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|The English name "COVID-19" in this article has the following notational fluctuations.|
2019/Occurred inNew coronavirus infection(Shingata coronavirus infectious disease)who International official name by (WHO)COVID-19Good,SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [Note 1] Human capitalToinfectionTo develop byRespiratory tract infection(ウ イ ル スIn a broad sense of sexcoldA kind of).2022/By April, the total number of infected people has exceeded 7 million, worldwide.PandemicIs bringing.
NosymptomSome people are infectedHowever, when it develops, the symptoms vary and range from mild to severe...Common symptoms includeheadache,Sense of smell,tasteDisappearance,Nasal congestion(Nasal congestion) andRhinorrhea,cough,muscle pain,Sore throat,Fever,diarrhea,Difficulty breathingThere is..Often asymptomatic orcoldWith mild symptoms with similar symptomsspontaneous recoveryBut in severe casesAcute respiratory distress syndrome,septicemia,Multiple organ failureAccompanied by.. 81% of patients have mild to moderate symptoms (mild)pneumoniaUp to), and 14% have severe symptoms (dyspnea,Hypoxia,X-ray photographでlungMore than 50% of them are reflected), and 5% are fatal symptoms (Respiratory failure,shock, Multiple organ failure)..At least one-third of people infected with the virus have no noticeable symptoms at any given time.
prognosisabout,Harvard Medical SchoolとCenters for Disease Control and PreventionIs the survivor of COVID-19MildEven so, he points out that it can be subject to long-term neurological effects, including thinking and concentration..米 国ChicagoMany COVID-19 survivors have brain injuries and are widespread, according to doctors at the Large-scale Medical Center.CognitionThere is increasing evidence that it can cause behavioral and psychological problems.SequelaeIf it is long, some people have been infected for more than a year. WHO2021/The definition of sequelae, which was first announced in October, is "a symptom that develops within 10 months after confirmation of virus infection, lasts for 3 months or more, and cannot be explained by other diseases."("#SequelaeDetailed explanation).
The causative virusMutationAnd has strong infectivityVariant of SARS coronavirus 2about,Japanese Society of Infectious DiseasesProposes that "it should be treated as another virus",TraditionalCOVID-19 vaccineBut especiallyBooster shotEvidence has been obtained to significantly reduce the likelihood of serious symptoms, hospitalization, and death for those affected.
Transmission routeIs a droplet infectionaerosolAvoid talking in tight spaces with people who may have the virus, such as infections.,Hygiene maskIs important.Omicron strainIs the most contagious mutant strain we have ever encountered, so we have a high quality and fit KN95, KF94, andN95 maskIs more important than ever.
In Japan,2020/At the timeInfectious disease lawForced based onHospitalizationDesignated infectious diseases that can take measures such asSecond kind infectious diseaseDesignated)In addition,New influenza measures special measures lawThe above is also regarded as a new strain of influenza with a deadline,Japanese Government Emergency declarationCan now be announced (ReiwaBased on 2-year law No. 4).
January 2019People's Republic of ChinaHubei ProvinceWuhanFirst detected inEmerging infectious disease[Note 2]And generally from Wuhan cityInfection spreads around the worldIt is believed to have been (pandemic),University of Barcelona(Spain) Has been announced that a new type of coronavirus has been detected in wastewater collected in March 2019..ItalyAccording to a study by the National Cancer Institute, collected in September 2019 in the countrylung cancerFrom the blood of the examinee, the new coronavirusantibodyHas been detected, and it has been pointed out as of March 2020 that the virus may have spread all over the world before it was reported in Wuhan City..
2020/1/9,who (World Health Organization; WHO)2019/12/8ToPeople's Republic of ChinaHubei ProvinceWuhanOccurred inpneumoniaOutbreak of coronavirus is a new type of coronavirusnovel (or new) coronavirus)) statementWas issued.At this point, Japan translated the statementMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareQuarantine stationIs a "new coronavirus" or "Wuhan pneumonia"(In the original text,"pneumonia in Wuhan").
same year2/1, "Defining the new coronavirus infectious disease as a designated infectious disease, etc."Cabinet OrderBy the enforcement of, By lawNew coronavirus infectionWas determined." Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,Japanese Society of Infectious DiseasesAlso follows this.
same year2/11, WHOCOVID-19(Covid NineteenOr Covid Nineteen) Was named.Covidteeth "coronavirus disase"CoronavirusDisease), where 19 represents 2019, when the virus was first discovered... in English "coronavirus disease 2019" Or simply “coronavirus disease" Also written as.In Japan, "New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)May be written together with.
WHO stipulates that the names of new infectious diseases and viruses that infect humans do not include region names, personal names, animal names, food names, and specific culture or industry names., About this naming, by associating with a unique place name or country name, etc.StigmaExplained that consideration was given to prevent.
