThere is also widespread recognition that is not good, so we sometimes use the term "actor" to avoid such distinctions and emphasize gender differences.Even in English-speaking countries, there is a movement to use "actor" as a gender-neutral term for both men and women, and to abolish the conventional distinction of "actor (actor) / actress (actress)". There is a custom to call stage actors "players".
Hosted by male-only actorskabukiIn the case of"Protagonist""Female formIs called.On the other hand, it is held by female actors onlyTakarazuka RevueThen "Male roleThere is a "daughter role"[Note 3]..However, for exampleNHKIn the case of, it is referred to as an "actor" without discrimination between men and women.In Japan, the term "actress" is widely used to refer to a female actor, while the term "actor" is rarely used.However,Adult videosIn the industryAV actress,AV maleThere is a custom to call it.
There can be various classifications, for exampleSecond pieceAn actor[Note 4],Personality actor,comedyActor,悪 役Actor,アクションActors, old actors, individual actors (Phantom actor(Kaiyuu)),A child,Supporting roleActor,Minor roleActor (Choi roleActor),extraActor,Suit actor, Private actors, beautiful actresses, take-off actresses, animal actors, etc.in JapanTitle actor,Historical dramaActor, swordplay actor,Large room actorThere is also a classification such as.
Actors may also be categorized as major actors, mid-career actors, fledgling actors, and newcomers, depending on their career length.
Anime,Western painting OfdubbingThe actors who appear only in voiceVoice actorIs called.However, there are some works that even actors do not show up due to narration.On the contrary, even voice actors sometimes appear on the stage or on TV, and the line is ambiguous.
Work content and flow
The work of a professional actor is to produce a theatrical work intended to be open to the audience.scriptBased on (scenario)producer,Director,Film directorUnder the guidance and instructions of, in cooperation with co-stars and production staff, etc., it was given for the performance and shooting.castTo play (casting).
In the actor business, getting one's own role is one of the big tasks.HollywoodSo in general, all the major rolesauditionSelected by.First of all, if you are not selected by audition, your work as an actor will not start.A big actor also applies for an audition and wins a role by winning a fierce competition of several times to several tens or hundreds of times over one role.Big actors also get their own jobs one by one by repeating applications for such auditions all year round, and if they stop doing that, their jobs will disappear.
Some actors (although only a few) are highly regarded and popular for a role.A role that has been highly evaluated is called a "winning role".If you are lucky enough to have similar roles appear one after another, it will be easier for you to play that role (it will be easier for you to nominate), and you will have a hard time getting a role like that. There are a few actors who spend a period of their lives escaping.
The work flow of an actor after getting a role differs depending on the country, the type of site, the director, and so on.Hong Kong moviesThen, there is no solid script, only the outline and ideas of the work are in the director's mind, the script is not given to the actor in advance, the director gives the line (by idea) mainly at the shooting site, and the actor's action In many cases, we will proceed with shooting while instructing.India·BollywoodIn the group dance scene, where the script often does not exist, the story is created and the dialogue is given by the director's idea at the shooting site, and in the group dance scene which is a classic of Boliwood movie, the dance director uses his own body at the scene. Set an example only once, and many supporting characters (extra dancers) from the leading actor[Note 5]), The shooting progresses while repeating the process of seeing it and imitating it in one shot.In Japan, a script is usually given in advance and the actor reads it in order to perform a good performance.Making a roleAfter a meetingTraining-rehearsalMake a huge amount of preparations such as repeating such things, and then perform the actual performance.
The stage and filming are generally made up of a very large number of people.In general, even if one actor is missing (“drilling a hole”), the stage and shooting will not be possible.Therefore, the job of an actor cannot be easily rested due to illness or personal circumstances.In particular, the stage can only be established if there is a "place" where the audience and the live actors are together.Audiences, for example, buy tickets early, look forward to it, adjust their schedules in a life with various difficulties, and then go to the theater, which cannot be betrayed.In addition, if a situation such as a break is caused, other actors will be inconvenienced and the audience will have to refund the ticket fee, which often causes huge losses to the entertainer.It is said that if an actor makes a hole in the stage, the next job will not come, or if he chooses an actor as a job, he will not be able to see the death of his parents.
Japan and actors
the 1950sからthe 1960sOverFive company agreementThe so-called movie actors who signed an exclusive contract with a movie company were clearly divided into the scope of their activities, such as being restricted from appearing in movies other than those produced in-house.So earlyTaiga dramaHas had to rely on actors in the Kabuki world and shingeki.At the same timeCommercial broadcastThe same is true for TV dramasForeign dramaImport and broadcast,TV stationThe drama produced in Japan was dealt with by appointing actors and newcomers other than movie actors.
the 1970sThe Five-Company Agreement collapsed naturally due to the slanting of Japanese movies, and movie companies became outsourced TV dramas.TV movieThe barrier between the movie and the television has almost disappeared.A system that does not rely on movie actors has already been established in the production of TV dramas, and the number of cases of entering the actor business from another genre has increased.However, in TV dramas, rather than the ability of the actor, the TV station and the agency, or the programsponsorRelationship with and the popularity of individual actorsAudience ratingIn many cases, casting is done with an emphasis on whether or not the result can be obtained, and in some cases, the casting may make the viewer wonder.