Republic of China(Taiwan)ofHealth and Welfare DepartmentAt the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 is called "COVID-XNUMX" in the official legal name.Severe special infectious pneumoniaHowever, the name "Wuhan pneumonia" is used in official documents as a shorthand.. Also,Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and other media also use the notation "China virus".
Transmission routeBy touching the nose, eyes, or mouth with your hands that have the virus attachedContact infectionWhen,cough,sneezebySplash infectionThere is..Heavy droplets often fly about 2 meters for a few seconds and fall to the floor or ground, according to US guidelines 6 from infected individuals.フ ィ ー トIt is said that droplet infection will occur due to exposure in the range (about 182 cm)..
AirborneCan occur, especially in high-risk environments indoors, With infected people in US guidelinesventilationAirborne infections can occur if you stay in a bad room for more than 15 minutes...Restaurant, nightclub,Gym, Offices, religious facilities,ChoirHigh risk in crowded areas or when there is little ventilation.
For contact infectionsHarvard UniversityAccording to the School of Medicine, the risk of infection from contact with contaminated surfaces and objects is considered to be very low.Center for Disease Control and Prevention According to the (CDC), contact with contaminated surfaces is less than 1 in 1 likely to cause infection.but,sillaginoidYou may be infected with a virus by doing.
Host cell receptor
SARS coronavirus 2SARS coronavirusLike the host cellAngiotensin converting enzyme II(ACE2)ReceptorIs expected to bind to and infect..Human ACE2 receptor and SARS coronavirus 2Spike proteinReceptor binding domain[Note 3]And, a video simulating how they interact with each other has been released.. ACE2 receptorBronchi,lung,心 臓,kidney,Digestive organIs expressed in.. ACE2 receptor(English edition）According to the kidneysIntestinesTo, And according to a study in Chinatongue OfEpithelial cellsIs highly expressed in.
Normally, when the ACE2 receptor is stimulatedAngiotensinFor increasing blood pressure by decomposing IIRenin-angiotensin system It inhibits (RA system), but this RA system inhibitory effect may be important for organ protection... With SARS coronavirusmouseAtAnimal experimentationIs said to reduce the expression of ACE2 receptor in, Of patients with coronavirus infectionplasmaThere is also information that angiotensin II is at a high level in.. Therefore, inhibition of RA system has been proposed in the treatment of novel coronavirus infection..
Symptoms and signs
The main symptom was found on January 2020, 1, 21℃Moderately high fever (98%), drycough (76%), shortness of breath (55%), etc.. other,General malaise,nausea, Reported to cause muscle aches, etc...Notable complicationspneumoniaIs.In inpatientsDifficulty breathingThere is also a lot of pressure on the chest.Also, at the time of admissionvital signsIs relatively stable.
In the case of this infectious disease, which is a viral disease, humans are associated with the administration of a large amount of therapeutic drug.ImmunologySecondary due to the decrease factor ofBacterial pneumoniaConcurrent, Severity of underlying diseaseThere is a concern that the disease may become severe due to a decrease in physical strength due to insufficient nutritional management due to loss of smell and taste, and early detection and early start of treatment are required.Therefore, the Republic of China (Taiwan) andAustraliaIn such cases, contact infectionApplicationBy making full use of such things as, we are building a mechanism that can directly request the people to request inspections, etc. using "contact data" and "follow-up data" with positive persons...In addition, it is said that it was the most successful in suppressing it in the world.New ZealandHas built a system that can report using the public interest report system when preventive measures are inadequate..
No symptoms of illness appear even if infected with this virusSubclinical infectionThere is a personAsymptomatic pathogen carrierSay..Asymptomatic pathogen carriers may infect others with the virus they carry.
|Olfactory disorder-Taste disorders||30 - 66[Needs verification - Note]|
|shortness of breath||18.6|
|muscle pain-Joint pain||14.8|
|diarrhea||3.7 - 31|
The onset interval from the onset of an infected person (primary case) to the onset of a secondary infected person (secondary case) is estimated to be 1 days-2 days, and it has been pointed out that it may have infectious ability during the incubation period. ing[Note 4].
Symptoms are not specific and range from asymptomatic (asymptomatic) to severe pneumonia and death.Typical symptoms and signs include fever, dry cough, fatigue,sputum,shortness of breath,Sore throat(Throat pain), headache, diarrhea, etc. (see table).sneeze, Runny nose, sore throat, etc.Upper respiratory tractFew symptoms.. WHONanako ShindoSenior adviserLower respiratory tractIt has a strong affinity for the virus, and it is reported that the peak of the excreted virus is about 3 to 4 days after the onset date..
The initial symptoms are influenzacommon coldSimilar to, and difficult to distinguish in the early stages of onset..After an incubation period from infection, low-grade fever, respiratory symptoms, and malaise continue for about a week. In China as of January 1, 2020, the initial symptoms are not limited to fever and cough peculiar to pneumonia, but diarrhea, nausea, headache and systemic.DullnessSuch,Digestive system,Nervous systemIt was reported that there may be symptoms of the disease, making early diagnosis difficult...In addition, fever does not always appear, especially in the early stages of onset, so it may not be possible to detect it with the fever detector alone..
Although the cause is awaited, secondary bacterial pneumonia also exists, and it is thought that most of the pneumonia that develops within 1 to 2 weeks after infection is viral...Although it is thought to be due to acute progression and complications with other diseases[Note 5], When it gets worseAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)Acute lung injury (ALI) etc.,Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) Often indicated.
2020 Year of 6 MonthSystematic reviewThe prevalence of sensory disorders ranged from 29% to 54%...On the other hand, the United States(English edition）In an August 2020 study by, 8% of patients had some form of sensory deficits and 96% had complete loss. ..Another June 2020 systematic review reported a prevalence of hyposmia of 6% to 4%... August 2020European CDCThe prevalence of sensory loss is about 70%, according to the report..
Some people experience a temporary change in food taste (dysgeusia or ageusia) due to COVID-19.(English edition）Changes have also been reported, and chemically-induced sensations such as pungency may be lost. As of January 2021, the mechanism of symptoms for taste and chemesissis has not been elucidated..
In a systematic review in June 2020, the prevalence of dysgeusia ranged from 6% to 24%...Another June 2020 systematic review reported a prevalence of hypogeusia of 6% to 1%... The July 2020 European CDC report states that the prevalence of dysgeusia is approximately 7%..
Other coronaviridae viral infections (SARS,MERSEtc.) is difficult to distinguish from the appearance.Since some patients died without fever, it may not be possible to detect it with the fever detector alone.
RadiographyAnd lungsComputed tomographyIt may be possible to distinguish by image inspection using.Of the 81 cases in China, unilateral, multifocal (multifocal), and ground glass-like shadows are predominant during the asymptomatic period, and bilateral ground-glass shadows are predominant and diffuse within 1 week after the onset. It becomes.More than a week after the onsetConsolidationAnd mixed lesions dominate..Lesions are easily distributed in the periphery, and a ring-shaped shadow (reversed halo sign) is characteristic.Pleural effusion,Lymph nodeswellingIs less.
COVID-19Clinical examinationIsNucleic acid amplification test How to detect the presence of virus by (NAAT),antibodyOne of the recommended methods to detect.. To one of NAATPCR test method,LAMP methodThere is, From the gene region of SARS coronavirus 2 in Japan,Open reading frame (ORF) 1a andSpike protein2-step RT-PCR method (2 stepsReverse transcription polymerase chain reactionMethod) or real-time one-step RT-PCR method (TaqMan probe method) is used. These testsClinical technologistIs doing.
Antigen testing is also used, but it is less sensitive and more specific than PCR testing...US guidelines oppose making a definitive diagnosis on the basis of antigen testing alone (Evidence AIII）..Additional NAAT is recommended if the person strongly suspected of being infected is antibody-negative and if the asymptomatic person is antibody-positive..
As another auxiliary test,Blood testAlternatively, perform an imaging examination using chest X-ray or computed tomography.
- Only the therapies recommended by the guidelines are listed here.What is in clinical trialDrug research for COVID-19andDrug diversion study for COVID-19See
Some experimental treatmentsClinical trialActively researched inHowever, there is no specific effective treatment for COVID-19..Much research has been done, but there is still no high-quality evidence to recommend early treatment..
Therefore, managementToad,InfusionTherapy,oxygenSupport, position management, etc., and use medicines and medical devices to protect organs as needed.Hydroxychloroquine,Lopinavir / RitonavirEtc. were considered promising in the early days of the pandemic, but subsequent studies have shown that they are ineffective and even harmful. .
Most of COVID-19 are mild, and supportive care in that case is to relieve symptoms (fever, body aches, cough).Paracetamol or NSAIDThere are medications such as, proper fluid intake, rest, and nasal breathing...Proper hygiene and a healthy diet are also recommended..In more severe cases, hospital treatment may be required.For patients with low oxygen levelsDexamethasoneIs highly recommended and can reduce the risk of death..If you need breathing supportNon-invasive ventilation,EventuallyArtificial respiratorsWithintensive care unitMay be treated with.Extracorporeal membrane oxygenatorMay be used to address the problem of respiratory failure, but its benefits are still under consideration.
U.S. guidelines recommend one of the following therapies for mild to moderate outpatients at high risk of clinical progression:.
- Bamlanivimab700mg and Etesevimab1,400 mg (AIIa)Cocktail therapy
- Kasiri Bimab1,200mg and Imdevimab1,200 mg (AIIa) cocktail therapy
The approval for single-agent use of gamlanivimab has been revoked.
There are no drugs designated as contraindicated drugs, but scientific verification is insufficient.