Current[When?]There are almost no people in Japan who can make a living by appearing exclusively in theatrical movies.In other words, "movie actors" have almost disappeared.
the 1990sSince then, it has become common for movies to be produced under the initiative of TV stations, and the area of TV drama production styles (styles in which those who do not have an actor business also work as actors) is also expanding.On the other hand, while calling himself an actorEntertainment showsThere are many people who are active in such fields, and the classification of actors as a profession is becoming ambiguous.Regarding this, unlike the United States, where the setting of movie actors is established, it is pointed out that there is a difference in the environment of Japanese actors who are financially disadvantaged despite the long restraint time, but the values of individual actors and the agency they belong to The problem of policy is also big.In addition, there are also people who engage in various activities, including acting, while keeping their respective occupations as their main business.Multi talentMay be called.This is sometimes appreciated, but often viewed negatively.
The actor business is said to be a harsh world on the glamorous side.Even if you want to be an actor, only a few people can eat as an actor (you can earn enough income to sustain your life on your own), and your income is not stable, so you will reach the stage where you can eat as an actor. There are far more people who are half-heartedly frustrated than there are people.In addition, even if the number of jobs increases to some extent, there is no guarantee that he will continue to be an actor, and there are some actors who were temporarily active on the front lines but have almost no jobs after that.
History of actresses in Japan
in Japan,kabukiIs said to be the founder ofIzumo countryIn the early Edo period, women appeared in plays,KaneiIn the year (1624-1643)ProstituteSince Kabuki was banned, it became impossible for women to appear in plays after that.A man insteadFemale formAs a woman, this tradition continued into the Meiji era. Belongs to the Kawakami Otojiro troupe in 1899KawakamiSada Yacco became known as "Japan's first actress" when she suddenly appeared in a San Francisco performance as a substitute for Onnagata and succeeded.
Sada Yacco was in 1908Eiichi ShibusawaWith the support of Tokyo,ShibaThe "Imperial Actress Training Center" was opened in Tokyo, and the business of actress training started in earnest.For the first gradeRitsuko Mori,Murata KikukoAnd so on.
1914 years,Kobayashi IchizoEstablished the Takarazuka Revue (currently Takarazuka Revue), and a female opera / play format was born in which women also played the role of men.The actress (female member) who belongs to the Takarazuka Revue is "TAKARAGENNE"(A composite word of Takarazuka and Parisienne).
Statistically, most actors have a lower average lifetime salary than other professions.
Most actors, whether stage actors or television actors, cannot live on their income alone.Most of my income comes from irregular part-time jobs.Moreover, most of them are part-time jobs that have nothing to do with TV screens.In order to prioritize the irregular time convenience of the actor, there are many part-time jobs where the working days and times can be changed relatively freely. (for example restaurantDishwashing, serving, ordering, and simple cooking.Or (for men) work-relatedmovingOne-time part-time job, "light work" such as transportation and assembly of furniture such as store sales floors, offices, event venues that can be entered in one shot.There are surprisingly many jobs that no one has seen. ) If the degree of freedom is prioritized in order to leave the possibility of getting the job of an actor, the types of part-time jobs are limited to some extent.A part-time job that must be done all year round on a fixed day of the week is difficult for someone who wants to be an actor.If you're a Hollywood actor, a Korean actor, or someone who "sells" good looks, use it (though it doesn't appear on your TV screen).bartenderThere is also a pattern of earning living expenses by doing a part-time job (in this case, it is a job that can be seen by people).
Even actors who have been able to appear "to some extent" on television and in movies, in reality, the main part of their income is such part-time jobs.As you can see by looking at the list of actors appearing on TV and movies, there are usually dozens to hundreds of performers, most of whom are so-called "supporting characters".The audience has forgotten the other (supporting characters) actors, conscious of only a few protagonists, or almost erased them from their consciousness, but from the actor's point of view, most of the actors are friends. Plays only a supporting role.The majority of actors (actors who play only supporting roles) earn most of their living expenses from part-time jobs.
Actors earn less than other professions in the entertainment world, even if they go beyond the level of "appearing to some extent" to the level of "(as it is) known".The reason for this is that while a one-hour variety show can be recorded in about two hours, a one-hour drama takes more than a week to shoot, and like a musician or a gein, you plan and work on your own. It is difficult to mention.Therefore, even the actors who have become quite famous, Japanese actors live in commercial guarantees rather than dramas and movies.However, it is a unique Asian culture that actors appear in a number of commercials, and many Hollywood actors do not have commercial income.Therefore, with the exception of a few actors, the income is much lower than that of Japanese actors, and the fact is that the main cast of big movies and regular casts of terrestrial dramas also make a living by working part-time.
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ Sometimes Japanese people don't know about an actor who is recognized as a top-notch "stage actor" in the country, and have only seen it in a movie and misunderstand it as a "movie actor".
- ^ This is in contrast to Japanese actors who frequently appear in advertisements.
- ^ The leading male role is called "Top Star", and the leading daughter role is called "Top Daughter".
- ^ Character actors, second and a half actors, third actors, etc. are contrasted.
- ^ In Bollywood, the dancers of these gathering scenes are gathered at the studio on the morning of the day, as if a day laborer was gathered, and danced at the shooting site to get a daily allowance.However, they are professionals in group dance and are memorable, and they can learn and imitate dance in one shot.
- ^ Kojien Fifth Edition [Actor]
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Britannica Encyclopedia [Actor]. "An actor"Britannica International Encyclopedia Sub-item encyclopedia "Koto bank.. Retrieved January 2021, 3.
- ^ Mainichi ShimbunHen "Story Story"PHP library p.55 1998.
- ^ "Marvel actor, unable to pay rent”. Front row. 2021/6/20Browse.
- Koji Toita"Story Modern Japanese Actress History" (Chuko Bunko） Chuokoronsha 1983 ISBN 4122010691(References on "History of Actresses in Japan")