On March 3, a WHO spokesman responded without the advice of a doctor if suspected of being infected with the virus.InflammationMedicineIbuprofenI warned you not to take.Less anti-inflammatoryAcetaminophenIt was said that it was desirable to takeOn March 3, "There were no reports of worsening symptoms other than the usual side effects", "there is no recommendation to refrain from it," and the previous announcement was effectively withdrawn...Therefore, as of March 3, there are no drugs designated as contraindicated drugs.However,LoxoninSuch asNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAIDS)Cytokine stormSince the risk of causing pneumonia and increasing the possibility of pneumonia has not been affirmed or denied, it is safer not to use it if possible.generalSide effectsAt present, it is appropriate to consider acetaminophen as the first choice as an antipyretic, including the viewpoint of preventing the disease.[Note 6].
- Rem decivil --The antiviral drug remdesivirUS Food and Drug AdministrationThe only drug approved by the (FDA) ..In Japan, it was officially approved as a therapeutic drug for the new coronavirus on May 5 under the special approval system...However, it is not recommended for patients with mechanical ventilation, and WHO does not recommend it as it has limited evidence of efficacy..
- Dexamethasone - steroidsystemAnti-inflammatory drugDexamethasone in June 2020United KingdomResearch results have been reported to reduce the mortality rate of critically ill patients infected with the new corona.Recommended for patients on mechanical ventilation according to US guidelines..Not recommended for mild to moderate patients who do not require hospitalization or oxygen inhalation..Approved by Japanese guidelines.
- Baricitinib --On April 2021, 4, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare approved the additional indication as a therapeutic agent for pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-23)..
- Heparin 
- Rona Preve (Antibody cocktail)- Kasiri Bimab(Genetic recombination) andImdevimab(gene recombination)
- Sotrovimab(Sotrovimab<gene recombination>)
Drug discoveryIs proceeding with the following two-sided strategy.
- PastSARS,MERS,Ebola, AIDS virus (HIV) And other existing drugs that were effective against viruses, actual MERS and this SARS-CoV-2Test tubeLevel (vitro) Search for candidate drugs in research (screening) that comprehensively searches for effective drugs, and divert (expand indications). Clinical research at COVID-19 will proceed individually.Drug diversion study for COVID-19See.
- Relying on new technology, at unprecedented speedvaccine,Antibody drugDevelop other new drugs.Drug research for COVID-19See.
- Approval applied
- During clinical trial
- Actemra (Tocilizumab<gene recombination>)
- Kebuzara (Salilumab<gene recombination>)
- Olmient (Baricitinib）
- Villacept (Nelfinavir）
- Stromectol (Ivermectin）
- Adrenomedullin (ADM-L1-01)
- Product name undecided (Sargramostim)
- Product name undecided (plasma fractionation preparation)
- Huoi bread (Camostat）
- Under specific clinical test
Harvard Medical School has received two COVID-19 infections, with or without a history of COVID-2 infection.COVID-19 vaccineInoculation and third time at least 5 months laterBooster shot, And points out that wearing a mask indoors is the most important preventive measure..
Infection control is the main prevention..No drug is suitable for prevention, and US guidelines recommend that you do not take the drug for prophylactic purposes unless it is in a clinical trial...The same is true even after virus exposure..UK Government guidelines require that healthcare workers and patients (if not an obstacle) use face masks in all healthcare facilities, as well as in addition.Social distanceIt is said that hand hygiene is also necessary..
In 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Harvard Medical School strongly recommend a third booster shot at least 2 months after the second vaccination... Data investigating how well the COVID-19 vaccine can protect against Omicron mutants show that people who receive a third booster shot have a significantly reduced chance of serious symptoms, hospitalization, and death. Evidence is also available..large-scalePlacebo-controlled trialThen, twicevaccineAdministration has been shown to be 19% to 94% effective in preventing COVID-95... Most people hospitalized or died from COVID-19 are not vaccinated.
In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Harvard Medical School recommend that certain immunocompromised patients over the age of 50 and 12 be given a second booster dose at least 4 months after the first booster dose. is doing.
Vaccine administration contributes significantly to the suppression of infection and onset, but depending on the type of vaccine, side effects after administration and exacerbation of underlying disease,ThrombosisIt has been pointed out that the onset of strains and weakness in dealing with mutant strains have been pointed out... The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine is indexed by the onset of COVID-19, not by infection.Therefore, it does not develop even if infected.Subclinical infectionMay become a source of infection as an asymptomatic pathogen carrier..Therefore, even after vaccination, it is necessary to use usual preventive methods (washing hands, wearing protective equipment, maintaining social distance), etc., until the number of infected people is significantly reduced by herd immunity..
Vaccinated persons should continue to wear face masks when visiting limited public spaces or using public transport in areas with COVID-19 community infections.Vaccines are very effective in preventing serious illness and death, but even vaccinated people can still be infected and spread.Wearing a face mask reduces the risk of this happening.
Masks provide additional protection to the wearer, including those who are fully vaccinated. In July 2021, the CDC advised everyone, including vaccinated people, to wear masks in public indoor areas in areas infected with the virus... Where the number of COVID-19 cases is increasing, experts can save many lives and greatly increase the chances of controlling a pandemic if they follow mask guidelines and other standard precautions. I'm presuming that I can..In addition, before wearing, adjusting and removing the maskHand sanitizerMust be used.
Not all masks are similar.High quality KN95, KF94,N95 maskIs the most fit andfiltrationThe performance is also excellent.also,surgical maskIs also effective in preventing small virus particles..In non-aerosol environments, surgical masks are not inferior to N95 masks in preventing viral infections, US guidelines state, and compared the protective effects of masks in the laboratory.Meta-analysisI could not confirm the difference in increase..Techniques that create an aerosol environment (egTracheal intubationN95 mask is still recommended when doing..The more comfortable the mask, the more likely it is to wear it.Try several styles and fabrics to see which one fits best and is the most comfortable..Wearing a cloth mask on top of the surgical mask will give you a better fit.It is also possible to adjust the fit of the surgical mask by a method called "knot & tack mask".The surgical mask knot and tack mask ties the ear loops of the three-layer face mask at the part where it joins the edge of the mask, folds unnecessary material and stores it under the edge...According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, you need to make sure that the mask fits snugly on your face and is layered.For this reason, you need to shave your beard..This means that the mask should have no gaps on the edges, completely cover the nose and mouth, and fit tightly on the sides of the face...Wearing a multi-layer cloth mask over a surgical mask, or a tightly fitted surgical mask, greatly improves the level of protection for both the mask wearer and others.In short, wear a fit mask made of two or more layers of washable, breathable cloth...However, there is no point in combining two disposable masks in terms of design.Wearing a general-purpose mask is more effective in preventing the spread of the virus than it is in reducing the amount of virus inhaled...Studies have shown that when both you and the other person wear a mask at a distance of 50 cm, virus inhalation is reduced by 75% with a non-woven mask and 70% with a cloth mask. The effect decreases in the order of N95 mask, surgical mask, non-woven mask, cloth mask, urethane mask...For this reason, single cloth masks should be avoided..Cabinet Secretariat recommends wearing a mask during conversations during meals.
The chances of an outdoor infection are fairly low, and in most cases a mask is not needed in an outdoor environment if the person-to-person distance is kept at least 2 meters...On the other hand, it is highly recommended to wear a mask if you are in close contact with people outdoors in an environment where you cannot keep a distance.And, of course, you also need to comply with local health regulations and obligations..Do not wear a mask while exercising, as it may reduce your ability to breathe comfortably.When you sweat, the mask gets wet quickly, making it difficult to breathe and promoting the growth of microorganisms.An important precaution during exercise is to maintain a physical distance of at least 2 meters from others..
Personal protective equipment
In medical institutions, as equipment to prevent droplet infection and contact infectionPersonal protective equipment There are various (personal protective equipment, PPE)..Protective clothing (gowns and aprons), masks (N95 masks and surgical masks), goggles, face shields, hats (caps), shoe covers, sterile gloves, etc.These should be thrown away only once unless instructed by the manufacturer or recommendations...Appropriate disposal is required if there is a risk of infection.
- The English Public Health Agency states that gloves are not needed except for infectious activities such as contact with mucous membranes such as the mouth and eyes and body fluids...Medical gloves are supposed to be disposable once used, and due to the tightness of personal protective equipment in many countries, they should not be used in situations where disposable gloves are not required in the United Kingdom and Japan. In situations where non-sterile gloves can be used as a substitute, non-sterile gloves are given priority..
- Harvard Medical School says you don't need to wear gloves on a daily basis..If you touch the mucous parts such as eyes and mouth with your hands with the virus, you will get infected, but gloves cannot prevent the infection at this time, and on the contrary, it may increase the possibility of touching your face..
- Many medical institutions, such as the CDC and Harvard Medical School, often wash and disinfect their hands rather than gloves, calling for them not to touch their faces with their virus-bearing hands..
WHO石 鹸And often with waterHand washingIt is recommended to take at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom, when your hands are visibly dirty, before eating, after blowing your nose..Thorough hand washing is required after coughing or sneezing ..Fingers before leaving the storedisinfectantIt is recommended to wash your hands as soon as you get home and regularly clean objects and surfaces that you frequently touch..
CDC only if soap and water are not readily availablealcoholIt is recommended to use a hand sanitizer (concentration of 60% or more).WHO can be produced locally in areas where hand sanitizers are difficult to obtainethanol or IsopropanolDisinfectant is recommended.hydrogen peroxideIs mixed with alcoholBacteriasporeAttached for removal of, not substance for aseptic technique of hands.
For those who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 or who are suspected of being infected, self at homeisolationIs recommended.National health organizations provide detailed instructions for proper self-isolation ..Many governments mandate or recommend self-quarantine for the entire population.Maximum self-quarantine instructions are given to high-risk groups of people.
Social distance(Physical distance) aims to delay the spread of the disease by minimizing close contact between individuals.Infection controlIt is an action.Many governments now mandate or recommend greater social distance in affected areas..
Restrict outing to limit the spread of infections around the worldCity blockade (lockdown)Policy was taken.
It is recommended to meet friends and family outdoors.Coronavirus has been shown to spread when an infected person inhales, talks, or breathes the virus released through coughing or sneezing.It is also recommended to avoid large gatherings.Studies have shown that in a limited laboratory setting, droplets containing virus particles can remain floating for 8-14 minutes.Small infectious virus particles, called aerosols, can float in the air for longer periods of time.This makes it possible to take various preventive measures against infectious diseases, such as banning food in indoor restaurants and avoiding crowds.Can be adopted or discarded depending on the local COVID risk level.
Harvard Medical Schoolfruit,Vegetables,BeansThose who reported eating the most fruits and vegetables were found to have a 19% lower risk of developing severe COVID-41 than those who reported eating the least fruits and vegetables.Researchers have also found a link between COVID-19 and poor eating habits or socio-economic disadvantages.If this could be removed, almost one-third of the cases of COVID-19 could be prevented, according to Harvard University.Massachusetts General Hospital OfGenome medicineandDiabetes mellitusUnit center insists..Fruits, vegetables, legumes,Whole grainEating a diet high in COVID-19 helps prevent COVID-XNUMX.
When a harmful intruder, such as the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, enters the body, the immune system attacks.This attackImmune responseIt is a series of events that involve various cells and develop over time.Following general health guidelines is the best way to keep your immune system strong and healthy.The function of all parts of the body, including the immune system, is protected from environmental coronavirus attacks and enhanced by healthy living strategies such as:.
- tobaccoDoes not smoke.
- If you think you're not getting the nutrients you need from your diet, mulchvitaminIngest.Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Zinc and Melatonin are effective in preventing and treating coronaScientific evidenceNot, but in general it may be useful for people with deficiency.
- Exercise regularly.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- stressControl the level.
- Control blood pressure.
- If you drink alcohol, keep the proper amount (up to 1-1 cups a day for men and 2 cup a day for women).
- Get enough sleep.
The severity of COVID-19 varies.The disease may have a mild course, in which case it is almost or completely asymptomatic and common, such as a cold.Upper respiratory tract infectionSimilar to a disease.However, in 3-4% (65% for people over 7.4), it can be severe enough to require hospitalization...Mild cases usually recover within 2 weeks, but severe or fatal cases can take 3-6 weeks to recover.According to the Italian National Institutes of Health, the median time between symptoms and death was 12 days, and he was hospitalized for 7 days. In the case of ICU transport, the median time from admission to death was 10 days..
prognosisAbout the United StatesChicagoDoctors say that more than 19% of COVID-40 patients are firstNeurologyShows symptoms, more than 30%Cognitive impairmentI found that I have. It suggests that survivors of COVID-19 may have long-term neurological effects. There is increasing evidence that many survivors of COVID-19 develop brain damage and can cause widespread cognitive, behavioral, and psychological problems..
Various sequelae of COVID-19 (long-term sequelae are also called "Long COVID") even after negative confirmationSubjective symptomsHas been reported to be left behind.Meta-analysisCommon symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention deficit (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%)...Studies have shown that more than 19% of people who recover from COVID-50 continue to suffer from some symptoms after 3 months... in Japan,National International Medical Research CenterFollowed 2020 patients who were discharged from the center in February-June 2 and found that 6% had some sequelae 63 months after onset and 2% had some sequelae 48 months after onset...One study found that 19% of people were unable to return to work 14-21 days after becoming COVID-35 positive...ChineseCapital Medical UniversityBy "LancetIn the report to the countryWuhanOf the approximately 2020 people who were discharged from the hospital in January-May 1, 5% had some symptoms even one year after the onset..
Severe inflammatory reaction due to illness, thrombotic microangiopathy,静脈It is thought that long-term damage to many organs and organ systems such as the lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and vascular system may be caused as a sequelae of thromboembolism and the associated oxygen deficiency...Although the entire mechanism of sequelae is under studyIn addition to the hypothesis that it is due to the virus remaining in the body because the genetic substance of the virus has been detected in the intestines of patients with sequelae, it was formed by infection.antibodyIs hypothesized to resemble an autoimmune disease that attacks the human body.
Treatment methods have not been established, and some hospitals have specialized outpatient clinics in Japan, but some people are forced to take leave or retire due to long-lasting sequelae that interfere with their studies and work..
COVID-19 vaccineIt has been suggested that if it is a so-called breakthrough infection after two inoculations, it may be possible to suppress the occurrence of sequelae and the period of feeling subjective symptoms..
Virus positive conversion phenomenon after recovery
PCR and blood for COVID-19 patients diagnosed by PCR at a hospital in Wuhan, ChinaserumThere was a study investigating the details of the diagnosis. Fifteen of the 39 patients had the virus in their intestines and blood after treatment.Also, in a study of 15 cases at the hospital, even if the oral sample was negative on the 16th day, it was on the 0th day.anusThere were 4 cases in which the sample collected in 5 was positive, and in the serum test, it was negative immediately after the treatment, but when it was tested XNUMX days after the treatment, many of them turned positive..
On the other hand, the patient was hospitalized with a positive PCR test, and was discharged because the subsequent test became negative and the symptoms subsided. However, in some cases, the PCR test became positive again more than 2 weeks after the first onset. It has been pointed out that there is a possibility of reactivation of the latent virus or reinfection of the mutant virus..
After that, according to research by vaccine clinical trials, there are problems with the method and accuracy of the PCR test alone, and if other detection methods are not used in combination, it may become re-positive, and depending on the screening, it may become negative or positive. If that is,False positiveIt has become clear that there are cases where..Conversely,Suspicious negativeIt is believed that this is causing re-positiveness..Mutant strainRegarding re-infection due to, there can be no infection in the hospital, which is a controlled environment.[Note 7], Believed to be an infection in the city.
Case fatality rate / severity rate
Earlier reports had a high severity rate of 32% and a high mortality rate of 15%.With the accumulation of cases, it is now known that both the severity rate and the mortality rate are lower than that. According to a report from WHO, about 80% of mild to moderate cases, 13.8% of severe cases, and 6.1% of severe cases... Many of the dead areHigh blood pressure,Diabetes mellitus,Immune systemSpoilCardiovascular diseaseHad other diseases such as.. It is also an overreaction of the immune system.Cytokine stormThere are cases where it becomes serious due to.. According to the early cases leading to death, the median time from illness to death was 14 days, ranging from 6 to 41 days..
LethalityOf October 2020Systematic reviewとMeta-analysisAccording toFrance, Netherlands,new Zealand,Portugal0.5-1% in Australia, Australia, etc.England,リトアニア, 1-2% in Spain,ItalyWas over 2%。 さらにこの研究では、致死率の違いは、集団の年齢構成および年齢別の感染率に起因することが発見されている。致死率についてのメタ回帰推定値は、子供と若い成人では非常に低い（10歳では0.002%、25歳では0.01%）が、55歳では0.4%、65歳では1.4%、 75歳、85歳では15%となりThese results were also highlighted in the December 2020 report published by WHO..
Logarithmic scaleCase fatality rate by age expressed in
Difference in aggravation risk
Whether or not a person is infected with the causative virus and becomes severe depends on the individual."Clinical Guide" prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of JapanKeio UniversityIn research in both Japan and the United States,age,ABO blood type,RaceRelated togene,Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD),cancer, Type 2 diabetes, chronic diseases such as hypertension,obesity,smokingLifestyle, access to medical care (residential area and income,medical insuranceType) is influencing.
It has been reported that type O tends to act more protectively than other blood types regarding the severity of the new coronavirus..
Major celebrities affected
Infection of animals
- After infecting humans, dozens of animals have been infected and tested..
- In laboratory research,ferret,Cat,Golden hamsterMay spread the same species after infection,dogHas not been confirmed to infect other breeds after infection.Dream Pork,chicken,duckNo infection in.A mouseWas initially said to be free of infection, Confirmed to be infected by mutation.
- PetDogs and cats are transmitted from humans such as their owners.Dogs do not infect each other, but cats infect each other, and kittens are particularly vulnerable and at risk of death.Infected cats had virus growth in the nose and trachea and no lung growth, but remained asymptomatic and inflamed after 4 weeks in the lungs..
- Lion,DoraEtc. are in the United StatesNew York City内 のZooInfected with.He showed symptoms such as dry cough, wheezing, and loss of appetite, but recovered after a few days.
- gorillaTwo were announced to be infected2021/January, U.S.A.California OfSan Diego ZooIt was confirmed in.largeApeThis is the first infection to the disease, and infection from asymptomatic staff has been pointed out.Symptoms of stuffy nose and cough were confirmed.
- United States between April 2020 and January 4IowaIn the wild that was run over on the road or killed by a hunterDeerIt was confirmed that about 80% were infected..
- minkInfection in the Netherlands,Denmark, Confirmed at leather factories in Spain, USA, etc.Infected mink worsens dramatically and dies at the earliest the next day.This has killed about 1 animals.
Infection from animals to humans
- SARS-CoV-2BatIt is believed to be the origin of the coronavirus.
- Confirmed transmission of mink, hamsters, deer, and cats to humans.
- There have been reports of veterinarians being infected by cat sneezing without protective equipment such as face shields and eyeglasses to protect the mucous membranes of the eyes..
- There have been cases of infection from mink to humans.During reinfection of this humanMutant strain Cluster 5Has been reported.It has been suggested that this mutant strain is difficult to react with the antibody that humans have against coronavirus and may be less effective with the coronavirus countermeasure vaccine under development (Cluster 5 has been wiped out and an epidemic has occurred. Is not believed to be).
- It is thought that transmission from animals such as pets to humans rarely occurs under normal breeding environments.It is said that the reason is that there is no amount of virus carried by pets and no route of transmission to humans.On the other hand, since human infections have been reported on mink farms that are bred in large numbers, human infections may be possible depending on conditions such as multi-headed breeding..
- Effectiveness of infectious disease control
- Individual or partial combination of infection prevention measures such as staggered commuting, telework, class closure, contact rate reduction, and waiting at home after fever does not have a significant effect, but the number of deaths if combined measures are taken. And can significantly reduce the maximum number of severe hospitalizations per day.
- Regarding measures against new coronavirus infectious diseases in Japan, measures against infectious diseases such as isolation and movement restrictions are highly effective, but measures related to public health have not shown great effects...Economic support measures are statistically effective in controlling the epidemic of infectious diseases..
- Study of preventive behavior
- Gender and age influence the occurrence of new coronavirus infection prevention behavior, and irrational behavior[Note 8]Was affected by anxiety about infection and social threats, and the lack of preventive action was associated with acceptance of infection and the benefit of not taking preventive action..
- Research on infection anxiety and mental health
- Infection anxiety, cognition and behavior differed between men and women, but regional differences were not so large...Infectious anxiety was also associated with aversion to others and promoted infectious disease prevention behavior such as new lifestyles..
- COVID-19 is a college studentmental healthThere were many reports that it had an adverse effect on people's lives, and few documents showed that it had a positive effect..
- Awareness of vaccination
- Regarding risk recognition in the concept of vaccination, various other risk events[Note 9]It was confirmed that the risk recognition was low and the profit recognition tended to be highly estimated...In particular, it was confirmed that the risk recognition of vaccination is positive among the elderly (60s) and vaccination applicants..
- Pregnant women in Corona's illness were worried about infection, wanted to know their antibody possession status, and wanted to acquire immunity, but many pregnant women who are worried about vaccines need to provide information..
- Research on therapeutic agents
- Study of elderly cases
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ The causative virus name bears "SARS", but it became epidemic from 2002 to 2003.Severe acute respiratory syndrome It is not a virus that causes (SARS).This name is simplySARS coronavirus It is derived from the phylogenetic relationship with (SARS-CoV).
- ^ For the origin of the new coronavirus,BatIt is said that it was transmitted from wild animals, and it is close to the early endemic area.Wuhan Institute of VaseIt is said that the former is highly likely, but the latter is not denied and the exact origin is unknown..
- ^ A site that binds to a receptor on the virus side.
- ^ SARSThe onset interval is estimated to be 5.3 to 19 days.
- ^ In particular,Senior citizensIn the case of, the aggravation of the underlying disease is observed, and in the case of the younger generation, severe fever symptoms are observed due to a decrease in physical strength due to malnutrition or the like.
- ^ Of course, there are some patients who cannot use acetaminophen due to side effects.
- ^ As a matter of course, it is possible that the hospital hygiene standards are not observed.
- ^ Behaviors such as refraining from going to the hospital excessively necessary for treatment of pre-existing diseases and thinking of moving if an infected person appears in the neighborhood.
- ^ Risks of nuclear power, food additives, bicycles, alcoholic beverages.
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- COVID-19 app(Infection route/action history specific application)
- Coronavirus Pandemic Dream
- Socio-economic impact of new coronavirus infection
- Misinformation about new coronavirus infections
International and government agencies
- Coronavirus disease 2019(English) - who (WHO)
- Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)(English) - Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC)
- New Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-19) WHO Official Information Special Page(Japanese) - WHO Kobe Center
- About New Coronavirus Infections - Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- About new coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) related information - National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Related paper introduction page --Infectious Disease Epidemiology Center
- About new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) - National International Medical Research Center
- COVID-19(English) --National Institute for Health and Care Technology
Various academic societies
- New coronavirus infection - Japan Medical Association
- New coronavirus infection - Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases
- About correspondence to new coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) - Japan Society for Environmental Infections
- New Coronavirus related information special site - Japanese Epidemiology Society
- New Coronavirus related information special site - Japanese Society of Public Health
- Corresponding to new coronavirus (covid-19) infectious disease - Japan Clinical Hygiene Technologists Association
- COVID-19 Information Special Site - Tokyo Medical Engineering Society